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Latent TB infection

L A Saag, M P LaValley, N S Hochberg, J P Cegielski, J A Pleskunas, B P Linas, C R Horsburgh
BACKGROUND: The well-documented association between underweight and increased incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) has not been extended to incidence or prevalence of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). DESIGN: After identifying studies that reported a categorical measure of body mass index (BMI) and used the tuberculin skin test (TST) or QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) to measure LTBI, a maximum likelihood random-effects model was used to examine the pooled association between LTBI and low BMI (<18...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Eugene Vortia, Victor E Uko, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Jill Frawley, Sarah E Worley, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Barbara Kaplan, Lori Mahajan
Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are linked with increased risk of reactivation of active tuberculosis. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test is approved for screening latent tuberculosis infection in children and adults. There are limited data on the test performance in children on long-term treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of indeterminate results for the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on long-term infliximab treatment and to evaluate the range of interferon-γ responses to mitogen...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Chandrika Bhattacharyya, Partha Pratim Majumder, Bhaswati Pandit
INTRODUCTION: Variability in clinical outcome of tuberculosis infection is dependent, among other factors, on variation in host immunological response to the infection, which is modulated, in part by genetic variations present in the host. We undertook a study to identify host factors associated with such clinical variability. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A comparative study between groups of active TB patients vs. clinically normal household contacts, family members living under the same roof with the patients for a long period of time, was carried out...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Samantha Leong, Yue Zhao, Noyal M Joseph, Natasha S Hochberg, Sonali Sarkar, Jane Pleskunas, David Hom, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, C Robert Horsburgh, Gautam Roy, Jerrold J Ellner, W Evan Johnson, Padmini Salgame
Several studies have identified blood transcriptomic signatures that can distinguish active from latent Tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this study was to assess how well these existing gene profiles classify TB disease in a South Indian population. RNA sequencing was performed on whole blood PAXgene samples collected from 28 TB patients and 16 latently TB infected (LTBI) subjects enrolled as part of an ongoing household contact study. Differential gene expression and clustering analyses were performed and compared with explicit predictive testing of TB and LTBI individuals based on established gene signatures...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Rajeshwar Dayal, Dipti Agarwal, Rakesh Bhatia, C Bipin, Neeraj Kumar Yadav, Santosh Kumar, Shamrendra Narayan, Ankur Goyal
OBJECTIVES: To find out the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and TB disease among pediatric household contacts of adult drug resistant (MDR) and drug susceptible (DS) TB patients and to identify the risk factors for occurrence of TB infection in the contacts. METHODS: Pediatric household contacts (less than 15 y age) of adult TB patients (both MDR and DS) were included in the study. They were categorized as latent TB infection (LTBI), TB disease and TB exposed based on the results of tuberculin skin testing (TST), clinical examination and chest X-ray...
March 20, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Jale Moradi, Maryam Izad, Mina Tabrizi, Nader Mosavari, Behnaz Esmaeili, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
One third of the world population are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are at the risk of reactivation of tuberculosis (TB). The most effective strategy for control of TB worldwide is the development of a vaccine that inhibits progression of latent TB to active infection. In this study, two optimized constructs consisting of multi-epitopes DNA derived from three latency antigens Rv2029c, Rv2031c, and Rv2627c fused with or without light chain 3 (LC3) are synthetized. The immunogenicity effectiveness of two DNA constructs was evaluated in the mouse model...
March 19, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Misaki Wayengera, David P Kateete, Benon Asiimwe, Moses L Joloba
BACKGROUND: Precise designation of high risk forms of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-M.tb infections (LTBI) is impossible. Delineation of high-risk LTBI can, however, allow for chemoprophylaxis and curtail majority cases of active tuberculosis (ATB). There is epidemiological evidence to support the view that LTBI in context of HIV-1 co-infection is high-risk for progression to ATB relative to LTBI among HIV-ve persons. We recently showed that assays of M.tb thymidylate kinase (TMKmt) antigen and host specific IgG can differentiate ATB from LTBI and or no TB (NTB, or healthy controls)...
March 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Noemia Teixeira de Siqueira-Filha, Maria de Fatima Militao de Albuquerque, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Rosa Legood, Andreia Costa Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to measure the costs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) as well as active tuberculosis (TB/HIV), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI/HIV) or without TB (HIV/AIDS). METHODS: We analysed the costs through the entire pathway of care during the prediagnosis and treatment periods from the Brazilian public health system perspective. We applied a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches to capture and estimate direct medical and non-medical costs...
March 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Marco Pio La Manna, Valentina Orlando, Paolo Li Donni, Guido Sireci, Paola Di Carlo, Antonio Cascio, Francesco Dieli, Nadia Caccamo
We used the Luminex Bead Array Multiplex Immunoassay to measure cytokines, chemokines and growth factors responses to the same antigens used for RD1-based Interferon γ Release Assay (IGRA) test. Seventy-nine individuals, 27 active TB, 32 latent infection subsets, 20 individuals derivative purified protein (PPD) negative (subjects that do not have any indurative cutaneous reaction after 72 hrs of intradermal injection of PPD) and with other pulmonary disease were retrospectively studied. Forty-eight analytes were evaluated by Luminex Assay in plasma obtained from whole blood stimulated cells...
2018: PloS One
N T de Siqueira Filha, M de Fatima Pessoa Militao de Albuquerque, R Legood, L Rodrigues, A C Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct and indirect costs of tuberculosis (TB) (active and latent TB [LTB]) and HIV co-infection from the patient perspective. STUDY DESIGN: Costing study conducted alongside a pragmatic clinical trial. METHODS: The study was conducted in Brazil in a referral service for HIV/AIDS. We applied a standardised questionnaire to collect data about out-of-pocket expenses and indirect cost...
March 10, 2018: Public Health
Yu Wang, Miao-Miao Zhang, Wei-Wei Huang, Shou-Quan Wu, Ming-Gui Wang, Xiao-Yan Tang, Andrew J Sandford, Jian-Qing He
Background: The toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis . There is evidence that TLR10, a TLR2 signaling modulator, may be involved in progression of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: Using a self-validating case-control design, we tested for an association between seven TLR10 polymorphisms and susceptibility to TB in three independent series with two distinct populations. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes were determined by the SNPscanTM method...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Maddalena Cordioli, Fulvia Mazzaferri, Giada Fasani, Paola Del Bravo, Emanuele Lattuada, Sandro Vento, Ercole Concia, Massimiliano Lanzafame
Not available.
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Leonardo Silva de Araujo, Nidai de Bárbara Moreira da Silva, Janaina Aparecida Medeiros Leung, Fernanda Carvalho Queiroz Mello, Maria Helena Féres Saad
Despite the reported high heterogeneity of the human immune response to tuberculosis (TB), new studies may contribute to the understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunopathogenesis. To investigate the patterns of humoral response during latent (LTBI) and active TB, we evaluated specific IgG subclasses' response, by ELISA, to a set of mycobacterial antigens (Rv2029c, Rv2031c, Rv2034, Rv2628, Rv3353c ESAT6:CFP10, and the new chimeric PstS1(285-374) :CFP10) in plasma samples from exposed uninfected controls (ExC, n = 24), LTBI (n = 61), and TB (n = 15) donors...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
E D Pieterman, F G Liqui Lung, A Verbon, H I Bax, C W Ang, J Berkhout, G Blaauw, A Brandenburg, N D van Burgel, A Claessen, K van Dijk, M Heron, M Hooghiemstra, R Leussenkamp-Hummelink, E van Lochem, I H M van Loo, B Mulder, A Ott, O Pontesilli, A Reuwer, P Rombouts, V Saegeman, M Scholing, S Vainio, J E M de Steenwinkel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this verification study was to compare the QuantiFERON® -TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) to the QuantiFERON® -TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT). The new QFT-Plus test contains an extra antigen tube which, according to the manufacturer additionally elicits a CD8+ T-cell response above the CD4+ T-cell response. We assessed the value of this tube in detecting recent latent tuberculosis infections. METHODS: Between May 2015 and December 2016, 1031 subjects underwent QFT-Plus and QFT-GIT test...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Ilana C van Rensburg, Andre G Loxton
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) have been shown to be present during several disease states. The phenotype of the cells is not completely defined and the function of these cells differ between disease. The presence of FASL expressing (killer) B cells during latent and successfully treated TB disease have been shown but whether these cells are similar to regulatory B cells remain unclear. We assessed the receptor expression of FASL/IL5 (killer B cells), CD24/CD38 (regulatory B cells) on whole peripheral blood of participants with untreated active TB and healthy controls...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Mathieu Garand, Martin Goodier, Olumuyiwa Owolabi, Simon Donkor, Beate Kampmann, Jayne S Sutherland
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a global health concern, especially in resource-poor countries such as The Gambia. Defining protective immunity to TB is challenging: its pathogenesis is complex and involves several cellular components of the immune system. Recent works in vaccine development suggest important roles of the innate immunity in natural protection to TB, including natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells mediate cellular cytotoxicity and cytokine signaling in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). NK cells can display specific memory-type markers to previous antigen exposure; thus, bridging innate and adaptive immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shahrad Hakimian, Yevgeniy Popov, Abbas H Rupawala, Karen Salomon-Escoto, Steven Hatch, Randall Pellish
Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a key cytokine in both the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the host defense against tuberculosis (TB). Consequently, anti-TNFα medications result in an increased risk of latent TB infection (LTBI) reactivation. Here, we sought to evaluate the factors affecting the results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay as a screening tool for LTBI. Methods: We conducted an observational, retrospective study in patients with IBD and RA who underwent LTBI screening using QFT-GIT at UMass Memorial Medical Center between 2008 and 2016 prior to initiation of anti-TNF medications...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
Anna Starshinova, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Irina Dovgaluk, Alexandr Panteleev, Vera Manina, Ulia Zinchenko, Evgenia Istomina, Maria Pavlova, Piotr Yablonskiy
Background: The WHO strategy for eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035 (The End TB Strategy) is aimed at an early and precise diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of TB patients. Currently, there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of latent TB infection. This study evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of a new intradermal test using recombinant TB allergen (Diaskintest) compared with tuberculin skin test (TST) and commercial TB interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Methods: A post-hoc data analysis that involved examining 860 HIV-negative, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated persons aged 1-65 years who visited the TB health-care institutions of Saint Petersburg to rule out or confirm an active TB was conducted from 2011 to 2016...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
J Mullins, M N Lobato, K Bemis, L Sosa
SETTING: In the United States, tuberculosis (TB) control is increasingly focusing on the identification of persons with latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). OBJECTIVE: To characterize the local epidemiology of LTBI in Connecticut, USA. METHODS: We used spatial analyses 1) to identify census tract-level clusters of reported LTBI and TB disease in Connecticut, 2) to compare persons and populations in clusters with those not in clusters, and 3) to compare persons with LTBI to those with TB disease...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
G Sulis, A C C Carvalho, S Capone, Y Hamada, P F Giorgetti, P da Silva Martins, H Getahun, A Matteelli
BACKGROUND: Although the management of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) is a core component of the End TB Strategy, there is limited information about the status of implementation of such interventions in most African countries. METHODS: A web-based survey involving the 47 countries of the African Region was conducted between November 2016 and April 2017. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 32/47 (68.1%) National TB Programme managers or their delegates...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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