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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790571/-epidemiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-dementias
#1
REVIEW
J Garre-Olmo
INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a clinical syndrome resulting from a number of causations and which is usually accompanied by progressive and diffuse brain dysfunction. The different subtypes are characterised by a clinical picture with common symptoms that differ in terms of their aetiology, age, clinical presentation, clinical course and associated disorders. AIM: To present an update on the information available about the descriptive epidemiology of dementia and its main subtypes...
June 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779681/serum-uric-acid-level-and-its-association-with-motor-subtypes-and-non-motor-symptoms-in-early-parkinson-s-disease-pals-study
#2
Xinxin Huang, Samuel Yong-Ern Ng, Nicole Shuang-Yu Chia, Sanchalika Acharyya, Fiona Setiawan, Z-H Lu, Ebonne Ng, Kay-Yaw Tay, Wing-Lok Au, Eng-King Tan, Louis Chew-Seng Tan
OBJECTIVE: Uric acid has been found to be potentially neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the relationship between serum uric acid levels and both motor and non-motor features in a prospective early PD cohort study. METHODS: Fasting serum uric acid levels were measured from 125 early PD patients. Demographic, clinical characteristics, motor and non-motor assessments were performed. Patients were categorized into three motor subtypes: tremor-dominant (TD), postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD), and mixed...
May 17, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764353/non-motor-parkinson-disease-new-concepts-and-personalised-management
#3
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Most patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have non-motor symptoms (NMS), and on average these can range from four to 19 different symptoms. NMS dominate the prodromal phase of PD and some may serve as clinical biomarkers of PD. NMS can be dopaminergic, non-dopaminergic, of genetic origin or drug induced. Clinical assessment of NMS should include the NMS Questionnaire (completed by patients) for screening, as recommended by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society and other international societies...
May 21, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759930/diagnostic-criteria-for-camptocormia-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-consensus-based-proposal
#4
Alfonso Fasano, Christian Geroin, Alfredo Berardelli, Bastiaan R Bloem, Alberto J Espay, Mark Hallett, Anthony E Lang, Michele Tinazzi
INTRODUCTION: Camptocormia is defined as an involuntary, marked flexion of the thoracolumbar spine appearing during standing or walking and resolving in the supine position or when leaning against a wall. However, there is no established agreement on the minimum degree of forward flexion needed to diagnose camptocormia. Likewise, the current definition does not categorize camptocormia on the basis of the bending fulcrum. METHODS: We performed a survey among movement disorders experts to identify camptocormia using images of patients with variable degrees and types of forward trunk flexion by fulcrum (upper and lower fulcra)...
May 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748110/interoceptive-processing-deficit-a-behavioral-marker-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Gabriella Santangelo, Carmine Vitale, Chiara Baiano, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Katia Longo, Paolo Barone, Marianna Amboni, Massimiliano Conson
BACKGROUND: Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), such as cognitive, emotional, autonomic and somatosensory alterations, are not ubiquitous but vary between the tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes of the syndrome. Non-motor phenomena (e.g., anxiety, depression and apathy) have been related to representation of autonomic and somatosensory sensations (interoception), and recent findings suggest interoceptive deficits in PD. OBJECTIVES: To test whether interoceptive processing is differently affected in TD and PIGD phenotypes, by assessing both interoceptive accuracy and sensibility in PD patients with TD and PIGD subtypes, and in healthy controls...
May 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734182/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-and-memantine-in-treating-the-cognitive-symptoms-of-dementia
#6
Ruth Knight, Mizanur Khondoker, Nicholas Magill, Robert Stewart, Sabine Landau
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine are commonly used in the management of dementia. In routine clinical practice, dementia is often monitored via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of these drugs on MMSE scores. SUMMARY: Eighty trials were identified. Pooled effect estimates were in favour of both AChEIs and memantine at 6 months. Meta-regression indicated that dementia subtype was a moderator of AChEI treatment effect, with the effect of treatment versus control twice as high for patients with Parkinson disease dementia/ dementia with Lewy bodies (2...
May 7, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713303/association-between-peripheral-inflammation-and-datscan-data-of-the-striatal-nuclei-in-different-motor-subtypes-of-parkinson-disease
#7
Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Mahtab Mojtahed Zadeh, Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
The interplay between peripheral and central inflammation has a significant role in dopaminergic neural death in nigrostriatal pathway, although no direct assessment of inflammation has been performed in relation to dopaminergic neuronal loss in striatal nuclei. In this study, the correlation of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a marker of peripheral inflammation to striatal binding ratios (SBRs) of DAT SPECT images in bilateral caudate and putamen nuclei was calculated in 388 drug-naïve early PD patients [288 tremor dominant (TD), 73 postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD), and 27 indeterminate] and 148 controls...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703644/comparison-of-two-motor-subtype-classifications-in-de-novo-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Seong-Min Choi, Byeong C Kim, Bang-Hoon Cho, Kyung Wook Kang, Kang-Ho Choi, Joon-Tae Kim, Seung-Han Lee, Man-Seok Park, Myeong-Kyu Kim, Ki-Hyun Cho
BACKGROUND: Clinical subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been empirically defined based on the prominent motor symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of non-motor symptoms across PD motor subtypes in patients with PD. METHODS: A total of 192 patients with de novo PD were included. The patients were classified into the tremor-dominant/mixed/akinetic-rigid (TD/mixed/AR) and tremor-dominant/mixed/postural instability and gait disturbance (TD/mixed/PIGD) subtypes, according to previous reports...
April 18, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698669/fibroblast-growth-factor-20-is-protective-towards-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vivo-in-a-paracrine-manner
#9
Eugene L Boshoff, Edward J R Fletcher, Susan Duty
Neuroprotective strategies are an unmet medical need for Parkinson's disease. Fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20) enhances survival of cultured dopaminergic neurons but little is known about its in vivo potential. We set out to examine whether manipulation of the FGF20 system affected nigrostriatal tract integrity in rats, to identify which fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) might reside on dopaminergic neurons and to discover the source of endogenous FGF20 in the substantia nigra (SN). Male Sprague Dawley rats were subject to a partial 6-OHDA lesion alongside treatment with exogenous FGF20 or an FGFR antagonist...
April 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692248/a2a-adenosine-receptor-antagonists-as-therapeutic-candidates-are-they-still-an-interesting-challenge
#10
Barbara Cacciari, Stephanie Federico, Giampiero Spalluto
In the past decades, many efforts were done to develope ligands for the adenosine receptors, with the purpose to individuate agonists and antagonists affine and selective for each subtypes , named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. These intense studies allowed a deeper and deeper knowledge of the nature and, moreover, of the pathophysiological roles of all the adenosine receptor subtypes. In particular, the involvment of the A2A adenosine receptor subtype in some physiological mechanisms in the brain, that could be related to important diseases such as the Parkinson's disease, encouraged the research in this field...
April 22, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692195/exosomes-and-stem-cells-in-degenerative-disease-diagnosis-and-therapy
#11
Yu-Hsun Chang, Kung-Chi Wu, Horng-Jyh Harn, Shinn-Zong Lin, Dah-Ching Ding
Stroke can cause death and disability, resulting in a huge burden on society. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage destruction and osteophyte formation in the joints. Stem cell therapy may provide a biological treatment alternative to traditional pharmacological therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are preferred because of their differentiation ability and possible derivation from many adult tissues...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686613/essential-control-of-the-function-of-the-striatopallidal-neuron-by-pre-coupled-complexes-of-adenosine-a-2a-dopamine-d-2-receptor-heterotetramers-and-adenylyl-cyclase
#12
Sergi Ferré, Jordi Bonaventura, Wendy Zhu, Candice Hatcher-Solis, Jaume Taura, César Quiroz, Ning-Sheng Cai, Estefanía Moreno, Verónica Casadó-Anguera, Alexxai V Kravitz, Kimberly R Thompson, Dardo G Tomasi, Gemma Navarro, Arnau Cordomí, Leonardo Pardo, Carme Lluís, Carmen W Dessauer, Nora D Volkow, Vicent Casadó, Francisco Ciruela, Diomedes E Logothetis, Daniel Zwilling
The central adenosine system and adenosine receptors play a fundamental role in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. This is mostly achieved by the strategic co-localization of different adenosine and dopamine receptor subtypes in the two populations of striatal efferent neurons, striatonigral and striatopallidal, that give rise to the direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, respectively. With optogenetic techniques it has been possible to dissect a differential role of the direct and indirect pathways in mediating "Go" responses upon exposure to reward-related stimuli and "NoGo" responses upon exposure to non-rewarded or aversive-related stimuli, respectively, which depends on their different connecting output structures and their differential expression of dopamine and adenosine receptor subtypes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670828/high-expression-of-the-hmgb1-tlr4-axis-and-its-downstream-signaling-factors-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-the-relationship-of-pathological-staging
#13
Yi Yang, Chenyang Han, Li Guo, Qiaobin Guan
Objective: To detect the expression of high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and their downstream signaling factors-myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-in the sera of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in order to evaluate the relationship of the HMGB1-TLR4 axis with PD development and progression. Methods: The serum HMGB1 and TLR4 protein levels of 120 patients with PD and 100 healthy volunteers were measured using double-antibody sandwich ELISA, and their correlations with PD staging, disease duration, drug treatment effectiveness, and clinical classification were analyzed...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670566/non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-their-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-a-cohort-of-moroccan-patients
#14
Houyam Tibar, Khalil El Bayad, Ahmed Bouhouche, El Hachmia Ait Ben Haddou, Ali Benomar, Mohamed Yahyaoui, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Wafa Regragui
Background: Non-motor symptoms (NMSs) are a real burden in Parkinson's disease (PD). They may appear in early pre-symptomatic stage as well as throughout the disease course. However, their relationship with the deterioration of the patient's quality of life (QoL) is still under debate. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of NMSs and their impact on the QoL in a cohort of Moroccan patients. Methods: We carried out a cross-transactional study, where a total of 117 patients were submitted to a structured clinical interview and examination investigating motor and NMSs based on common and conventional scales...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656343/lateralisation-in-parkinson-disease
#15
REVIEW
P Riederer, K A Jellinger, P Kolber, G Hipp, J Sian-Hülsmann, R Krüger
Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson's disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes for this striking clinicopathological feature are not yet fully understood. There is increasing evidence that lateralisation of disease is due to a complex interplay of hereditary and environmental factors that are reflected not only in the concept of dominant hemispheres and handedness but also in specific susceptibilities of neuronal subpopulations within the substantia nigra...
April 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644751/disease-modification-in-parkinson-s-disease-current-approaches-challenges-and-future-considerations
#16
REVIEW
Anthony E Lang, Alberto J Espay
The greatest unmet therapeutic need in Parkinson's disease is the development of treatment that slows the relentless progression of the neurodegenerative process. The concept of "disease modification" encompasses intervention types ranging from those designed to slow the underlying degeneration to treatments directed at regenerating or replacing lost neurons. To date all attempts to develop effective disease-modifying therapy have failed. Many reasons have been proposed for these failures including our rudimentary understanding of disease pathogenesis and the assumption that each targeted mechanisms of disease apply to most patients with the same clinical diagnosis...
April 11, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627500/objective-measures-of-unobstructed-walking-and-obstacle-avoidance-in-parkinson-s-disease-subtypes
#17
Diego Orcioli-Silva, Rodrigo Vitório, Ellen Lirani-Silva, Paulo Cezar Rocha Santos, Victor Spiandor Beretta, Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
BACKGROUND: Objective measures of gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients according to motor subtypes are not yet fully understood. Although recent advances have been made for unobstructed walking, further work is required on locomotor tasks challenging postural stability, such as obstacle avoidance. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study aimed to investigate the influence of PD motor subtypes on objective measures of locomotion during unobstructed walking and obstacle avoidance...
March 30, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627019/intercepting-parkinson-disease-non-motor-subtypes-a-proof-of-principle-study-in-a-clinical-setting
#18
M E Di Battista, I Cova, A Rubino, C P Papi, G Alampi, C Purcaro, N Vanacore, E Pascale, N Locuratolo, F Fattapposta, C Mariani, S Pomati, G Meco
The construct of non-motor symptoms (NMS) subtyping in Parkinson Disease (PD) is emerging as a line of research in the light of its potential role in etiopathological interpretation of PD heterogeneity. Different approaches of NMS subtyping have been proposed: an anatomical model suggests that NMS aggregate according to the underpinning pathology; other researchers find aggregation of NMS according to the motor phenotype; the contribution of genetic background to NMS has also been assessed, primarily focusing on cognitive impairment...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621788/characteristics-of-early-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#19
Hyun Haeng Lee, Han Gil Seo, Kwang-Dong Kim, Seung Hak Lee, Woo Hyung Lee, Byung-Mo Oh, Woong-Woo Lee, Yoon Kim, Aryun Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon, Tai Ryoon Han
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysphagia, a symptom of multiple system atrophy (MSA), is a major clinical concern. In this study, we investigate the characteristics of early oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) in patients with MSA, and the differences between MSA subtypes. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the study had previously been diagnosed with MSA at the clinic of the Department of Neurology, and had been referred for a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), between 2005 and 2014, to check for dysphagia...
April 5, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621157/motor-subtypes-of-parkinson-s-disease-can-be-identified-by-frequency-component-of-postural-stability
#20
Saba Rezvanian, Thurmon Lockhart, Christopher Frames, Rahul Soangra, Abraham Lieberman
Parkinson's disease (PD) can be divided into two subtypes based on clinical features-namely tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD). This categorization is important at the early stage of PD, since identifying the subtypes can help to predict the clinical progression of the disease. Accordingly, correctly diagnosing subtypes is critical in initiating appropriate early interventions and tracking the progression of the disease. However, as the disease progresses, it becomes increasingly difficult to further distinguish those attributes that are relevant to the subtypes...
April 5, 2018: Sensors
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