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Latent TB infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448542/diminished-plasma-levels-of-common-%C3%AE-chain-cytokines-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-reversal-following-treatment
#1
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vaithilingam V Banurekha, Dina Nair, Subash Babu
BACKGROUND: The immune response to tuberculosis (TB) is T cell dependent. T cells are the major facilitators of protection and effector functions with CD4+ T cells being the most important players, followed by CD8+ T cells. The common γ-chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 play a vital role in peripheral T cell growth and survival. However, the role of common γ-chain cytokines in pulmonary TB (PTB) is poorly understood. AIM AND METHODS: To examine the association of circulating common γ-chain cytokines with TB disease or infection, we examined the systemic levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442117/tuberculosis-toxoplasmosis-co-infection-in-egyptian-patients-a-reciprocal-impact
#2
Mervat Mashaly, Nairmen Nabih, Iman M Fawzy, Abeer A El Henawy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the concurrent toxoplasmosis infection in Egyptian TB patients and the impact of each infection on the other in terms of increased severity of TB or reactivation of latent Toxoplasma infection. METHODS: Three hundred suspected pulmonary TB cases were initially screened for TB using direct Ziehl Neelsen staining and Lowenstein Jensen culture of their sputa. Rifampicin resistance was detected by Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Control group of 30 age and sex-matched healthy individuals negative for TB was included for comparison...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438994/latently-and-uninfected-healthcare-workers-exposed-to-tb-make-protective-antibodies-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Hao Li, Xing-Xing Wang, Bin Wang, Lei Fu, Guan Liu, Yu Lu, Min Cao, Hairong Huang, Babak Javid
The role of Igs in natural protection against infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, is controversial. Although passive immunization with mAbs generated against mycobacterial antigens has shown protective efficacy in murine models of infection, studies in B cell-depleted animals only showed modest phenotypes. We do not know if humans make protective antibody responses. Here, we investigated whether healthcare workers in a Beijing TB hospital-who, although exposed to suprainfectious doses of pathogenic Mtb, remain healthy-make antibody responses that are effective in protecting against infection by Mtb...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438462/comparison-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assays-quantiferon-tb-git-and-t-spot-tb-in-renal-transplantation
#4
Satoru Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Igari, Naotake Akutsu, Mizue Tsuyuzaki, Hiromichi Aoyama, Masayuki Hasegawa, Kazunori Otsuki, Michihiro Maruyama, Kenichi Saigo, Kiminori Suzuki, Fumio Yamagishi
Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of reactivating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and progressing to active tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted in National hospital for tuberculosis and renal transplantation (RT) in Japan. The purpose is to compare two interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs), QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold in Tube (QFT) and T-SPOT(®).TB (TSPOT), in patients after renal transplantation for detecting latent TB infection (LTBI). Total 92 renal transplant recipients (median age 46 years, range 17-75) were prospectively enrolled, and QFT and TSPOT were concurrently examined...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430824/suppressors-of-cytokine-signaling-in-tuberculosis
#5
Shih-Wei Lee, Chi-Wei Liu, Jia-Ying Hu, Li-Mei Chiang, Chih-Pin Chuu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu, Yung-Hsi Kao
Tuberculosis (TB), a global disease mainly infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains leading public health problem worldwide. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCSs) play important roles in the protection against microbial infection. However, the relationship between members of the SOCS family and tuberculosis infection remains unclear. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of SOCS subfamilies among active TB, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and healthy individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429162/involvement-of-methylated-hbha-expressed-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-an-ifn-%C3%AE-release-assay-to-aid-discrimination-between-latent-infection-and-active-tuberculosis-in-bcg-vaccinated-populations
#6
H-L Wen, C-L Li, G Li, Y-H Lu, H-C Li, T Li, H-M Zhao, K Wu, D B Lowrie, J-X Lv, S-H Lu, X-Y Fan
IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) based on region of difference 1 (RD1) antigens have improved diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection. However, IGRAs with these antigens cannot discriminate between active tuberculosis (ATB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). M. tb heparin-binding-hemagglutinin (HBHA) induces relatively high IFN-γ responses in LTBI individuals and low responses in ATB patients, but purification of the native methylated HBHA from cultures of M. tb for immunological tests is complex and time-consuming...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424703/immune-responses-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-why-do-they-fail-to-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
REVIEW
Juan I Moliva, Joanne Turner, Jordi B Torrelles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the current leading cause of death due to a single infectious organism. Although curable, the broad emergence of multi-, extensive-, extreme-, and total-drug resistant strains of M.tb has hindered eradication efforts of this pathogen. Furthermore, computational models predict a quarter of the world's population is infected with M.tb in a latent state, effectively serving as the largest reservoir for any human pathogen with the ability to cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419376/latent-tb-infection-and-pulmonary-tb-disease-among-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-in-bandung-indonesia
#8
Raspati C Koesoemadinata, Susan M McAllister, Nanny N M Soetedjo, Dwi Febni Ratnaningsih, Rovina Ruslami, Sarah Kerry, Ayesha J Verrall, Lika Apriani, Reinout van Crevel, Bachti Alisjahbana, Philip C Hill
Background: Screening and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease could reduce diabetes mellitus (DM)-associated TB. We aimed to describe the prevalence of LTBI and pulmonary TB among patients with DM in a TB-endemic setting. Methods: Patients with DM attending a hospital and community centres in Bandung, Indonesia, underwent LTBI screening using interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). TB was investigated by sputum smear, culture and x-ray. TB contacts from a parallel study were age- and sex-matched to patients with DM to compare LTBI and TB disease prevalence...
April 13, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414762/transcriptional-networks-are-associated-with-resistance-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Chetan Seshadri, Nafiseh Sedaghat, Monica Campo, Glenna Peterson, Richard D Wells, Gregory S Olson, David R Sherman, Catherine M Stein, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Ali Shojaie, W Henry Boom, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: Understanding mechanisms of resistance to M. tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in humans could identify novel therapeutic strategies as it has for other infectious diseases, such as HIV. OBJECTIVES: To compare the early transcriptional response of M.tb-infected monocytes between Ugandan household contacts of tuberculosis patients who demonstrate clinical resistance to M.tb infection (cases) and matched controls with latent tuberculosis infection. METHODS: Cases (n = 10) and controls (n = 18) were selected from a long-term household contact study in which cases did not convert their tuberculin skin test (TST) or develop tuberculosis over two years of follow up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409555/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#10
REVIEW
Connie A Haley
There are approximately 56 million people who harbor Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may progress to active tuberculosis (TB) at some point in their lives. Modeling studies suggest that if only 8% of these individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) were treated annually, overall global incidence would be 14-fold lower by 2050 compared to incidence in 2013, even in the absence of additional TB control measures. This highlights the importance of identifying and treating latently infected individuals, and that this intervention must be scaled up to achieve the goals of the Global End TB Strategy...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407146/high-rates-of-latent-tb-infection-in-contacts-and-the-wider-community-in-south-india
#11
Padmanesan Narasimhan, Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Dilip Mathai, James Wood
Background: We aimed to compare TB transmission rates between case and community households in Vellore, South India. Methods: 359 household contacts (HHC) and 363 community contacts (CC) were assessed with tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT) between August 2010 and September 2011. Concordance test and multivariate risk factor assessment were conducted using logistic regression adjusted for clustering. Results: Latent TB infection (LTBI) positivity was similar between the two groups using both tests, with only moderate concordance observed between QFT and TST...
April 12, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406884/use-of-video-directly-observed-therapy-for-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-johnson-county-kansas-2015
#12
Elizabeth Lawlor Holzschuh, Stacie Province, Krystle Johnson, Caitlin Walls, Cathy Shemwell, Gary Martin, Amy Showalter, Jennifer Dunlay, Andrew Conyers, Phil Griffin, Nancy Tausz
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is spread from person to person through the air. TB can be spread in congregate settings, such as school environments, to varying degrees, based on factors including duration of contact and air ventilation (1); therefore, evaluating potential contacts and exposures can be challenging. In February 2015, a student at a Kansas high school received a diagnosis of active pulmonary TB disease. Screening of 385 (91%) school contacts, four (100%) household contacts, and 19 (90%) social contacts resulted in the identification of 50 persons with latent TB infection...
April 14, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404472/the-prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-rural-jiangsu-china
#13
Y Liu, S Huang, H Jiang, J Xiong, Y Wang, M Ou, J Cai, C Yang, Z Wang, S Ge, N Xia
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis and interventional treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are important components in tuberculosis control. But systematic studies regarding the epidemic of LTBI are still rare in China. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with LTBI based on the results of a domestic TB-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (TB-IGRA) in rural Jiangsu, China. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of subjects registered in eight villages in Jiangsu, China...
February 4, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403282/tuberculosis-among-prison-staff-in-rio-grande-do-sul
#14
Caroline Busatto, Luciana de Souza Nunes, Andréia Rosane de Moura Valim, Mariana Soares Valença, Suzane Frantz Krug, Daniela Becker, Manuela Filter Allgayer, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the risk of infection and illness caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis among health care and security staff in prisons in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). METHOD: cross-sectional study involving prison staff. An interview and sputum smear microscopy and culture were performed. Latent infection was evaluated according to the result of the tuberculin test (TT), self-referred. RESULTS: among staff who had a TT, 10 (83...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403225/association-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-season-of-the-year-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-household-contacts
#15
María Elvira Balcells, Patricia García, Camila Tiznado, Luis Villarroel, Natalia Scioscia, Camila Carvajal, Francesca Zegna-Ratá, Mariluz Hernández, Paulina Meza, Luis F González, Carlos Peña, Rodrigo Naves
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D (VD) enhances the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, and VD deficiency has been described in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). However, the role of hypovitaminosis D in the pathogenesis of early TB infection acquisition is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association of VD deficiency, season of the year, and latent TB infection in household contacts (HHC), given that this is a potentially modifiable condition often related to nutritional deficiencies and lack of sun exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399802/efficacy-and-completion-rates-of-rifapentine-and-isoniazid-3hp-compared-to-other-treatment-regimens-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-systematic-review-with-network-meta-analyses
#16
Christopher Pease, Brian Hutton, Fatemeh Yazdi, Dianna Wolfe, Candyce Hamel, Pauline Quach, Becky Skidmore, David Moher, Gonzalo G Alvarez
BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to examine the efficacy and completion rates of treatments for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). While a previous review found newer, short-duration regimens to be effective, several included studies did not confirm LTBI, and analyses did not account for variable follow-up or assess completion. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, PubMed, and additional sources to identify RCTs in patients with confirmed LTBI that involved a regimen of interest and reported on efficacy or completion...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398535/diagnostic-utility-of-new-equation-for-active-tuberculosis-based-on-parameters-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay
#17
You La Jeon, Min-Jeong Kim, Woo-In Lee, Myeong Hee Kim, So Young Kang
Background: We derived a new equation to include interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels in the QuantiFERON-Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay to discriminate active tuberculosis (ATB) infection from latent TB, and compared the diagnostic performance of the QFT-GIT assay and the new equation. Methods: From January 2013 through May 2015, we retrospectively enrolled 159 and 408 patients with and without ATB, respectively, in this study. Discriminant analysis was performed to derive an equation to distinguish the ATB group from the non-ATB group...
April 8, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392318/the-performance-of-the-tbag-pha-ratio-in-the-diagnosis-of-active-tb-disease-in-immunocompromised-patients
#18
Munyemana Jean Bosco, Hongyan Hou, Lie Mao, Xiaohui Wu, Kreeti Devi Ramroop, Yanfang Lu, Liyan Mao, Yu Zhou, Ziyong Sun, Feng Wang
OBJECTIVES: The results of the T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT) assay are reduced in immunocompromised patients with active tuberculosis (ATB), and it is difficult for using T-SPOT results to distinguish ATB from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in this condition. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of the TBAg/PHA ratio in T-SPOT assay in the diagnosis of ATB in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: One hundred and forty three immunocompromised ATB patients and 124 LTBI individuals were diagnosed according to conventional tests and T-SPOT assay...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392316/prevalence-of-latent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-ltbi-in-saudi-arabia-population-based-survey
#19
Hanan H Balkhy, Kamel El Beltagy, Aiman El-Saed, Badr Aljasir, Abdulhakeem Althaqafi, Adel F Alothman, Mohammad Alshalaan, Hamdan Al-Jahdali
BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) data in Saudi Arabia has never been updated since 1993. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) and ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia using Tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold in tube (QFT-GIT) test. METHODS: A population-based cross sectional study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013. Participants were randomly selected from the population served by the primary healthcare centers of the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs in Riyadh, Jeddah, Alhassa and Dammam, Saudi Arabia...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389598/an-evaluation-of-tuberculosis-contact-investigations-against-national-standards
#20
Sean M Cavany, Tom Sumner, Emilia Vynnycky, Clare Flach, Richard G White, H Lucy Thomas, Helen Maguire, Charlotte Anderson
BACKGROUND: Contact tracing is a key element in England's 2015 collaborative TB strategy, although proposed indicators of successful contact tracing remain undescribed. METHODS: We conducted descriptive and multivariable analyses of contact tracing of TB cases in London between 1 July 2012 and 31 December 2015 using cohort review data from London's TB Register, identifying characteristics associated with improved indicators and yield. RESULTS: Of the pulmonary TB cases notified, 60% (2716/4561) had sufficient information for inclusion...
April 7, 2017: Thorax
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