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Nontuberculous mycobacterium infection

Tomoshi Sugiyama, Koji Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Usami, Kohei Yokoi
We herein describe a surgical case of pulmonary involvement in Takayasu's arteritis with pulmonary infections of nontuberculous mycobacteria. A 24-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of a recurrent fever, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest revealed the occlusion of the right pulmonary artery and cavitary lesions in the right lower lobe of the lung. A further examination of the neck revealed the occlusion of aortic branches, and the patient was diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis...
October 21, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Kiran M Perkins, Adrian Lawsin, Nabeeh A Hasan, Michael Strong, Alison L Halpin, Rachael R Rodger, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Matthew B Crist, Suzanne Schwartz, Julia Marders, Charles L Daley, Max Salfinger, Joseph F Perz
In the spring of 2015, investigators in Switzerland reported a cluster of six patients with invasive infection with Mycobacterium chimaera, a species of nontuberculous mycobacterium ubiquitous in soil and water. The infected patients had undergone open-heart surgery that used contaminated heater-cooler devices during extracorporeal circulation (1). In July 2015, a Pennsylvania hospital also identified a cluster of invasive nontuberculous mycobacterial infections among open-heart surgery patients. Similar to the Swiss report, a field investigation by the Pennsylvania Department of Health, with assistance from CDC, used both epidemiologic and laboratory evidence to identify an association between invasive Mycobacterium avium complex, including M...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Patricia J Simner, Gail L Woods, Nancy L Wengenack
The immunocompromised host is at increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is a significant mycobacterial pathogen, nontuberculous mycobacteria causes substantial disease in those with suppressed immune responses. Mycobacterial infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in this patient population, and rapid identification and susceptibility testing of the mycobacterial species is paramount to patient management and outcomes...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
C F Wang, W T Yang, L M Yue, J Y Qiu, L J Zhang, C Wang, X Y Jiang, A D Qian
Nontuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous in outside environment and animals. As for nontuberculous mycobacteria infection, there is only limited information in humans regarding infection and the subsequent immune response, especially for Mycobacterium neoaurum. Here, haematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used to observe pathological changes and detect acid-fast bacilli in organ samples in mouse model. Flow cytometry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to analyze the contribution of Th1, Th17 and Tregs to the host immune response...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Cory K Hussain, Tom J B de Man, Nadege C Toney, Kamal Kamboj, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Shu-Hua Wang
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections. We describe the isolation and identification of a novel, rapidly growing, nonpigmented NTM from an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst. The patient presented with fevers, nausea, and abdominal pain and clinically improved after shunt removal. NTM identification was performed by amplicon and whole-genome sequencing.
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Kyle Donnelly, Thomas B Waltzek, James F X Wellehan, Nicole I Stacy, Maria Chadam, Brian A Stacy
Mycobacteriosis is infrequently reported in free-ranging sea turtles. Nontuberculous Mycobacterium haemophilum was identified as the causative agent of disseminated mycobacteriosis in a juvenile leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) that was found stranded on the Atlantic coast of Florida. Disseminated granulomatous inflammation was identified histologically, most notably affecting the nervous system. Identification of mycobacterial infection was based on cytologic, molecular, histologic, and microbiologic methods...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
K Eustace, V Jolliffe, A Sahota, K Gholam
A 28-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of scalp nodules. He had undergone hair transplantation 2 months previously. Incision and drainage of one of the nodules yielded gelatinous material, which was sent for microscopy and culture, including low-temperature culture. After 2 weeks of incubation, culture of the nodule yielded acid- and alcohol-fast bacilli, which were identified as Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium, which has been reported to cause cutaneous, soft tissue and respiratory infections following trauma, surgery or injection with nonsterile needles...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Marco Arosio, Maurizio Ruggeri, Sabrina Buoro, Anna Locatelli, Gaia Ortalli, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Claudio Farina
This paper evaluates the capability of MicroSeq 500 instrument to improve the diagnosis of Mycobacterium genavense The strain was isolated from a two year old child admitted to our hospital for hepatosplenomegaly and massive abdominal lymphadenopathies. DNA was extracted from a lymph node and examined by amplifying 500 bp at the 5' end of 16S rRNA gene using MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA Bacterial Identification PCR kit. Sequencing reactions were performed with MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA Bacterial Identification Sequencing kit (Applied Biosystems, USA)...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Peter W Schreiber, Stefan P Kuster, Barbara Hasse, Cornelia Bayard, Christian Rüegg, Philipp Kohler, Peter M Keller, Guido V Bloemberg, Francesco Maisano, Dominique Bettex, Maximilian Halbe, Rami Sommerstein, Hugo Sax
Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after open-heart surgery have been reported internationally. These devastating infections result from aerosols generated by contaminated heater-cooler units used with extracorporeal circulation during surgery. Despite intensified cleaning and disinfection, surveillance samples from factory-new units acquired during 2014 grew nontuberculous mycobacteria after a median of 174 days.
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Aoi Yamashiro, Takahiro Uchida, Seigo Ito, Naoki Oshima, Takashi Oda, Hiroo Kumagai
A 46-year-old woman suddenly developed peripheral edema. Her massive proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, and renal biopsy findings yielded the diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD). In addition, lung Mycobacterium avium infection was diagnosed according to a positive culture of her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The lung lesion was improved by anti-nontuberculous mycobacteria therapy. Surprisingly, her proteinuria also gradually decreased and she attained complete remission of MCD without any immunosuppressive therapy...
2016: Internal Medicine
Sai-Nan Bian, Li-Fan Zhang, Yue-Qiu Zhang, Qi-Wen Yang, Peng Wang, Ying-Chun Xu, Xiao-Chun Shi, Xiao-Qing Liu
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) bloodstream infection (BSI) is relatively rare. We aimed in this study to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory evaluation, and outcomes of patients with NTM BSI. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of inpatients with NTM BSI at our institution between January 2008 and January 2015 and recorded clinical parameters including age, gender, underlying disease, clinical manifestation, organs involved with NTM disease, species of NTM, laboratory data, treatment and outcome of these patients...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Diana Machado, Rolando Cannalire, Sofia Santos Costa, Giuseppe Manfroni, Oriana Tabarrini, Violetta Cecchetti, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros, Stefano Sabatini
The identification of efflux inhibitors to be used as adjuvants alongside existing drug regimens could have a tremendous value in the treatment of any mycobacterial infection. Here, we investigated the ability of four 2-(4'-propoxyphenyl)quinoline Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux inhibitors (1-4) to reduce the efflux activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium strains. All four compounds were able to inhibit efflux pumps in both mycobacterial species; in particular, O-ethylpiperazinyl derivative 2 showed an efflux inhibitory activity comparable to that of verapamil, the most potent mycobacterial efflux inhibitor reported to date, and was able to significantly reduce the MIC values of macrolides against different M...
December 11, 2015: ACS Infectious Diseases
Tetsuo Fujita, Jun Ikari, Akira Watanabe, Koichiro Tatsumi
Pulmonary nocardiosis is a rare but potentially serious infection typically in immunosuppressed patients (ISPs). It is also known to occur in immunocompetent patients (ICPs). However, little is currently known regarding the clinical characteristics and radiographic findings of pulmonary nocardiosis specifically in ICPs. In this study, 30 patients with pulmonary nocardiosis were identified and 10 were considered to be colonized. Of all patients with pulmonary nocardiosis, 12 patients were ICPs and 18 were ISPs...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Ignacio Ruiz Del Olmo Izuzquiza, María L Monforte Cirac, Matilde Bustillo Alonso, Pedro Burgués Prades, Carmelo Guerrero Laleona
Lymphadenitis is the most common clinical feature in nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in immunocompetent children. We present two case reports of M. lentiflavum lymphadenitis diagnosed in a tertiary hospital in the last 10 years. Routine tests were performed after persistent adenopathy, and a sample for culture was obtained, being positive for this microorganism. Both patients received oral antibiotics during several weeks. Case 1 needed complete excision after five months of treatment, whilst Case 2 was cured by medical therapy...
October 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Michal Slany, Vit Ulmann, Iva Slana
The nontuberculous mycobacteria are typically environmental organisms residing in soil and water. These microorganisms can cause a wide range of clinical diseases; pulmonary disease is most frequent, followed by lymphadenitis in children, skin and soft tissue disease, and rare extra pulmonary or disseminated infections. Mycobacterium avium complex is the second most common cause of pulmonary mycobacterioses after M. tuberculosis. This review covers the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of infection caused by the members of this complex and particularities for the treatment of different disease types and patient populations...
2016: BioMed Research International
Gabriel T Faz, Mahmoud Eltorky, Bernard Karnath
BACKGROUND Extraskeletal osteosarcomas (ESOS) of the mediastinum are extremely rare and may present with concurrent nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. CASE REPORT We present the second documented case of high-grade anterior mediastinal extraskeletal osteosarcoma in a 59-year-old man with a history of treated, latent tuberculosis (TB). Sputum samples grew Mycoplasma avium complex and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Imaging showed a right-sided 7.6 cm mass with compression of the main bronchus. Subsequent biopsy with vimentin staining established the diagnosis of ESOS...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Thaís Guimarães, Erica Chimara, Gladys Villas Boas do Prado, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Natalia Garcia Fernandes Carvalho, Fernanda Cristina Dos Santos Simeão, Andréia Rodrigues de Souza, Christiane A R Costa, Cristina Viana Niero, Urze Adomaitis Brianesi, Thais Romano di Gioia, Laura Maria Brasileiro Gomes, Fernanda de Souza Spadão, Maria das Graças Silva, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux de Moura, Anna S Levin
BACKGROUND: The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely spread. In Brazil, 2,520 cases of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) infections after medical procedures were reported, with 5.4% of cases related to nonsurgical invasive procedures and with an occurrence of 1 clone (BRA100) of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp bolletii. OBJECTIVE: To describe a pseudooutbreak of M abscessus subsp bolletii in an endoscopy and bronchoscopy unit. METHODS: The alert for a pseudooutbreak was given when 3 patients, in the same week, had a positive bronchoalveolar lavage culture for M abscessus subsp bolletii...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Kozo Morimoto, Ho Namkoong, Naoki Hasegawa, Taku Nakagawa, Eriko Morino, Yuji Shiraishi, Kenji Ogawa, Kiyohiko Izumi, Jin Takasaki, Takashi Yoshiyama, Yoshihiko Hoshino, Shuichi Matsuda, Yuta Hayashi, Yuka Sasaki, Makoto Ishii, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Hajime Goto
RATIONALE: The management of macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease is difficult and thought to be analogous to that of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to clarify the cause of macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex, to see how its management affected outcome, and to compare its prognosis with that of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: The medical records of 102 consecutive cases with macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease at three tertiary hospitals for mycobacteriosis in metropolitan Tokyo and one in Aichi prefecture from 2005 to 2013 were reviewed...
August 11, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Sang Hoon Yoo, Seo Ree Kim, Joon Young Choi, Jae Woo Choi, Yu Mi Ko, Sun Hee Jang, Jun Kyu Park, Ye Gyu Sung, Yun Jung Park, Su Yun Oh, Se Young Bahk, Ju Hyun Lee, Myung Sook Kim
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN)...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Yung-Chieh Fu, I-Chuang Liao, Hung-Mo Chen, Jing-Jou Yan
OBJECTIVE: The Abbott RealTime MTB assay, launched in June 2014, has been shown to have a competitive performance in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex in respiratory specimens. The present study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of the Abbott MTB Realtime assay in the detection of MTB in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. METHODS: A total of 96 FFPE specimens obtained from microbiologically proven MTB cases (N=60) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium cases (N=36) were analyzed...
July 2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
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