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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735813/atypical-memory-b-cells-in-human-chronic-infectious-diseases-an-interim-report
#1
Silvia Portugal, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Susan Moir, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce
Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728855/tissue-plasminogen-activator-tpa-signal-sequence-enhances-immunogenicity-of-mva-based-vaccine-against-tuberculosis
#2
Yiming Kou, Yongqing Xu, Zhilei Zhao, Jie Liu, Yang Wu, Qingrui You, Linli Wang, Feng Gao, Linjun Cai, Chunlai Jiang
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem worldwide, and the only available vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), has shown highly variable efficacy in adults against TB. New vaccines are urgently needed, and the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine has emerged as one of the most promising candidates based on many preclinical and early clinical studies over the past few years. However, the maximum tolerable dose and strength of induced immune responses have limited the protective effect of MVA-based prophylactic vaccines...
July 17, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713838/role-of-interferons-in-the-development-of-diagnostics-vaccines-and-therapy-for-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Kai Ling Chin, Fadhilah Zulkipli Anis, Maria E Sarmiento, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Armando Acosta
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). About one-third of the world's population is latently infected with TB and 5-15% of them will develop active TB in their lifetime. It is estimated that each case of active TB may cause 10-20 new infections. Host immune response to Mtb is influenced by interferon- (IFN-) signaling pathways, particularly by type I and type II interferons (IFNs). The latter that consists of IFN-γ has been associated with the promotion of Th1 immune response which is associated with protection against TB...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709490/serum-levels-of-soluble-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-supar-as-a-marker-of-tuberculosis-treatment-efficacy
#4
V Indumati, V Vijay, D Krishnaswamy, V Rajeshwari, A Ramesh, D Shantala, A Shilpa
BACKGROUND: Upon diagnosis, Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients are treated for TB for a period of 6-9 months. At present, there exists very little indication of the efficacy of the particular treatment. A few previous studies have shown that soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (SuPAR) may be used as treatment efficacy marker. SuPAR is a cellular receptor for serine protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Bacterial endotoxins and cytokines of the innate immune system stimulate the secretion of uPA in monocytes & neutrophils...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694808/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dosr-regulon-gene-rv2004c-encodes-a-novel-antigen-with-pro-inflammatory-functions-and-potential-diagnostic-application-for-detection-of-latent-tuberculosis
#5
Sankara Narayana Doddam, Vidyullatha Peddireddy, Niyaz Ahmed
Approximately 1.7 billion people in the world harbor latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with a substantial risk of progression to clinical outcome. Containment of these seed beds of Mtb is essential to eliminate tuberculosis completely in high burden settings such as India. Hence, there is an urgent need for the identification of new serological markers for detection or vaccine candidates to prevent latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). DosR regulon antigens of Mtb might serve as attractive targets for LTBI diagnosis or vaccine development as they are specifically expressed and are upregulated during latent phase...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683527/host-directed-therapeutics-as-novel-angle-for-tuberculosis-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Ye-Ram Kim, Chul-Su Yang
Despite significant efforts to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment, it remains a worldwide infectious disease due to the limitations of current TB regimens. Recent work on novel TB treatment strategies has suggested that directly targeting host factors is beneficial for TB treatment. Such strategies, termed host-directed therapeutics (HDTs), focus on host-pathogen interactions. HDTs are more beneficial than existed TB drugs, which are limited the long durations of treatment and the emergence of drug-resistant strains...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674532/changes-in-host-immune-endocrine-relationships-during-tuberculosis-treatment-in-patients-with-cured-and-failed-treatment-outcomes
#7
Léanie Kleynhans, Sheena Ruzive, Lizaan Ehlers, Lani Thiart, Novel N Chegou, Magda Conradie, Magdalena Kriel, Kim Stanley, Gian D van der Spuy, Martin Kidd, Paul D van Helden, Gerhard Walzl, Katharina Ronacher
A bidirectional communication between the immune and endocrine systems exists and facilitates optimum responses in the host during infections. This is in part achieved through changes in secretion patterns of hypothalamic hormones induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to elucidate the immune-endocrine alterations during tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients with cured and failed TB treatment outcomes. Blood samples were collected from 27 cured and 10 failed patients and hormone as well as cytokine concentrations quantified at baseline, week 4, and month 6 of TB treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659665/risk-of-tuberculosis-reactivation-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-ankylosing-spondylitis-and-psoriatic-arthritis-receiving-non-anti-tnf-targeted-biologics
#8
REVIEW
Fabrizio Cantini, Carlotta Nannini, Laura Niccoli, Linda Petrone, Giuseppe Ippolito, Delia Goletti
Tuberculosis (TB) still represents an important issue for public health in underdeveloped countries, but the use of antitumor necrosis factor agents (anti-TNF) for the treatment of inflammatory rheumatic disorders has reopened the problem also in countries with low TB incidence, due to the increased risk of TB reactivation in subjects with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Over the last 5 years, several non-anti-TNF-targeted biologics have been licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657598/secretion-of-ifn-%C3%AE-associated-with-galectin-9-production-by-pleural-fluid-cells-from-a-patient-with-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#9
Jingge Zhao, Beata Shiratori, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Makoto Matsumoto, Toshiro Niki, Michinori Tanaka, Yayoi Takahashi, Osumu Usami, Yugo Ashino, Toshio Hattori
In this study, we investigated the role of a matricellular protein galectin-9 (Gal-9) in pleural effusion related to tuberculosis (TB). Plasma and pleural fluid of a patient with extrapulmonary TB were analyzed for cytokine content by ELISA and Luminex. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pleural fluid cells (PFCs) were examined for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay or IFN-γ ELISA, for apoptosis and necrosis by Cell Death Detection ELISA, and also underwent cell sorting...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652186/il-6-and-il-18-cytokine-gene-variants-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-with-co-morbid-diabetes-mellitus-and-their-household-contacts-in-hyderabad
#10
Meenakshi Ponnana, Ramya Sivangala, Lavanya Joshi, Vijayalakshmi Valluri, Sumanlatha Gaddam
PURPOSE: Association of cytokine genes reflects their susceptibility towards infection and disease in household contacts (HHC) of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Hyperglycemia, a common factor in diabetics might influence their risk towards mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease development. This study determines the association of IL-6 and IL-18 cytokine gene variants of TB patients with diabetes mellitus (TBDM) and their HHC in Hyderabad. METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-6 (-174 G>C and -572 G>C) and IL-18 (-137 G>C and -607 C>A) cytokine genes were genotyped by Amplification Refractory Mutation System and Restriction Fragment Length polymerase chain reaction in total of 705 subjects comprising of TBDM, their HHC, PTB, DM and Healthy controls (HC)...
June 23, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651949/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-function-is-inhibited-in-end-stage-renal%C3%A2-disease-and-impacted-by-latent-tuberculosis%C3%A2-infection
#11
Jennifer A Juno, Jillian L M Waruk, Angela Harris, Christine Mesa, Carmen Lopez, Joe Bueti, T Blake Ball, Sandra A Kiazyk
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at elevated risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). Inflammation and uremia negatively impact immune function in this population, but specific pathways involved in TB immunity have not been identified. Although γδ T cells are known to contribute to protection from TB, their phenotype and function in patients with ESRD is relatively unknown. To determine this we recruited 20 patients with and 20 without ESRD (controls), with or without latent TB infection to assess γδ T cell frequency, surface phenotype, and cytokine production by flow cytometry in response to stimulation...
June 24, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642632/mcl-plays-an-anti-inflammatory-role-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-immune-response-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#12
Qingwen Zhang, Xinru Jiang, Weigang He, Kailin Wei, Jinxia Sun, Xiangyang Qin, Yuejuan Zheng, Xin Jiang
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a significant menace to global health as it induces granulomatous lung lesions and systemic inflammatory responses during active tuberculosis (TB). Micheliolide (MCL), a sesquiterpene lactone, was recently reported to have a function of relieving LPS-induced inflammatory response, but the regulative role of MCL on the immunopathology of TB still remains unknown. In this experiment, we examined the inhibitory effect of MCL on Mtb-induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophage-like cell line Raw264...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642013/identifying-mechanisms-driving-formation-of-granuloma-associated-fibrosis-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#13
Hayley C Warsinske, Robert M DiFazio, Jennifer J Linderman, JoAnne L Flynn, Denise E Kirschner
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is a pulmonary pathogen of major global concern. A key feature of Mtb infection in primates is the formation of granulomas, dense cellular structures surrounding infected lung tissue. These structures serve as the main site of host-pathogen interaction in TB, and thus to effectively treat TB we must clarify mechanisms of granuloma formation and their function in disease. Fibrotic granulomas are associated with both good and bad disease outcomes...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634479/whole-blood-profiling-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-trained-innate-immunity-in-infants-identifies-epidermal-growth-factor-il-6-platelet-derived-growth-factor-ab-bb-and-natural-killer-cell-activation
#14
Steven G Smith, Johanneke Kleinnijenhuis, Mihai G Netea, Hazel M Dockrell
Vaccination of infants with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) activates both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The antimycobacterial effects of these responses most likely account for the ability of BCG to protect against childhood forms of tuberculosis (TB). There is also evidence for a heterologous protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB-unrelated mortality in low birth weight infants. A possible mechanism of action of this effect, the induction of trained innate immunity, has been demonstrated when cells from BCG-vaccinated adults are restimulated in vitro with non-related microbial stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620588/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-fusion-protein-tuberculosis-vaccine-combining-five-esx-family-proteins
#15
Zhi-Hao Xiang, Rui-Feng Sun, Chen Lin, Fu-Zeng Chen, Jun-Tao Mai, Yu-Xiao Liu, Zi-Yan Xu, Lu Zhang, Jun Liu
One strategy to develop the next generation of tuberculosis vaccines is to construct subunit vaccines based on T cell antigens. In this study, we have evaluated the vaccine potential of a fusion protein combining EsxB, EsxD, EsxG, EsxU, and EsxM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). This recombinant protein, named BM, was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with purified BM protein formulated in Freund's incomplete adjuvant induced the production of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-2) and multifunctional CD4(+) T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610780/analysis-of-transcription-factors-micrornas-and-cytokines-involved-in-t-lymphocyte-differentiation-in-patients-with-tuberculosis-after-directly-observed-treatment-short-course
#16
Nancy Elizabeth Corral-Fernández, Juan Diego Cortes-García, Rivas-Santiago Bruno, Silvia Romano-Moreno, Susanna E Medellín-Garibay, Martín Magaña-Aquino, Raúl A Salazar-González, Roberto González-Amaro, Diana Patricia Portales-Pérez
Tuberculosis (Tb) is an infectious disease in which the immune system plays an important role. MicroRNAs are involved in the development and maintenance of CD4 + T lymphocyte subpopulations. miR-326 regulates the differentiation to Th17 cells and miR-29 correlates with the Th1 response. The aim of this study was to determine the role of microRNAs, Transcription Factors, and cytokines in Th differentiation before and after the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum from Tb patients were collected at times 0 (before therapy), 2 (after the intensive phase), and 6 months (after the holding phase)...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598206/a-novel-in-vitro-human-granuloma-model-of-sarcoidosis-and-latent-tb-infection
#17
Elliott D Crouser, Peter White, Evelyn Guirado Caceres, Mark W Julian, Audrey C Papp, Landon W Locke, Wolfgang Sadee, Larry S Schlesinger
Many aspects of pathogenic granuloma formation are poorly understood requiring new relevant laboratory models that represent the complexity (genetics and diversity) of human disease. To address this need, we developed an in vitro model of granuloma formation using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from patients with active sarcoidosis, latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI), or normal healthy controls. PBMCs were incubated for 7 days with uncoated polystyrene beads or beads coated with purified protein derivative (PPD) or human serum albumin (HSA)...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594940/the-introduction-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induces-different-immunological-responses-in-the-lungs-of-healthy-and-m-tuberculosis-infected-mice
#18
Tatiana Nenasheva, Alexander Nikolaev, Daniar Diykanov, Anna Sukhanova, Evgenii Tcyganov, Alexander Panteleev, Irina Bocharova, Yana Serdyuk, Leonid Nezlin, Tatiana Radaeva, Nikolai Adrianov, Yuri Rubtsov, Irina Lyadova
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have strong immunomodulatory properties and therefore can be used to control inflammation and tissue damage. It was suggested recently that MSC injections can be used to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB). However, MSC trafficking and immunomodulatory effects of MSC injections during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection have not been studied. To address this issue we have analyzed MSC distribution in tissues and local immunological effects of MSC injections in Mtb infected and uninfected mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588287/identification-and-evaluation-of-the-novel-immunodominant-antigen-rv2351c-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Xuezhi Wang, Shuangshuang Chen, Yongjuan Xu, Huajun Zheng, Tongyang Xiao, Yuqing Li, Xing Chen, Mingxiang Huang, Haifeng Zhang, Xijing Fang, Yi Jiang, Machao Li, Haican Liu, Kanglin Wan
There is an urgent need for new immunodominant antigens to improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the efficacy of the TB vaccine to control the disease worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic potential of a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific antigen, Rv2351c, from region of difference (RD) 7 of the MTB genome, and investigated the potency of the vaccine by identifying its immunological function in human and animal immunological experiments. Twenty T-cell epitopes were identified using TEpredict and prediction tools from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource...
June 7, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588268/optimisation-of-a-murine-splenocyte-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-assay-using-virulent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Christina Jensen, Line Lindebo Holm, Erik Svensson, Claus Aagaard, Morten Ruhwald
In the absence of a validated correlate of protection or robust animal models for human tuberculosis, Mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIAs) aim to assess vaccines ability to inhibit mycobacterial growth in-vitro. We optimised a reproducible murine splenocyte MGIA based on in-vitro infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) Erdman. We identified splenocyte viability as a problem in state-of-art MGIA protocols, which can be improved by simple changes in culture conditions (viability increase from 21% to 46% at last day of culture)...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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