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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900577/neuroleptic-drugs-and-pacap-differentially-affect-the-mrna-expression-of-genes-encoding-pac1-vpac-type-receptors
#1
Marta Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Edward Kowalczyk
Several lines of evidence suggest that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide playing an important role as a neuromodulator. It has been indicated that PACAP is associated with mental diseases, and that regulation of the PACAPergic signals could be a potential target for the treatment of such psychiatric states as schizophrenia. Recent studies have suggested that action of neuroleptic drugs is mediated not only by dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, but also via neuropeptides which may act both as neurotransmitters and as neuromodulators...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886414/chronic-ghrelin-treatment-reduced-photophobia-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-ntg-induced-migraine-role-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide
#2
Fereshteh Farajdokht, Shirin Babri, Pouran Karimi, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Ramin Bughchechi, Gisou Mohaddes
Chronic migraine is a debilitating disorder that has a significant impact on patients and society. Nearly all migraineurs frequently reported light sensitivity during a headache attack. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an important role in the activation of trigeminal system and migraine pain. To identify the effect of chronic ghrelin treatment on endogenous PACAP and associated symptoms of migraine, an experimental chronic migraine model was induced by intermittent intraperitoneal (i...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866657/distribution-and-chemical-coding-of-sensory-neurons-innervating-the-skin-of-the-porcine-hindlimb
#3
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew Adamiak, Mariusz Majewski
The aim of the present study was to establish the origin and chemical phenotyping of neurons involved in skin innervation of the porcine hind leg. The dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of the lumbar (L4-L6) and sacral (S1-S3) spinal nerves were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB). The morphometric analysis of FB-positive (FB+)neurons showed that in the L4, L5, S1 and S2 DRGs, the small-sized perikarya constituted the major population, whereas in the L6 and S3 DRGs the medium-sized cells made up the major population...
November 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826748/pacap-protects-the-adolescent-and-adult-mice-brain-from-ethanol-toxicity-and-modulates-distinct-sets-of-genes-regulating-similar-networks
#4
Hélène Lacaille, Dominique Duterte-Boucher, Hubert Vaudry, Yasmine Zerdoumi, Jean-Michel Flaman, Hitoshi Hashimoto, David Vaudry
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino acid neuropeptide which has been shown to exert various neuroprotective actions in vitro and in vivo; however, the ability of endogenous PACAP to prevent cell death in vivo remains to be elucidated. To explore the capacity of endogenous PACAP to prevent ethanol toxicity, adolescent and adult PACAP knockout (KO) mice were injected with ethanol in a binge drinking-like manner. Biochemical analyses revealed that ethanol administration induced an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and the activity of caspase-3 in PACAP KO mice in an age-independent manner...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816700/a-subnanomolar-concentration-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-pre-synaptically-modulates-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-rat-hippocampus-acting-through-acetylcholine
#5
Pecoraro Valeria, Sardone Lara Maria, Chisari Mariangela, Licata Flora, Li Volsi Guido, Perciavalle Vincenzo, Ciranna Lucia, Costa Lara
The neuropeptide PACAP modulates synaptic transmission in the hippocampus exerting multiple effects through different receptor subtypes: the underlying mechanisms have not yet been completely elucidated. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exerts a well-documented modulation of hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. Since PACAP was shown to stimulate ACh release in the hippocampus, we tested whether PACAP acting through ACh might indirectly modulate glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission at a pre- and/or at a post-synaptic level...
November 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816547/overexpression-of-na-ca-2-exchanger-1-display-enhanced-relaxation-in-the-gastric-fundus
#6
Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Satomi Hayashi, Yasu-Taka Azuma, Kazunori Mukai, Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Satomi Kita, Ai Morioka, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Takahiro Iwamoto, Tadayoshi Takeuchi
In gastric smooth muscles, the released Ca(2+) activates the contractile proteins and Ca(2+) taken up from the cytosol cause relaxation. The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is an antiporter membrane protein that controls Ca(2+) influx and efflux across the membrane. However, the possible relation of NCX in gastric fundus motility is largely unknown. Here, we investigated electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced relaxations in the circular muscles of the gastric fundus in smooth muscle-specific NCX1 transgenic mice (Tg)...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793777/acute-and-chronic-triptan-exposure-neither-alters-rodent-cerebral-blood-flow-nor-worsens-ischemic-brain-injury
#7
Mirko Muzzi, Daniela Buonvicino, Francesco De Cesaris, Alberto Chiarugi
Although it is still debated whether vasoconstriction underlies migraine resolution by triptans, they are not recommended in patients at cardiovascular risk. However, relationship between stroke incidence and triptan use is unclear, and it is unknown whether acute or chronic use of these drugs worsens ischemic brain injury. To address this issue, we investigated the effect of clinically-relevant doses of the potent cerebral artery vasoconstrictor eletriptan on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain infarct volumes, as well as on expression of genes involved in cerebrovascular regulation...
October 26, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745706/pka-novel-pkc-isoforms-and-erk-is-mediating-pacap-auto-regulation-via-pac1r-in-human-neuroblastoma-nb-1-cells
#8
Birgitte Georg, Birgitte Falktoft, Jan Fahrenkrug
The neuropeptide PACAP is expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system where it modulates diverse physiological functions including neuropeptide gene expression. We here report that in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cells PACAP transiently induces its own expression. Maximal PACAP mRNA expression was found after stimulation with PACAP for 3h. PACAP auto-regulation was found to be mediated by activation of PACAP specific PAC1Rs as PACAP had >100-fold higher efficacy than VIP, and the PAC1R selective agonist Maxadilan potently induced PACAP gene expression...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717098/neuropeptides-shaping-the-central-nervous-system-development-spatiotemporal-actions-of-vip-and-pacap-through-complementary-signaling-pathways
#9
Tando Maduna, Vincent Lelievre
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are neuropeptides with wide, complementary, and overlapping distributions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they exert important regulatory roles in many physiological processes. VIP and PACAP display a large range of biological cellular targets and functions in the adult nervous system including regulation of neurotransmission and neuroendocrine secretion and neuroprotective and neuroimmune responses...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681724/interactions-between-two-different-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-reproductive-hormone-producing-cells-the-role-of-pacap-and-its-receptor-pac1r
#10
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Aki Oride, Tomomi Hara, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins are indispensable hormones for maintaining female reproductive functions. In a similar manner to other endocrine hormones, GnRH and gonadotropins are controlled by their principle regulators. Although it has been previously established that GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-both gonadotropins-from pituitary gonadotrophs, it has recently become clear that hypothalamic GnRH is under the control of hypothalamic kisspeptin...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669145/a-visual-circuit-uses-complementary-mechanisms-to-support-transient-and-sustained-pupil-constriction
#11
William Thomas Keenan, Alan C Rupp, Rachel A Ross, Preethi Somasundaram, Suja Hiriyanna, Zhijian Wu, Tudor C Badea, Phyllis R Robinson, Bradford B Lowell, Samer S Hattar
Rapid and stable control of pupil size in response to light is critical for vision, but the neural coding mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the neural basis of pupil control by monitoring pupil size across time while manipulating each photoreceptor input or neurotransmitter output of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), a critical relay in the control of pupil size. We show that transient and sustained pupil responses are mediated by distinct photoreceptors and neurotransmitters...
September 26, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661459/pacap-and-vip-inhibit-hif-1%C3%AE-mediated-vegf-expression-in-a-model-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#12
Grazia Maugeri, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Salvatore Saccone, Concetta Federico, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exert a protective role against retinal injuries, including diabetic macular edema (DME). The macular damage is induced by hyperglycemia, which damages vessels supplying blood to the retina and induces hypoxia. The microenvironmental changes stimulate the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which promote the choroidal endothelial cell transmigration across the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) into neurosensory retina, where they proliferate into new vessels under stimulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661062/g-protein-coupled-receptor-endosomal-signaling-and-regulation-of-neuronal-excitability-and-stress-responses-signaling-options-and-lessons-from-the-pac1-receptor
#13
Victor May, Rodney L Parsons
Our understanding of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mechanisms and functions have evolved considerably. Among the many conceptual realignments, GPCRs can exist in an ensemble of active microstates that have the potential to differentially engage specific downstream signaling events. Furthermore, among GPCR dynamics, GPCR internalization and vesicular trafficking are no longer solely mechanisms for desensitization, but now appreciated to form intricate endosomal signaling complexes that can potentially target second messengers to intracellular compartments with high temporal and spatial resolution...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634731/no-change-in-interictal-pacap-levels-in-peripheral-blood-in-women-with-chronic-migraine
#14
Eva Cernuda-Morollón, Nuria Riesco, Pablo Martínez-Camblor, Esther Serrano-Pertierra, Carmen García-Cabo, Julio Pascual
OBJECTIVE: To determine total pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in peripheral blood as a potential marker of the activation of the parasympathetic arm of the trigemino-vascular system in chronic migraine (CM) in a case-control study. METHODS: Women older than 17 and diagnosed as CM were recruited. Healthy women with no headache history and women with episodic migraine (EM) served as control groups. Total PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels were determined in blood samples obtained from the right antecubital vein by ELISA outside a migraine attack and having taken no symptomatic medication the day before...
October 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616062/warm-sensitive-neurons-that-control-body-temperature
#15
Chan Lek Tan, Elizabeth K Cooke, David E Leib, Yen-Chu Lin, Gwendolyn E Daly, Christopher A Zimmerman, Zachary A Knight
Thermoregulation is one of the most vital functions of the brain, but how temperature information is converted into homeostatic responses remains unknown. Here, we use an unbiased approach for activity-dependent RNA sequencing to identify warm-sensitive neurons (WSNs) within the preoptic hypothalamus that orchestrate the homeostatic response to heat. We show that these WSNs are molecularly defined by co-expression of the neuropeptides BDNF and PACAP. Optical recordings in awake, behaving mice reveal that these neurons are selectively activated by environmental warmth...
September 22, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599571/biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-innate-immunity-in-atrophic-nonunion-fracture
#16
Dominique de Seny, Gaël Cobraiville, Pierre Leprince, Marianne Fillet, Charlotte Collin, Myrielle Mathieu, Jean-Philippe Hauzeur, Valérie Gangji, Michel G Malaise
BACKGROUND: Nonunion is a failure of healing following a bone fracture. Its physiopathology remains partially unclear and the discovery of new mediators could promote the understanding of bone healing. METHODS: Thirty-three atrophic nonunion (NU) patients that failed to demonstrate any radiographic improvement for 6 consecutive months were recruited for providing serum samples. Thirty-five healthy volunteers (HV) served as the control group. Proteomics studies were performed using SELDI-TOF-MS and 2D-DIGE approaches, associated or not with Proteominer® preprocessing, to highlight biomarkers specific to atrophic nonunion pathology...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597817/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-regulates-hunger-and-palatability-induced-binge-eating
#17
Matthew M Hurley, Brian Maunze, Megan E Block, Mogen M Frenkel, Michael J Reilly, Eugene Kim, Yao Chen, Yan Li, David A Baker, Qing-Song Liu, SuJean Choi
While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587062/expression-of-messenger-molecules-and-receptors-in-rat-and-human-sphenopalatine-ganglion-indicating-therapeutic-targets
#18
Anna Steinberg, Simona D Frederiksen, Frank W Blixt, Karin Warfvinge, Lars Edvinsson
BACKGROUND: Migraine and Cluster Headache (CH) are two primary headaches with severe disease burden. The disease expression and the mechanisms involved are poorly known. In some attacks of migraine and in most attacks of CH, there is a release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) originating from parasympathetic cranial ganglia such as the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). Patients suffering from these diseases are often deprived of effective drugs. The aim of the study was to examine the localization of the botulinum toxin receptor element synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV-2A) and the vesicular docking protein synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) in human and rat SPG...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581653/atf3-mutant-mice-show-reduced-axon-regeneration-and-impaired-regeneration-associated-gene-induction-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#19
Manuel Gey, Renate Wanner, Corinna Schilling, Maria T Pedro, Daniela Sinske, Bernd Knöll
Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce 'effector' RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration. We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased...
August 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566170/the-protective-role-of-pac1-receptor-agonist-maxadilan-in-bccao-induced-retinal-degeneration
#20
A Vaczy, D Reglodi, T Somoskeoy, K Kovacs, E Lokos, E Szabo, A Tamas, T Atlasz
A number of studies have proven that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is protective in neurodegenerative diseases. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) causes severe degeneration in the rat retina. In our previous studies, protective effects were observed with PACAP1-38, PACAP1-27, and VIP but not with their related peptides, glucagon, or secretin in BCCAO. All three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1, VPAC2) appear in the retina. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the retinoprotective effects are most probably mainly mediated by the PAC1 receptor...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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