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subtype parkinson's disease

Tomoyuki Masuda, Junko Itoh, Takuya Koide, Yasushi Tomidokoro, Yosuke Takei, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka
A chronic inflammatory condition may underlie neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). For example, both PD and AD patients show an increase in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). TGF-β1 is a cytokine that inhibits inflammation. In the present study, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested the hypothesis that the level of TGF-β1 in the CSF of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD), or multiple system atrophy-cerebellar subtype (MSA-C) would be elevated compared with that of normal controls...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Scott A Norris, H A Jinnah, Alberto J Espay, Christine Klein, Norbert Brüggemann, Richard L Barbano, Irene Andonia C Malaty, Ramon L Rodriguez, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Stephen G Reich, Brian D Berman, Mark S LeDoux, Sarah Pirio Richardson, Pinky Agarwal, Zoltan Mari, William G Ondo, Ludy C Shih, Susan H Fox, Alfredo Berardelli, Claudia M Testa, Florence Ching-Fen Cheng, Daniel Truong, Fatta B Nahab, Tao Xie, Mark Hallett, Ami R Rosen, Laura J Wright, Joel S Perlmutter
BACKGROUND: Clinical characteristics of isolated idiopathic cervical dystonia such as onset site and spread to and from additional body regions have been addressed in single-site studies with limited data and incomplete or variable dissociation of focal and segmental subtypes. The objectives of this study were to characterize the clinical characteristics and demographics of isolated idiopathic cervical dystonia in the largest standardized multicenter cohort. METHODS: The Dystonia Coalition, through a consortium of 37 recruiting sites in North America, Europe, and Australia, recruited 1477 participants with focal (60...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Rainer von Coelln, Lisa M Shulman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies on clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity of Parkinson disease have renewed the old debate whether we should think of Parkinson disease as one disease with variations, or as a group of independent diseases that happen to present with similar phenotypes. Here, we provide an overview of where the debate is coming from, and how recent findings in clinical subtyping, genetics and clinico-pathological correlation have shaped this controversy over the last few years...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Liankai Chi, Beibei Fan, Kunshan Zhang, Yanhua Du, Zhongliang Liu, Yujiang Fang, Zhenyu Chen, Xudong Ren, Xiangjie Xu, Cizhong Jiang, Siguang Li, Lin Ma, Liang Gao, Ling Liu, Xiaoqing Zhang
Embryoid body (EB) formation and adherent culture (AD) paradigms are equivalently thought to be applicable for neural specification of human pluripotent stem cells. Here, we report that sonic hedgehog-induced ventral neuroprogenitors under EB conditions are fated to medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), while the AD cells mostly adopt a floor-plate (FP) fate. The EB-MGE later on differentiates into GABA and cholinergic neurons, while the AD-FP favors dopaminergic neuron specification. Distinct developmental, metabolic, and adhesion traits in AD and EB cells may potentially account for their differential patterning potency...
September 27, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
M A Thenganatt, J Jankovic
Psychogenic parkinsonism (PP), although often quite disabling, is one of the least commonly reported subtypes of psychogenic movement disorders. There are certain features that help distinguish PP from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, such as abrupt onset, early disability, bilateral shaking and slowness, nondecremental slowness when performing repetitive movements, voluntary resistance against passive movement without cogwheel rigidity, distractibility, "give-way" weakness, stuttering speech, bizarre gait, and a variety of behavioral symptoms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Gioele La Manno, Daniel Gyllborg, Simone Codeluppi, Kaneyasu Nishimura, Carmen Salto, Amit Zeisel, Lars E Borm, Simon R W Stott, Enrique M Toledo, J Carlos Villaescusa, Peter Lönnerberg, Jesper Ryge, Roger A Barker, Ernest Arenas, Sten Linnarsson
Understanding human embryonic ventral midbrain is of major interest for Parkinson's disease. However, the cell types, their gene expression dynamics, and their relationship to commonly used rodent models remain to be defined. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing to examine ventral midbrain development in human and mouse. We found 25 molecularly defined human cell types, including five subtypes of radial glia-like cells and four progenitors. In the mouse, two mature fetal dopaminergic neuron subtypes diversified into five adult classes during postnatal development...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Michael Zech, Sylvia Boesch, Angela Jochim, Sandrina Weber, Tobias Meindl, Barbara Schormair, Thomas Wieland, Christian Lunetta, Valeria Sansone, Michael Messner, Joerg Mueller, Andres Ceballos-Baumann, Tim M Strom, Roberto Colombo, Werner Poewe, Bernhard Haslinger, Juliane Winkelmann
BACKGROUND: Dystonia is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Despite being a first-line testing tool for heterogeneous inherited disorders, whole-exome sequencing has not yet been evaluated in dystonia diagnostics. We set up a pilot study to address the yield of whole-exome sequencing for early-onset generalized dystonia, a disease subtype enriched for monogenic causation. METHODS: Clinical whole-exome sequencing coupled with bioinformatics analysis and detailed phenotyping of mutation carriers was performed on 16 consecutive cases with genetically undefined early-onset generalized dystonia...
September 26, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Sonia Marcone, Jean-François Gagnon, Sarah Lecomte, Hélène Imbeault, Frédérique Limoges, Ronald B Postuma, Josie-Anne Bertrand, Sven Joubert, Isabelle Rouleau
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM) is a cognitive function defined as the ability to perform an intention at an appropriate moment in the future. In the aging population, PM is essential for maintaining independent daily living. Introduced as a simple and quick way to assess PM in clinical settings, the envelope task has to date received very limited empirical and practical interest. METHODS: The present study investigated the task's clinical utility in detecting PM impairment in a sample composed of 49 healthy older adults (OA), 41 patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 64 individuals with amnestic and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of heterogeneous etiology: 17 of idiopathic nature, 20 presenting an idiopathic rapid-eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, and 27 patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
September 26, 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Andreas Brunschweiger, Pierre Koch, Miriam Schlenk, Muhammad Rafehi, Hamid Radjainia, Petra Küppers, Sonja Hinz, Felipe Pineda, Michael Wiese, Jörg Hockemeyer, Jag Heer, Frédéric Denonne, Christa E Müller
Multitarget approaches, i.e., addressing two or more targets simultaneously with a therapeutic agent, are hypothesized to offer additive therapeutic benefit for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Validated targets for the treatment of Parkinson's disease are, among others, the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) and the enzyme monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Additional blockade of brain A1 ARs may also be beneficial. We recently described 8-benzyl-substituted tetrahydropyrazino[2,1-f]purinediones as a new lead structure for the development of such multi-target drugs...
November 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Blake J Lawrence, Natalie Gasson, Andrea M Loftus
The current study examined the prevalence and subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in an Australian sample of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Seventy participants with PD completed neuropsychological assessments of their cognitive performance, using MDS Task Force Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. A cut-off score of less than one standard deviation (SD) below normative data determined impaired performance on a neuropsychological test. Of 70 participants, 45 (64%) met Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jun Kyu Mun, Jinyoung Youn, Jin Whan Cho, Eung-Seok Oh, Ji Sun Kim, Suyeon Park, Wooyoung Jang, Jin Se Park, Seong-Beom Koh, Jae Hyeok Lee, Hee Kyung Park, Han-Joon Kim, Beom S Jeon, Hae-Won Shin, Sun-Ah Choi, Sang Jin Kim, Seong-Min Choi, Ji-Yun Park, Ji Young Kim, Sun Ju Chung, Chong Sik Lee, Tae-Beom Ahn, Won Chan Kim, Hyun Sook Kim, Sang Myung Cheon, Jae Woo Kim, Hee-Tae Kim, Jee-Young Lee, Ji Sun Kim, Eun-Joo Kim, Jong-Min Kim, Kwang Soo Lee, Joong-Seok Kim, Min-Jeong Kim, Jong Sam Baik, Ki-Jong Park, Hee Jin Kim, Mee Young Park, Ji Hoon Kang, Sook Kun Song, Yong Duk Kim, Ji Young Yun, Ho-Won Lee, In-Uk Song, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee, Jeong-Ho Park, Hyung Geun Oh, Kun Woo Park, Do-Young Kwon
Despite the clinical impact of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD), the characteristic NMS in relation to the motor subtypes of PD is not well elucidated. In this study, we enrolled drug-naïve PD patients and compared NMS between PD subtypes. We enrolled 136 drug-naïve, early PD patients and 50 normal controls. All the enrolled PD patients were divided into tremor dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) subtypes. The Non-Motor Symptom Scale and scales for each NMS were completed. We compared NMS and the relationship of NMS with quality of life between normal controls and PD patients, and between the PD subtypes...
2016: PloS One
Arnaud Delval, Mélanie Rambour, Céline Tard, Kathy Dujardin, David Devos, Séverine Bleuse, Luc Defebvre, Caroline Moreau
BACKGROUND: Parkinsonian patients have a tendency to speed up during repetitive motor tasks (festination) and to experience sudden motor blocks (freezing). In this article, we prospectively studied the appearance and progression of these phenomena in 30 early-stage PD patients. METHODS: A total of 30 controls and early-stage PD patients were assessed in the "off-drug" condition at baseline and 2 years later. Freezing of gait was evaluated using a standardized gait trajectory with the usual triggers...
September 13, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Albert J Fenoy, Monica A McHenry, Mya C Schiess
OBJECTIVE Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who undergo subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) often develop a deterioration in speech performance, but there is no clear consensus on the specific effects seen or the mechanism involved and little description of the impact of DBS on conversational speech. Furthermore, there has been no fiber tract connectivity analysis to identify the structures potentially modulated by DBS to cause such deficits. The main objective of this study was to quantify spontaneous speech performance and identify potential involvement of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRTt) in patients who underwent STN DBS, because this tract has been implicated in speech deterioration...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Daniel Ferreira, Vesna Jelic, Lena Cavallin, Anne-Rita Oeksengaard, Jon Snaedal, Peter Høgh, Birgitte Bo Andersen, Mala Naik, Knut Engedal, Eric Westman, Lars-Olof Wahlund
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dementia biomarkers that are accessible and easily applicable in nonspecialized clinical settings are urgently needed. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) is a good candidate, and the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) method has recently provided promising results. We tested the diagnostic value of qEEG-SPR in comparison to cognition, structural imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. METHODS: A total of 511 individuals were recruited from the multicenter NORD EEG study [141 healthy controls, 64 subjective cognitive decline, 124 mild cognitive impairment, 135 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 15 dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson's disease with dementia (DLB/PDD), 32 other dementias]...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Samira Ztaou, Nicolas Maurice, Jeremy Camon, Gaëlle Guiraudie-Capraz, Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff, Corinne Beurrier, Martine Liberge, Marianne Amalric
UNLABELLED: Over the last decade, striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) have reemerged as key actors in the pathophysiology of basal-ganglia-related movement disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we address the role of ChI activity in the expression of parkinsonian-like motor deficits in a unilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches. Dorsal striatal photoinhibition of ChIs in lesioned ChAT(cre/cre) mice expressing halorhodopsin in ChIs reduces akinesia, bradykinesia, and sensorimotor neglect...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vikas Kotagal
Parkinson disease is a chronic progressive syndrome with a broad array of clinical features. Different investigators have suggested the heterogeneous motor manifestations of early Parkinson disease can be conceptualized through a taxonomy of clinical subtypes including tremor-predominant and postural instability and gait difficulty-predominant subtypes. Although it is theoretically valuable to distinguish subtypes of Parkinson disease, the reality is that few patients fit these discrete categories well and many transition from exhibiting elements of one subtype to elements of another...
June 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Sung Hoon Kang, Hye Mi Lee, Woo-Keun Seo, Ji Hyun Kim, Seong-Beom Koh
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) are recognized as pre-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive dysfunction is observed at a high rate even in the early stages of PD as an important non-motor symptom. PD has been classified in different subtypes and it is unknown if olfactory dysfunction and RBD occur more often in one particular subtype. We investigated the relationship between olfactory impairment, RBD, initial cognitive performance and motor phenotype in PD...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Thomas Müller
Ongoing neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) causes an altered neurotransmission of various biogenic amines, particularly dopamine. As these changes do not follow a distinct pattern, they vary individually, and are differently pronounced. As a result, a heterogeneous onset of motor and nonmotor features occurs in each patient with PD during the whole course of the disease. PD actually describes a set of distinct diseases that manifest themselves in clinical syndromes with certain similarities but also great differences...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
V N Perfilova, I N Tyurenkov
The data on the structure, location and functions of the metabotropic glutamate receptor is shown. The family consists of 8 mGluRs subtypes and is divided into three groups: I group--mGluRs1/mGluRs5, II group--mGluRs2/mGluRs3, III group--mGluRs4/mGluRs6/mGluRs7/mGluRs8. They are associated with G-protein; signaling in the cells is carried out by IP3 or adenylate cyclase signaling pathways, in the result of which, mGluRs modify glial and neuronal excitability. Receptors are localized in the CNS and periphery in non-neuronal tissues: bone, heart, kidney, pancreas pod and platelets, the gastrointestinal tract, immune system...
April 2016: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
Xianbo Zhuang, Yanxiu Chen, Xianpeng Zhuang, Tuanzhi Chen, Tao Xing, Weifei Wang, Xiafeng Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypersensitive pain response is often observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the mechanisms responsible for hyperalgesia are not well understood. Chronic neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of PD pathophysiology. Since the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is an important component of the descending inhibitory pathway controlling on central pain transmission, we examined the role for pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) system of PAG in regulating exaggerated pain evoked by PD...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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