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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442666/role-of-pituitary-adenylyl-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-in-intracellular-calcium-dynamics-of-neurons-and-satellite-cells-in-rat-superior-cervical-ganglia
#1
Kanako Isobe, Takuya Yokoyama, Kasumi Moriguchi-Mori, Miho Kumagai, Yoh-Ichi Satoh, Akiyoshi Kuji, Tomoyuki Saino
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. The present study investigated whether stimulation of PACAP receptors (PACAPRs) induces responses in neurons and satellite cells of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), with special reference to intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) changes. The expression of PACAPRs in SCG was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type (VPAC)1R, and VPAC2R transcripts were expressed in SCG, with PAC1R showing the highest levels...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392470/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-and-its-receptor-1-pac1-in-the-human-infant-brain-and-changes-in-the-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#2
J Huang, K A Waters, R Machaalani
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its complementary receptor, PAC1, are crucial in central respiratory control. PACAP Knockout (KO) mice exhibit a SIDS-like phenotype, with an inability to overcome noxious insults, compression of baseline ventilation, and death in the early post-neonatal period. PAC1 KO demonstrate similar attributes to PACAP-null mice, but with the addition of increased pulmonary artery pressure, consequently leading to heart failure and death. This study establishes a detailed interpretation of the neuroanatomical distribution and localization of both PACAP and PAC1 in the human infant brainstem and hippocampus, to determine whether any changes in expression are evident in infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and any relationships to risk factors of SIDS including smoke exposure and sleep related parameters...
April 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356733/a-novel-selective-vpac2-agonist-peptide-conjugated-chitosan-modified-selenium-nanoparticles-with-enhanced-anti-type-2-diabetes-synergy-effects
#3
Shao-Jun Zhao, De-Hua Wang, Yan-Wei Li, Lei Han, Xing Xiao, Min Ma, David Chi-Cheong Wan, An Hong, Yi Ma
A novel neuroendocrine peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), was found to have an important role in carbohydrate or lipid metabolism and was susceptible to dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation. It can not only mediate glucose-dependent insulin secretion and lower blood glucose by activating VPAC2 receptor, but also raise blood glucose by promoting glucagon production by VPAC1 receptor activation. Therefore, its therapeutic application is restricted by the exceedingly short-acting half-life and the stimulatory function for glycogenolysis...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352341/expression-and-significance-of-timp-3-pacap-and-vip-in-vaginal-wall-tissues-of-patients-with-stress-urinary-incontinence
#4
Bo Fan, Xiaohua Jin, Yi Shi, Hailiang Zhu, Wenjun Zhou, Wenjian Tu, Li Ding
The objective of the present study was to investigate whether tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) participate in the occurrence of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by measuring the expression levels of TIMP-3, PACAP, and VIP in the vaginal wall and analyzing their correlation to understand the pathogenesis of female SUI. Forty female patients who were admitted to our hospital for tension-free obturator tape surgery for treatment of SUI from April, 2012 to December, 2015 were selected as the study group...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342135/pacap-protects-against-ethanol-and-nicotine-toxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells-implications-for-drinking-smoking-co-morbidity
#5
Sridharan Manavalan, Bruk Getachew, Kebreten F Manaye, Syed J Khundmiri, Antonei B Csoka, Raechel McKinley, Andrea Tamas, Dora Reglodi, Yousef Tizabi
The detrimental effects of heavy drinking and smoking are multiplied when the two are combined. Treatment modalities for each and especially for the combination are very limited. Although in low concentration, alcohol and nicotine, each may have beneficial effects including neuroprotection, their combination, instead of providing additive protection, may actually lead to toxicity in cell cultures. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino-acid peptide with demonstrated protection against neuronal injury, trauma as well as various endogenous and exogenous toxic agents...
March 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342098/expression-of-cell-cycle-regulators-and-biomarkers-of-proliferation-and-regrowth-in-human-pituitary-adenomas
#6
Mark Gruppetta, Robert Formosa, Sharon Falzon, Sabrina Ariff Scicluna, Edward Falzon, James Degeatano, Josanne Vassallo
PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas (PA) is complex. Ki-67, pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclin D1, c-MYC and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) protein expression were analysed and correlated with tumour and patient characteristics. METHODS: 74 pituitary tumour samples (48 non-functional PA, 26 functional PAs); Immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression, retrospective analysis of MR images and in vitro analysis of octreotide treatment was carried out on GH3 cells...
March 24, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337634/topical-dura-mater-application-of-cfa-induces-enhanced-expression-of-c-fos-and-glutamate-in-rat-trigeminal-nucleus-caudalis-attenuated-by-kyna-derivate-szr72
#7
M Lukács, K Warfvinge, J Tajti, F Fülöp, J Toldi, L Vécsei, L Edvinsson
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder where trigeminovascular activation plays a key role. We have previously reported that local application of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) onto the dura mater caused activation in rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) which was abolished by a systemic administration of kynurenic acid (KYNA) derivate (SZR72). Here, we hypothesize that this activation may extend to the trigeminal complex in the brainstem and is attenuated by treatment with SZR72...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335564/passage-through-the-ocular-barriers-and-beneficial-effects-in-retinal-ischemia-of-topical-application-of-pacap1-38-in-rodents
#8
Dora Werling, William A Banks, Therese S Salameh, Timea Kvarik, Laszlo Akos Kovacs, Alexandra Vaczy, Edina Szabo, Flora Mayer, Rita Varga, Andrea Tamas, Gabor Toth, Zsolt Biro, Tamas Atlasz, Dora Reglodi
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has two active forms, PACAP1-27 and PACAP1-38. Among the well-established actions are PACAP's neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, which have also been proven in models of different retinopathies. The route of delivery is usually intravitreal in studies proving PACAP's retinoprotective effects. Recently, we have shown that PACAP1-27 delivered as eye drops in benzalkonium-chloride was able to cross the ocular barriers and exert retinoprotection in ischemia...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323007/inhibition-of-microglial-activation-with-minocycline-at-the-intrathecal-level-attenuates-sympathoexcitatory-and-proarrhythmogenic-changes-in-rats-with-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Amol M Bhandare, Komal Kapoor, Kim L Powell, Emma Braine, Pablo Casillas-Espinosa, Terence J O'Brien, Melissa M J Farnham, Paul M Pilowsky
The incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is highest in people with chronic and drug-resistant epilepsy. Chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures cause cardiorespiratory autonomic dysfunctions. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is neuroprotective, whereas microglia produce both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in the CNS. During acute seizures in rats, PACAP and microglia produce sympathoprotective effect at the intermediolateral cell column (IML), whereas their action on the presympathetic rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neurons mediates proarrhythmogenic changes...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281109/neuropeptides-as-a-marker-for-chronic-headache
#10
REVIEW
Nuria Riesco, Eva Cernuda-Morollón, Julio Pascual
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to revise current evidence on trigemino-vascular system (TVS) neuropeptides as potential biomarkers for chronic primary headaches, mainly for chronic migraine (CM). RECENT FINDINGS: Within sensory neuropeptides, released by an activated trigeminal nerve, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels seem to be a good biomarker of acute migraine and somewhat sensitive and specific for CM. CGRP, however, is not increased in 20-30% of CM patients, which suggests that CGRP is not the only neuropeptide involved in migraine pain generation and maintenance...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245765/kynurenines-and-pacap-in-migraine-medicinal-chemistry-and-pathogenetic-aspects
#11
János Tajti, Délia Szok, Gábor Nagy-Grócz, Bernadett Tuka, Anna Petrovics-Balog, József Toldi, László Vécsei
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a highly disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder, with its exact pathomechanism being still unrevealed. The current leading hypotheses are based on the sensitization and activation of the trigeminovascular system. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature with focus on the effects of kynurenines (L-kynurenine and kynurenic acid) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on the regulation of the trigeminovascular system. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to identify preclinical and clinical publications (198 references) by using the keywords 'kynurenines', 'pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide', and 'migraine' in the database of MEDLINE/PubMed up to 10 September 2016for topical review...
February 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244081/neuropeptide-pacap-promotes-sweat-secretion
#12
C-Y Cui, D Schlessinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236009/effects-of-microcystis-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver-axis-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#13
Jiazhang Chen, Shunlong Meng, Hai Xu, Zhen Zhang, Xiangyang Wu
In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used to assess the endocrine disruption potential of Microcytis aeruginosa. Male Nile tilapia were exposed to lyophilized M. aeruginosa or purified microcystin-LR (8.3 μg/L) for 28 days. The levels of serum hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) and transcripts of selected genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were analyzed. The results showed that serum hormones were significantly up-regulated, and transcripts of 13 genes (GHRH, PACAP, GH, GHR1, GHR2, IGF1, IGF2, CYP19a, CYP19b, 3β-HSD1, 20β-HSD, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD8) were significantly altered after Microcytis exposure...
April 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225716/divergent-functions-of-the-left-and-right-central-amygdala-in-visceral-nociception
#14
Katelyn E Sadler, Neal A McQuaid, Abigail C Cox, Marissa N Behun, Allison M Trouten, Benedict J Kolber
The left and right central amygdalae (CeA) are limbic regions involved in somatic and visceral pain processing. These 2 nuclei are asymmetrically involved in somatic pain modulation; pain-like responses on both sides of the body are preferentially driven by the right CeA, and in a reciprocal fashion, nociceptive somatic stimuli on both sides of the body predominantly alter molecular and physiological activities in the right CeA. Unknown, however, is whether this lateralization also exists in visceral pain processing and furthermore what function the left CeA has in modulating nociceptive information...
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223965/central-control-of-feeding-behavior-by-the-secretin-pacap-and-glucagon-family-of-peptides
#15
REVIEW
Revathi Sekar, Lei Wang, Billy Kwok Chong Chow
Constituting a group of structurally related brain-gut peptides, secretin (SCT), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), and glucagon (GCG) family of peptide hormones exert their functions via interactions with the class B1 G protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, the roles of these peptides in neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior have been a specific area of research focus for development of potential therapeutic drug targets to combat obesity and metabolic disorders. As a result, some members in the family and their analogs have already been utilized as therapeutic agents in clinical application...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215987/accelerated-retinal-aging-in-pacap-knock-out-mice
#16
Andrea Kovács-Valasek, Krisztina Szabadfi, Viktória Dénes, Bálint Szalontai, Andrea Tamás, Péter Kiss, Aliz Szabó, Gyorgy Setalo, Dóra Reglődi, Robert Gábriel
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide. PACAP and its receptors are widely distributed in the retina. A number of reports provided evidence that PACAP is neuroprotective in retinal degenerations. The current study compared retina cell type-specific differences in young (3-4months) and aged adults (14-16months), of wild-type (WT) mice and knock-out (KO) mice lacking endogenous PACAP production during the course of aging. Histological, immunocytochemical and Western blot examinations were performed...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179812/stress-related-disorders-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-peptide-pacap-ergic-system-and-sex-differences
#17
Teniel S Ramikie, Kerry J Ressler
Trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are remarkably common and debilitating, and are often characterized by dysregulated threat responses. Across numerous epidemiological studies, females have been found to have an approximately twofold increased risk for PTSD and other stress-related disorders. Understanding the biological mechanisms of this differential risk is of critical importance. Recent data suggest that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) pathway is a critical regulator of the stress response across species...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168413/early-neurobehavioral-development-of-mice-lacking-endogenous-pacap
#18
Jozsef Farkas, Balazs Sandor, Andrea Tamas, Peter Kiss, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Andras D Nagy, Balazs D Fulop, Tamas Juhasz, Sridharan Manavalan, Dora Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide. In addition to its diverse physiological roles, PACAP has important functions in the embryonic development of various tissues, and it is also considered as a trophic factor during development and in the case of neuronal injuries. Data suggest that the development of the nervous system is severely affected by the lack of endogenous PACAP. Short-term neurofunctional outcome correlates with long-term functional deficits; however, the early neurobehavioral development of PACAP-deficient mice has not yet been evaluated...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130410/mechanisms-for-pacap-induced-prolactin-gene-expression-in-grass-carp-pituitary-cells
#19
Chengyuan Lin, Xue Jiang, Mulan He, Ling Zhao, Tao Huang, Zhaoxiang Bian, Anderson O L Wong
In mammals, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic hormone with diverse functions but its role in prolactin (PRL) regulation is highly controversial. To shed light on Prl regulation by PACAP in fish model, grass carp pituitary cells was used as a model to examine the receptor specificity and signal transduction for PACAP modulation of prl gene expression in the carp pituitary. Using RT-PCR, PACAP-selective PAC1 receptor was detected in carp lactotrophs. In carp pituitary cells, nanomolar doses of PACAP, but not VIP, could elevate Prl secretion and protein production with concurrent rise in prl mRNA and these stimulatory effects were blocked by PACAP antagonist but not VIP antagonist...
April 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125843/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-peptide-pacap-a-novel-secretagogue-regulates-secreted-morphogens-in-newborn-rat-retina
#20
Monika Lakk, Viktoria Denes, Karmen Kovacs, Orsolya Hideg, Bence F Szabo, Robert Gabriel
Purpose: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)1-38 has been reported to be responsible for regulation of a disparate array of developmental processes in the central nervous system, and its antiapoptotic effect has been revealed in numerous models, pointing to its relevance in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. However, its function in retinal development remains unclear. Here, we aimed to point out that versatility can be achieved through interaction with other regulators, in which PACAP can act indirectly on the retinal microenvironment...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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