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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332319/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-its-clinical-efficacy
#1
REVIEW
Hyung Woo Kim, Ju Sang Kim
The role of the treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been underscored in the intermediate tuberculosis (TB) burden countries like South Korea. LTBI treatment is recommended only for patients at risk for progression to active TB-those with frequent exposure to active TB cases, and those with clinical risk factors (e.g., immunocompromised patients). Recently revised National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommended that close contacts of individuals with active pulmonary or laryngeal TB, aged between 18 and 65 years, should undergo LTBI treatment...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326327/national-roll-out-of-latent-tuberculosis-testing-and-treatment-for-new-migrants-in-england-a-retrospective-evaluation-in-a-high-incidence-area
#2
Miranda G Loutet, Matthew Burman, Nivenka Jayasekera, Duncan Trathen, Susan Dart, Heinke Kunst, Dominik Zenner
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening is an important intervention for tuberculosis (TB) elimination in low-incidence countries and is, therefore, a key component of England's TB control strategy. This study describes outcomes from a LTBI screening programme in a high-incidence area to inform national LTBI screening in England and other low-incidence countries.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of LTBI screening among eligible migrants (from high-incidence countries and entered the UK within the last 5 years), who were identified at primary-care clinics in Newham, London between August 2014 and August 2015...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325881/rv2204c-rv0753c-and-rv0009-antigens-specific-t-cell-responses-in-latent-and-active-tb-a-flow-cytometry-based-analysis
#3
Balaji Pathakumari, Santhi Devasundaram, Prabhavathi Maddineni, Alamelu Raja
High global prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) is a key challenge in distinguishing patients with active pulmonary TB (PTB) from those with LTBI. The functional profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cytokines produced as a response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens vary during the course of tuberculosis (TB) infection. We evaluated antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell cytokine response after overnight in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood with mycobacterial antigens ESAT-6, CFP-10, Rv2204c, Rv0753c and Rv0009 by flow cytometry...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320502/impaired-ifn-%C3%AE-mediated-signal-in-dendritic-cells-differentiates-active-from-latent-tuberculosis
#4
Stefania Parlato, Teresa Chiacchio, Debora Salerno, Linda Petrone, Luciano Castiello, Giulia Romagnoli, Irene Canini, Delia Goletti, Lucia Gabriele
Individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may be infected and remain for the entire life in this condition defined as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or develop active tuberculosis (TB). Among the multiple factors governing the outcome of the infection, dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in dictating antibacterial immunity. However, current knowledge on the role of the diverse components of human DCs in shaping specific T-cell response during Mtb infection is limited. In this study, we performed a comparative evaluation of peripheral blood circulating DC subsets as well as of monocyte-derived Interferon-α DCs (IFN-DCs) from patients with active TB, subjects with LTBI and healthy donors (HD)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313483/low-prevalence-of-tuberculin-skin-test-boosting-among-community-residents-in-uganda
#5
Juliet N Sekandi, Sarah Zalwango, Allan K Nkwata, Leonardo Martinez, Robert Kakaire, Jane N Mutanga, Christopher C Whalen, Noah Kiwanuka
Boosted tuberculin skin test (TST) reactions can be misclassified as new latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the prevalence of TST boosting in a population-based sample in high TB burden settings. We determined the prevalence of TST boosting among urban residents in Uganda. We evaluated 99 participants with initial TST < 5 mm and repeated a skin test after 2 weeks. We found that only 2% had boosted TST reactions suggesting that most TST conversions could represent new TB infections in this high-burden setting...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311240/potential-immunological-biomarkers-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-endemic-setting-ethiopia
#6
Takele Teklu, Kwon Keehwan, Biniam Wondale, Milkessa HaileMariam, Mengistu Legesse, Girmay Medhin, Aboma Zewude, Rembert Pieper, Gobena Ameni
Accurate diagnosis and early treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) are vital to prevent and control TB. The lack of specific biomarkers hinders these efforts. This study's purpose was to screen immunological markers that discriminate M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection outcomes in an endemic setting of Ethiopia. Whole blood from 90 participants was stimulated using the ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigen cocktail. The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-based QuantiFERON diagnostic test was used to distinguish between LTBI and uninfected control cases...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310595/potential-of-dosr-and-rpf-antigens-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-to-discriminate-between-latent-and-active-tuberculosis-in-a-tuberculosis-endemic-population-of-medellin-colombia
#7
Leonar Arroyo, Diana Marín, Kees L M C Franken, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Luis F Barrera
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly infectious diseases. One-third to one-fourth of the human population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) without showing clinical symptoms, a condition called latent TB infection (LTBI). Diagnosis of Mtb infection is based on the immune response to a mixture of mycobacterial antigens (PPD) or to Mtb specific ESAT-6/CFP10 antigens (IGRA), highly expressed during the initial phase of infection. However, the immune response to PPD and IGRA antigens has a low power to discriminate between LTBI and PTB...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303284/-current-approach-to-diagnostics-treatment-and-prevention-of-tuberculosis
#8
Martina Vašáková
Tuberculosis is world-wide spread infectious disease with persistant high incidence, mainly in the densely populated countries with low income. Czech Republic belongs to the countries with highly efficient control of tuberculosis and continuously decreasing incidence of the disease. High-risk population for tuberculosis in the Czech Republic are the homeless people, who together with migrants from the countries with high incidence of tuberculosis represent reservoir of infection for our population. Treatment of tuberculosis is long-term, combined and controlled...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297421/tuberculosis-and-diabetes-in-low-and-moderate-tuberculosis-incidence-countries
#9
P-H Lee, H Fu, M-R Lee, M Magee, H-H Lin
In countries with low and moderate incidence of tuberculosis (TB), the disease tends to concentrate in specific high-risk populations such as people with diabetes mellitus (DM). We review the updated evidence on the association between 1) DM and active TB, and 2) DM and latent tuberculous infection (LTBI), and 3) we summarize the findings on the population-level impact of DM on TB epidemiology, with particular focus on low- and moderate-incidence settings. We conducted an updated review of studies on DM and active TB, and found 11 more cohort studies published after the previous systematic review from 2008...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295754/diagnosis-and-therapeutic-approach-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#10
José Domínguez, Irene Latorre, Miguel Santin
Detection and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an essential measure for tuberculosis (TB) control in low-incidence countries. However, such strategy is limited by the low predictive ability of the diagnostic tests for the development of active TB among infected people and the long-term and toxic treatment regimens. The in vitro interferon-gamma release assays are more specific and sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST), and enable a better selection of cases requiring treatment. Nonetheless, their capacity to predict development of TB is still poor...
December 30, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281987/orfeome-based-identification-of-biomarkers-for-serodiagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-latent-infection
#11
Fangbin Zhou, Xindong Xu, Sijia Wu, Xiaobing Cui, Weiqing Pan
BACKGROUND: The challenges posed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection require the gradual removal of the pool of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The current cell-immune-based diagnostic tests used to identify LTBI individuals have several irreversible drawbacks. In the present study, we attempted to identify novel diagnostic antigens for LTBI. METHODS: A high-throughput glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion technology was used to express over 409 TB proteins and sera from LTBI and healthy individuals was used to interrogate these GST-TB fusion proteins...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277097/systemic-review-agreement-between-the-latent-tuberculosis-screening-tests-among-patients-with-rheumatic-diseases
#12
Junhee Pyo, Soo-Kyung Cho, Dam Kim, Yoon-Kyoung Sung
Background/Aims: To estimate the level of agreement and positivity rates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) tests prior to the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in relation to underlying rheumatic diseases and endemic tuberculosis levels. Methods: The Ovid-Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Libraries were searched for articles before October 2013 involving LTBI screening in rheumatic patients, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and psoriatic arthritis...
December 28, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250493/determination-of-lipoprotein-z-specific-iga-in-tuberculosis-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#13
Jia-Ni Xiao, Yanqing Xiong, Yingying Chen, Yang-Jiong Xiao, Ping Ji, Yong Li, Shu-Jun Wang, Guo-Ping Zhao, Qi-Jian Cheng, Shui-Hua Lu, Ying Wang
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most severe infectious diseases. It is still of paramount importance to establish more accurate, rapid, and efficient diagnostic methods. Since infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is largely mediated through the respiratory tract, IgA responses against mycobacterial proteins are worthy of investigation for their potential clinical utility. In this study, the IgA response targeting lipoprotein Z (LppZ) was determined by using a homemade ELISA with plasma of TB patients (N = 125), LTBI individuals (N = 92), healthy controls (HCs) (N = 165), as well as TB patients undergoing anti-TB treatment (N = 9)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249639/t-cells-primed-by-live-mycobacteria-versus-a-tuberculosis-subunit-vaccine-exhibit-distinct-functional-properties
#14
Thomas Lindenstrøm, Albanus Moguche, Mie Damborg, Else Marie Agger, Kevin Urdahl, Peter Andersen
Despite inducing strong T cell responses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection fails to elicit protective immune memory. As such latently infected or successfully treated Tuberculosis (TB) patients are not protected against recurrent disease. Here, using a mouse model of aerosol Mtb infection, we show that memory immunity to H56/CAF01 subunit vaccination conferred sustained protection in contrast to the transient natural immunity conferred by Mtb infection. Loss of protection to re-infection in natural Mtb memory was temporally linked to an accelerated differentiation of ESAT-6- and to a lesser extent, Ag85B-specific CD4 T cells in both the lung parenchyma and vasculature...
December 7, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238270/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#15
REVIEW
Patrick Tang, James Johnston
The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an essential component of tuberculosis (TB) elimination in regions that have a low incidence of TB. However, the decision to treat individuals with LTBI must consider the limitations of current diagnostic tests for LTBI, the risk of developing active TB disease, the potential adverse effects from chemoprophylactic therapy, and the importance of treatment adherence. When an individual has been diagnosed with LTBI and active TB has been ruled out, this is followed by an evaluation of the risks and benefits of LTBI treatment within the context of the regional epidemiology of TB and public health priorities...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230217/type-i-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-of-tuberculosis-molecular-drivers-and-immunological-consequences
#16
REVIEW
Meg L Donovan, Thomas E Schultz, Taylor J Duke, Antje Blumenthal
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health threat. Urgent needs in the fight against TB include improved and innovative treatment options for drug-sensitive and -resistant TB as well as reliable biological indicators that discriminate active from latent disease and enable monitoring of treatment success or failure. Prominent interferon (IFN) inducible gene signatures in TB patients and animal models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection have drawn significant attention to the roles of type I IFNs in the host response to mycobacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225091/gene-expression-profiling-of-the-trim-protein-family-reveals-potential-biomarkers-for-indicating-tuberculosis-status
#17
Yanqing Chen, Shuhui Cao, Yong Sun, Chuanyou Li
Tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins play important regulatory roles in innate immune responses, the dysregulation of which cause several infectious diseases. However, the role and function of TRIM family proteins during tuberculosis (TB) infection remains unclear. In this study, we employed real-time quantitative PCR to profile the transcript levels of 72 TRIM genes from a cohort of 5 active TB patients, 5 latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) subjects, and 5 healthy controls (HCs) in an initial discovery phase...
December 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223319/tuberculosis-in-immunosuppressed-patients
#18
Isabel Machuca, Elisa Vidal, Julián de la Torre-Cisneros, Antonio Rivero-Román
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most significant infections in immunosuppressed patients due to its high frequency and high morbidity and mortality. TB is the leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis and early treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is vital to preventing it progression to disease. Similarly, the early diagnosis of TB is key to improving the prognosis of patients and preventing its transmission. The clinical expression of TB in immunosuppressed patients is conditioned by the patient's degree of immunosuppression...
December 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219058/macrophage-targeted-cellular-carriers-for-effective-delivery-of-anti-tubercular-drugs
#19
S Beg, Jaya Agnihotri, Shibhna Singh, Mohammad Wais
Newly developed vaccine VPM1002 confers paradigm swing in the prophylactic treatment of tuberculosis (TB).Multi drug resistant and latent TB in adults as well as in underprivileged patients is instigating menace over world population if the host is immune-compromised. One third of the world's population is infected with TB. Recently it is estimated around 9.6 million people around the world became sick with TB disease. There were 1.5 million TB-related deaths worldwide. Therefore with the advent in biotechnology and Nano engineering, newly adapted survival molecular mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, new targets receptors on alveolar macrophages must be explored out for eradication of TB from the globe...
December 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218257/pulmonary-tuberculosis-versus-recurrent-chemotherapy-induced-pneumonitis-a-clinical-dilemma
#20
Gulrayz Ahmed, Muhammad W Saif
Chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity can affect pulmonary parenchyma, pleura, airways, pulmonary vascular system, mediastinum or the neuromuscular system that is responsible for respiration. Chemotherapy-induced pulmonary toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. When the patients with malignancies develop pulmonary toxicity such as pneumonitis and distinguishing it from alternative diseases such as infectious, thrombotic, cardiac, malignant or exacerbation of chronic lung conditions can be difficult. Moreover, such patients are often immunosuppressed, physically stressed from the underlying disease and the cancer treatment and hence, more susceptible to usual and unusual or opportunistic infections...
October 4, 2017: Curēus
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