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Latent TB infection

Madhukar Pai, Marcel Behr
The identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is useful for both fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and for clinical and public health interventions (i.e., to prevent progression to disease). Basic research suggests there is a pathogenetic continuum from exposure to infection to disease, and individuals may advance or reverse positions within the spectrum, depending on changes in the host immunity. Unfortunately, there is no diagnostic test that resolves the various stages within the spectrum of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Aliya Yamin, Ethan Bornstein, Rachel Hensel, Omar Mohamed, Russell R Kempker
Background.  Despite the low and decreasing prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, there remain certain high-risk groups with high incidence rates. The targeted screening and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) among these high-risk groups are needed to achieve TB elimination; however, by most accounts, LTBI treatment completion rates remain low. Methods.  We retrospectively studied all patients accepting treatment for LTBI at the Fulton County Health Department TB clinic over 2 years...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Pham Huu Thuong, Do Bang Tam, Shinsaku Sakurada, Nguyen Thi Le Hang, Minako Hijikata, Le Thi Hong, Phan Thi Minh Ngoc, Pham Thu Anh, Vu Cao Cuong, Ikumi Matsushita, Luu Thi Lien, Naoto Keicho
BACKGROUND: Granulysin (GNLY) is produced by human lymphocyte subpopulations and exhibits antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We examined the association between GNLY levels in blood and latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. METHODS: Latency of TB infection among Vietnamese healthcare workers was estimated using interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), and serum GNLY concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The levels of GNLY expression in whole blood and the presence of GNLY alleles with the exon-4 polymorphism rs11127 were also determined using PCR-based methods...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Roberta Petrucci, Giulia Lombardi, Ilaria Corsini, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Francesca Visciotti, Filippo Bernardi, Maria Paola Landini, Salvatore Cazzato, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic accuracy of Quantiferon-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) is uncertain in the pediatric population, while tuberculin skin test (TST) is still conventionally used despite its limitations. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of QFT-IT with TST in a large cohort of children screened for TB infection because of contact tracing, suspected TB, arrival from endemic country or immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 517 children 0-14 years of age evaluated at the pediatric unit of the S...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Paula Flanagan, Joan O'Donnell, Jolita Mereckiene, Darina O'Flanagan
The risk of communicable disease transmission during air travel is of public health concern and has received much attention over the years. We retrospectively reviewed information from nine flights (≥ 8 hours) associated with infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases in Ireland between September 2011 and November 2014 to investigate whether possible transmission had occurred. Twenty-four flights notified in Ireland associated with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases with a history of air travel were reviewed...
October 6, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Fatemeh Heidarnezhad, Amir Asnaashari, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Roghayeh Ghezelsofla, Kiarash Ghazvini, Narges Valizadeh, Reza Basiri, Aghigh Ziaeemehr, Somayeh Sobhani, Houshang Rafatpanah
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases with high mortality rates worldwide, especially in developing countries. Interleukin17 (IL-17) is an important acquired immunity cytokine, which is mainly produced by CD4(+)TH17 cells. It can recruit neutrophils and macrophages to the infected site in the lungs. IL-23 is one of the most important inducers of IL-17. In the present study, the expressions of IL-23 and IL-17 were examined in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Susmita K Singh, Anna-Maria Andersson, Rada Ellegård, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Marie Larsson, Olle Stendahl, Robert Blomgran
HIV coinfection is the most prominent risk factor for progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection into active tuberculosis (TB) disease. The mechanisms behind the increased transition from latent to active TB in coinfected individuals have not been well elucidated at the cellular level. We hypothesized that HIV infection contributes to Mtb pathogenesis by interfering with the dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immune control. Mtb-antigen processing and presentation are key events in the immune response against TB...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Pere-Joan Cardona
A major problem with tuberculosis (TB) control is the long duration of drug therapy-both for latent and for active TB. Therapeutic vaccination has been postulated to improve this situation, and to this end there are several candidates already in clinical phases of development. These candidates follow two main designs, namely bacilli-directed therapy based on inactivated -whole or -fragmented bacillus (Mycobacterium w and RUTI) or fusion proteins that integrate non-replicating bacilli -related antigens (H56 vaccine), and host-directed therapy to reduce the tissue destruction...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Wilson Kwong, Thomas Krahn, Ann Cleland, Janet Gordon, Wendy Wobeser
BACKGROUND: Current Canadian guidelines suggest that neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination does not result in false-positive tuberculosis (TB) skin tests, despite a growing body of evidence that interferon-γ release assays may be a more specific alternative in identifying latent tuberculosis infections in vaccinated populations. We set out to evaluate the relationship between TB skin tests and interferon-γ release assays in patients who previously received neonatal BCG vaccine...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Faiz Ahmad Khan, Greg J Fox, Robyn S Lee, Mylene Riva, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Proulx, Shelley Jung, Karen Hornby, Marcel A Behr, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Between November 2011 and November 2012, an Inuit village in Nunavik, Quebec experienced a surge in the occurrence of active TB; contact investigations showed that TB infection was highly prevalent (62.6%), particularly among those over age 14 years (78.8%). A nested case-control study showed that nutritional inadequacy was associated with acquisition of infection but not progression to disease. We performed a study to determine whether characteristics of one's dwelling were associated with 1) acquisition of newly diagnosed TB infection and 2) progression to confirmed or probable disease among those with TB infection...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Larry D Teeter, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Blanca I Restrepo, Eric L Brown, Susan E Dorman, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: The TSPOT.TB (TSPOT) diagnostic test for latent tuberculosis infection is based on a cell-mediated response to the Mycobacteria tuberculosis antigens, ESAT-6 and/or CFP-10, producing an "interferon-gamma footprint". We investigated the within-sample and within-subject variability of positive TSPOT assays due to the individual assay antigens' reactivity. METHODS: Positive TSPOT assay frequencies due to ESAT-6 or CFP-10 among health care workers (HCWs) at 6-month intervals for 18 months were compared...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Larry D Teeter, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Blanca I Restrepo, Eric L Brown, Susan E Dorman, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: The interferon gamma release assay, TSPOT.TB (TSPOT) can be read by several methodologies, including an Elispot reader or manually by technician. We compared the results from these two counting methods. METHODS: Automated and manual TSPOT results among 2481 United States health care workers were compared. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to determine the inter-rater agreement. Univariate and multiple logistic regression were used to investigate selected variable contributions...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
M L Munang, C Browne, J T Evans, E G Smith, P M Hawkey, S B Welch, H Kaur, M J Dedicoat
SETTING: Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2010-2014. OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictors for clustering of tuberculosis (TB) cases and cluster size and to evaluate the impact of cluster investigation using social network data. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. Prioritised cases linked using 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) were interviewed using a social network approach to find epidemiological links...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Elisa Petruccioli, Teresa Chiacchio, Ilaria Pepponi, Valentina Vanini, Rocco Urso, Gilda Cuzzi, Lucia Barcellini, Daniela Maria Cirillo, Fabrizio Palmieri, Giuseppe Ippolito, Delia Goletti
INTRODUCTION: QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) is the new generation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test to identify latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). QFT-Plus includes TB1 and TB2 tubes which contain selected Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) peptides designed to stimulate both CD4 and CD8 T-cells. Aim of this study is the flow cytometric characterization of the specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to Mtb antigens contained within QFT-Plus. METHODS: We enrolled 27 active tuberculosis (TB) patients and 30 LTBI individuals...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
Hanif Esmail, Friedrich Thienemann, Tolu Oni, Rene Goliath, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection impairs tuberculosis (TB) specific immune responses affecting the diagnosis of latent TB. We aimed to (1) determine the proportion of HIV-1-infected adults with a negative QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) and Tuberculin skin testing (TST) that convert to QFT-GIT positive following TST, and (2) evaluate the relationship between conversion and baseline QFT-GIT results. METHODS: HIV-1 infected adults being screened for a TB vaccine study in South Africa underwent QFT-GIT followed by TST...
October 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Pawan Kumar
The intricate relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and immune system remains poorly understood. It is generally believed that weakening of the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to reactivation of latent infection into the active pulmonary disease. However, heterogeneous nature of TB and failure of rationally designed vaccines in clinical trials raises serious questions against the simplistic view of TB as an outcome of weakened immunity. In the wake of accumulating human TB data, it is argued here that a hyperactive antimycobacterial immune response is to blame for the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB in immunocompetent adults...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Chandy Sara, Heylen Elsa, Mishra Baijayanti, Ekstrand Maria Lennartsdotter
OBJECTIVES: To examine demographics, clinical correlates, sputum AFB (acid fast bacilli) smear grading DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) uptake, and drug resistance in a cohort of newly-diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with respect to HIV status at baseline, and compare smear conversion rates, side effects and mortality after two months. DESIGN: A prospective study among 54 HIV positive and 41 HIV negative pulmonary TB patients...
September 2016: World Journal of AIDS
Alessandra Bua, Melania Ruggeri, Stefania Zanetti, Paola Molicotti
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by damage to myelin and axons, over time leading to progressive neuronal degeneration and microglial activation. There is still no curative treatment, but during the last 20 years eight different therapies have become available including interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, natalizumab, fingolimod, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone and teriflunomide. Teriflunomide is an immunomodulatory drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on T cell activation in central nervous system of the patients with multiple sclerosis...
October 4, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Chin-Chung Shu, Chia-Lin Hsu, Chih-Yuan Lee, Vin-Cent Wu, Feng-Jung Yang, Jann-Yuan Wang, Chong-Jen Yu, Li-Na Lee
The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is useful for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), however the rate of negative conversion is high, especially in dialysis patients. Few studies have focused on predicting persistently positive patients who are at high risk of tuberculosis reactivation. We screened dialysis patients, and used QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) to identify LTBI. Of the 157 participants who had initially positive QFT-GIT, 82 had persistently positivity and 75 had negative conversion...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
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