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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791949/the-global-neurological-burden-of-tuberculosis
#1
Kiran Thakur, Mitashee Das, Kelly E Dooley, Amita Gupta
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe manifestation of TB and accounts for approximately 5 to 10% of all extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases and approximately 1% of all TB cases. TB meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS TB, though other forms occur, often in conjunction with TBM, including intracranial tuberculomas, tuberculous brain abscesses, and spinal tubercular arachnoiditis. CNS TB often presents with nonspecific clinical features that mimic symptoms of other neurological conditions, often making diagnosis difficult...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791559/sequential-analysis-as-a-tool-for-detection-of-amikacin-ototoxicity-in-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#2
Karla Anacleto de Vasconcelos, Silvana Maria Monte Coelho Frota, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Afrânio Lineu Kritski
OBJECTIVE: To investigate early detection of amikacin-induced ototoxicity in a population treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), by means of three different tests: pure-tone audiometry (PTA); high-frequency audiometry (HFA); and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. METHODS: This was a longitudinal prospective cohort study involving patients aged 18-69 years with a diagnosis of MDR-TB who had to receive amikacin for six months as part of their antituberculosis drug regimen for the first time...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791553/epidemiological-aspects-clinical-manifestations-and-prevention-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-from-the-perspective-of-the-end-tb-strategy
#3
Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Terezinha Miceli Martire, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787713/interferon-gamma-release-assay-performance-in-northeastern-brazil-influence-of-the-ifng-874-a-t-polymorphism
#4
Valdirene Leão Carneiro, Maria Teresita Bendicho, Rosalina Guedes Santos, Marilda Casela, Eduardo M Netto, Scarlet Torres Moraes Mota, Iza Cristina Araújo Pina, Roberto Meyer Nascimento, Songeli Menezes Freire, Theolis Barbosa
INTRODUCTION: Latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis based on the release of interferon-gamma in cultures of peripheral blood cells stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens has replaced the tuberculin skin test in many countries with low tuberculosis prevalence. The IFN-γ production can be influenced by genetic polymorphisms, of which the IFNG+874 (rs62559044) locus is the most studied. We investigated the possible influence of the IFNG+874 A/T polymorphism on interferon-gamma test performance...
May 19, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784037/pre-and-post-diagnosis-costs-of-tuberculosis-to-patients-on-directly-observed-treatment-short-course-in-districts-of-southwestern-ethiopia-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Abyot Asres, Degu Jerene, Wakgari Deressa
BACKGROUND: Financial burden on tuberculosis (TB) patients results in delayed treatment and poor compliance. We assessed pre- and post-diagnosis costs to TB patients. METHODS: A longitudinal study among 735 new TB cases was conducted from January 2015 through June 2016 in 10 woredas (districts) of southwestern Ethiopia. Direct out-of-pocket, payments, and lost income (indirect cost) were solicited from patients during the first 2 months and at the end of treatment...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783081/recent-technological-advancements-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Shagun Gupta, Vipan Kakkar
Early diagnosis and on-time effective treatment are indispensable for Tuberculosis (TB) control - a life threatening infectious communicable disease. The conventional techniques for diagnosing TB normally take two to three weeks. This delay in diagnosis and further increase in detection complexity due to the emerging risks of XDR-TB (Extensively drug Resistant-TB) and MDR-TB (Multidrug Resistant-TB) are evoking interest of researchers in the field of developing rapid TB detection techniques such as biosensing and other point-of-care (POC) techniques...
May 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779775/accuracy-of-whole-genome-sequencing-versus-phenotypic-mgit-and-commercial-molecular-tests-for-detection-of-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolated-from-patients-in-brazil-and-mozambique
#7
Cinara Silva Feliciano, Evangelina Inacio Namburete, Jéssica Rodrigues Plaça, Kamila Peronni, Anzaan Dippenaar, Robin Mark Warren, Wilson Araújo Silva, Valdes Roberto Bollela
BACKGROUND: The fast and accurate diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is critical to reducing the spread of disease. Although commercial genotypic drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are close to the goal, they are still not able to detect all relevant DR-TB related mutations. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) allows better comprehension of DR-TB with a great discriminatory power. We aimed to evaluate WGS in M. tuberculosis isolates compared with phenotypic and genotypic DST. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 30 isolates from patients with detected DR-TB in Brazil and Mozambique...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779770/normalised-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-associated-uveitis
#8
Manas Ranjan Barik, Soveeta Rath, Rohit Modi, Rajkishori Rana, Mamatha M Reddy, Soumyava Basu
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis of tuberculosis-associated uveitis (TBU) in TB-endemic countries is challenging due to likelihood of latent mycobacterial infection in both immune and non-immune cells. In this study, we investigated normalised quantitative PCR (nqPCR) in ocular fluids (aqueous/vitreous) for diagnosis of TBU in a TB-endemic population. Mycobacterial copy numbers (mpb64 gene) were normalised to host genome copy numbers (RNAse P RNA component H1 [RPPH1] gene) in TBU (n = 16) and control (n = 13) samples (discovery cohort)...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779769/seasonal-variation-in-the-performance-of-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assays-used-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Marc Tebruegge, Nigel Curtis, Vanessa Clifford, Cristina Fernandez-Turienzo, Nigel Klein, Katy Fidler, Salah Mansour, Paul Elkington, Stephen Morris-Jones
This study aimed to determine whether there are seasonal changes in the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assays, an interferon-gamma release assay widely used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. Results of 31,932 QFT-GIT assays performed at a large independent, accredited diagnostic service provider in London, UK over a 4.5-year-period were analysed. The proportion of positive results was significantly lower in autumn (14.8%) than in spring (16.0%; p = 0.0366) and summer (17...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779766/should-all-suspected-tuberculosis-cases-in-high-income-countries-be-tested-with-genexpert
#10
Venanzio Vella, Agnieszka Broda, Francis Drobniewski
In countries with a low incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), universal testing with GeneXpert might not be always cost-effective. This study provides hospital managers in low MDR-TB incidence countries with criteria on when decentralised universal GeneXpert testing would make sense. The alternatives taken into consideration include: universal microbiological culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) only (comparator); as above but with concurrent centralized GeneXpert in a referral laboratory vs a decentralized GeneXpert system in every hospital to test smear-positive cases only; as above but testing all samples with GeneXpert regardless of smear status...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779764/experimental-animal-models-of-central-nervous-system-tuberculosis-a-historical-review
#11
REVIEW
Carlos Sánchez-Garibay, María Elena Hernández-Campos, Martha Lilia Tena-Suck, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara
Animal models are and will remain valuable tools in medical research because their use enables a deeper understanding of disease development, thus generating important knowledge for developing disease control strategies. Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) is the most devastating disease in humans. Moreover, as the variability of signs and symptoms delay a timely diagnosis, patients usually arrive at the hospital suffering from late stage disease. Therefore, it is impossible to obtain fresh human tissue for research before an autopsy...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779492/pretreatment-chest-x-ray-severity-and-its-relation-to-bacterial-burden-in-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#12
S E Murthy, F Chatterjee, A Crook, R Dawson, C Mendel, M E Murphy, S R Murray, A J Nunn, P P J Phillips, Kasha P Singh, T D McHugh, S H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Chest radiographs are used for diagnosis and severity assessment in tuberculosis (TB). The extent of disease as determined by smear grade and cavitation as a binary measure can predict 2-month smear results, but little has been done to determine whether radiological severity reflects the bacterial burden at diagnosis. METHODS: Pre-treatment chest x-rays from 1837 participants with smear-positive pulmonary TB enrolled into the REMoxTB trial (Gillespie et al...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776936/ethambutol-and-isoniazid-induced-severe-neurotoxicity-in-a-patient-undergoing-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis
#13
Meijun Si, Huiqun Li, Yanru Chen, Hui Peng
Ethambutol (EMB) and isoniazid (INH) are the first-line antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs. However, their neurotoxicity could cause adverse effect and the patients with end-stage renal disease are especially vulnerable due to the reduction in renal drug clearance. Here, we report a 36-year-old man receiving peritoneal dialysis developed progressive paralysis in lower extremities, vision loss and hoarseness 4 months after anti-TB treatment with INH, EMB and rifapentine because of concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773765/a-comprehensive-review-on-primary-gallbladder-tuberculosis
#14
Ashish Gupta, Amit Gupta, Rohik Anjum, Saumya Agrawal, Dhiraj Mallik
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that can affect any organ system of the body. Abdominal TB can be gastrointestinal, lymph nodal, visceral or peritoneal. The gallbladder (GB) is rarely involved in abdominal TB as a primary organ. Extensive research literature on gallbladder TB is limited to case reports. There has been no review on this rare abdominal pathology. GB tuberculosis is a difficult diagnosis preoperatively. It is a rare differential among the more common gallbladder pathologies such as cholelithiasis, or a gallbladder malignancy...
April 30, 2018: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769775/primary-gingival-tuberculosis-in-pregnancy-a-rare-combination
#15
Shweta Sharma, Abdul Ahad, Narinder Dev Gupta, Vivek Kumar Sharma
Tuberculosis (TB), a common chronic-specific granulomatous disease, has become rare in the developed countries. However, it is still a common cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Although it commonly involves the lungs, its presentation in the oral cavity is quite uncommon. The very rare incidence of primary gingival TB, particularly in the absence of active pulmonary involvement often leads to misdiagnosis. Clinical features of oral lesions may include ulceration, nodules, granulomas, and fissures. TB in pregnant women is a major cause of obstetric complications and increased risk of maternal and child mortality...
March 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767733/risk-and-timing-of-tuberculosis-among-close-contacts-of-persons-with-infectious-tuberculosis
#16
Mary R Reichler, Awal Khan, Timothy R Sterling, Hui Zhao, Joyce Moran, James McAuley, Patricia Bessler, Bonita Mangura
Background: The risk and timing of tuberculosis (TB) among recently exposed close contacts of patients with infectious TB is not well established. Methods: We prospectively enrolled culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients ≥15 years of age and their close contacts at nine health departments in the United States and Canada. Close contacts were screened and cross-matched with TB registries to identify those who developed TB. Results: TB was diagnosed in 158 (4%) of 4490 contacts to 718 index TB patients...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764370/-tuberculosis-in-advanced-hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-expression-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-its-downstream-targets
#17
Sheetal Verma, Peicheng Du, Damalie Nakanjako, Sabine Hermans, Jessica Briggs, Lydia Nakiyingi, Jerrold J Ellner, Yukari C Manabe, Padmini Salgame
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB in HIV remains challenging particularly when HIV infection is advanced. Several gene signatures and serum protein biomarkers have been identified that distinguish active TB from latent infection. Our study was designed to assess if gene expression signatures and cytokine levels would distinguish active TB in advanced HIV. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of whole blood RNA-Seq and plasma cytokine/chemokine analysis in HIV-infected with CD4+ T cell count of ≤ 100 cells/μl, with and without active TB...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761768/treatment-delay-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-within-the-pakistan-national-tuberculosis-control-program
#18
Shahab E Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Carmen Amezcua-Prieto, Martínez-Ruiz Virginia
Delay in diagnosis and treatment worsens the disease and clinical outcomes, which further enhances transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in the community. Therefore, this study aims to assess treatment delay and its associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 269 pulmonary TB patients in the district. Binary and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore the factors associated with delay in TB treatment. Results reveal that most patients were from low socioeconomic backgrounds...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757612/autofluorescence-free-immunoassay-using-x-ray-scintillating-nanotags
#19
Xiang-Yu Ou, Tao Guo, Liang Song, Han-Yu Liang, Qi-Zhao Zhang, Jia-Qi Liao, Jing-Ying Li, Juan Li, Huang-Hao Yang
Auto-fluorescence background in complex biological samples is a major challenge in achieving high sensitivity of fluorescence immunoassays (FIA). Here we report an X-ray luminescence-based immunoassay for high-sensitivity detection of biomarkers using X-ray scintillating nanotags. Due to the weak scattering and absorption of most biological chromophores by X-ray excitation, a low-dose X-ray source can be used to produce intense scintillating luminescence from the nanotags for autofluorescence-free biosensing...
May 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756504/tuberculous-peritonitis-and-pleurisy-accompanied-by-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-a-case-report
#20
Jian-Kun Chen, Shu-Bin Cai, Qian Cai, Hang Qi, Ji-Qiang Li
Although the infectious diseases tuberculosis (TB) and cryptococcosis both cause formation of single or multiple nodules in immunodeficient hosts, cases of co-infection of these diseases are rarely seen. We report a patient who was co-infected with TB and cryptococcosis. A male patient with no clinical evidence of immunodeficiency presented with a 3-week history of abdominal distension accompanied by oedema of recurring lower extremities. The patient was diagnosed with tuberculous peritonitis and tuberculous pleurisy by an abdominal puncture biopsy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
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