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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718720/mixing-of-low-dose-cohesive-drug-and-overcoming-of-pre-blending-step-using-a-new-gentle-wing-high-shear-mixer-granulator
#1
Bader B Alsulays, Mohamed H Fayed, Ahmed Alalaiwe, Saad M Alshahrani, Abdullah S Alshetaili, Sultan M Alshehri, Fars K Alanazi
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of drug amount and mixing time on the homogeneity and content uniformity of a low-dose drug formulation during the dry mixing step using a new gentle-wing high shear mixer. Moreover, the study investigated the influence of drug incorporation mode on the content uniformity of tablets manufactured by different methods. Albuterol sulphate was selected as a model drug and was blended with the other excipients at two different levels, 1% w/w and 5% w/w at impeller speed of 300 rpm and chopper speed of 3000 rpm up to 30 minutes...
May 2, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706205/principles-of-ethical-practice
#2
EDITORIAL
Edward Chopper Snyder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673631/comparison-between-the-prechopping-method-with-a-reverse-chopper-and-the-routine-stop-and-chop-method-in-treating-cataract-with-grade-iv-hard-nucleus
#3
Y Zhao, K Yang, J Li, S Zhu
The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy between the prechopping method using a Reverse Chopper (iHPC) and the routine stop-and-chop (RSC) method in phacoemulsification of cataracts with grade IV hard nuclei (HNC (≥IV)). A total of 32 patients (32 eyes) scheduled for Phaco combined with intraocular lens (Phaco-IOL) for HNC (≥IV) from March 2015 to January 2016 were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups (the iHPC group, n=16 and the RSC group, n=16) so as to compare the effective intraoperative Phaco time, corneal edema 1-3 days after surgery, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and rate of loss of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) 1 month after surgery...
April 17, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657565/implementation-of-cross-correlation-for-energy-discrimination-on-the-time-of-flight-spectrometer-corelli
#4
Feng Ye, Yaohua Liu, Ross Whitfield, Ray Osborn, Stephan Rosenkranz
The CORELLI instrument at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a statistical chopper spectrometer designed and optimized to probe complex disorder in crystalline materials through diffuse scattering experiments. On CORELLI, the high efficiency of white-beam Laue diffraction combined with elastic discrimination have enabled an unprecedented data collection rate to obtain both the total and the elastic-only scattering over a large volume of reciprocal space from a single measurement. To achieve this, CORELLI is equipped with a statistical chopper to modulate the incoming neutron beam quasi-randomly, and then the cross-correlation method is applied to reconstruct the elastic component from the scattering data...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599389/dual-coding-of-frequency-modulation-in-the-ventral-cochlear-nucleus
#5
Nihaad Paraouty, Arkadiusz Stasiak, Christian Lorenzi, Leo Varnet, Ian M Winter
Frequency modulation (FM) is a common acoustic feature of natural sounds, known to play a role in robust sound-source recognition. Auditory neurons show precise stimulus-synchronized discharge patterns that may be used for the representation of low-rate FM. However, it remains unclear whether this representation is based on 1) synchronization to slow temporal-envelope (ENV) cues resulting from cochlear filtering, or 2) phase locking to faster temporal-fine-structure (TFS) cues. To investigate the plausibility of those encoding schemes, single-units of the ventral cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs of either sex were recorded in response to sine-FM tones centered at the unit's best frequency (BF)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492500/ultra-fast-dynamics-in-the-nonlinear-optical-response-of-silver-nanoprism-ordered-arrays
#6
Héctor Sánchez-Esquivel, Karen Y Raygoza-Sanchez, Raúl Rangel-Rojo, Boris Kalinic, Niccolò Michieli, Tiziana Cesca, Giovanni Mattei
In this work we present the study of the ultra-fast dynamics of the nonlinear optical response of a honeycomb array of silver triangular nanoprisms, performed using a femtosecond pulsed laser tuned with the dipolar surface plasmon resonance of the nanoarray. Nonlinear absorption and refraction, and their time-dependence, were explored using the z-scan and time-resolved excite-probe techniques. Nonlinear absorption is shown to change sign with the input irradiance and the behavior was explained on the basis of a three-level model...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469884/principal-frequency-component-analysis-based-on-modulate-chopper-technique-used-in-diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy-measurement
#7
Shaoxiu Song, Gang Li, Xingwei Hou, Shengzhao Zhang, Yue Yu, Ling Lin
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is significantly affected from the interference of the ambient light and dark current of the instrument. Optical choppers, together with lock-in/synchronous amplification, can overcome these interferences. However, in spectral measurement, the sampling rate of the spectrometer is different from the Δ-pulse sampling, which is not high enough because of the integration time. In addition, the energy distribution is not perfectly concentrated as expected in modulate chopper technology...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401268/voluntary-intake-and-digestibility-by-sheep-of-alfalfa-ensiled-at-different-moisture-concentrations-following-fertilization-with-dairy-slurry
#8
J K Clark, K P Coffey, W K Coblentz, B C Shanks, J D Caldwell, R E Muck, D Philipp, M A Borchardt, R T Rhein, W E Jokela, E A Backes, M G Bertram, W B Smith
Dairy slurry is used commonly as an animal-sourced fertilizer in agronomic production. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing of dairy slurry application relative to subsequent harvest affected intake and digestibility by sheep. Katahdin crossbred ewes (n = 18; 48 ± 5.3 kg) in mid-gestation were stratified by BW and allocated randomly in each of two periods to one of six treatments arranged in a two × three factorial arrangement...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360045/x-band-epr-setup-with-thz-light-excitation-of-novosibirsk-free-electron-laser-goals-means-useful-extras
#9
Sergey L Veber, Sergey V Tumanov, Elena Yu Fursova, Oleg A Shevchenko, Yaroslav V Getmanov, Mikhail A Scheglov, Vitaly V Kubarev, Daria A Shevchenko, Iaroslav I Gorbachev, Tatiana V Salikova, Gennady N Kulipanov, Victor I Ovcharenko, Matvey V Fedin
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) station at the Novosibirsk Free Electron Laser (NovoFEL) user facility is described. It is based on X-band (∼9 GHz) EPR spectrometer and operates in both Continuous Wave (CW) and Time-Resolved (TR) modes, each allowing detection of either direct or indirect influence of high-power NovoFEL light (THz and mid-IR) on the spin system under study. The optics components including two parabolic mirrors, shutters, optical chopper and multimodal waveguide allow the light of NovoFEL to be directly fed into the EPR resonator...
March 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306995/increasing-signal-to-noise-ratio-in-gas-chromatography-electroantennography-using-a-deans-switch-effluent-chopper
#10
Andrew J Myrick, Thomas C Baker
Gas-chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) is a technique used in the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as pheromones and plant host odors, which are physiologically relevant to insects. Although pheromones often elicit large EAD responses, other behaviorally relevant odors may elicit responses that are difficult to discern from noise. Lock-in amplification has long been used to reduce noise in a wide range of applications. Its utility when incorporated with GC-EAD was demonstrated previosuly by chopping (or pulsing) effluent-laden air that flowed over an insect antenna...
February 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286839/a-prechop-technique-using-a-reverse-chopper
#11
Yang Zhao, Jiaxin Li, Ke Yang, Siquan Zhu
PURPOSE: To describe a manual prechop technique for splitting the nucleus of the lens using a recently developed reverse chopper. METHODS: During the process, the reverse chopper and the Nagahara chopper are placed diagonally in the peripheral area of the nucleus of the lens after capsulorhexis. The reverse chopper and the Nagahara chopper then are pushed horizontally toward each other so they meet at the center of the lens to split the nucleus of lens into 2 parts...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208824/terminal-chop-new-technique-for-full-thickness-nuclear-segmentation-in-mature-hard-cataract
#12
Rajendra Prasad, Anurag Badhani, Geetika Badhani Dogra
We describe an efficient technique, "Terminal Chop," for full thickness nuclear segmentation in mature hard cataracts. Terminal chop utilizes the principle of secondary rock breakage system with stress concentration to break these hard nuclei. In this technique consonant to drag picks, a specially designed chopper "Terminator" is used to initiate a unique dispersive mechanical force to create a full thickness nuclear crack (crack formation) at the weakest soft and thin equator, which automatically traverses through the center and to the equator on the other side...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195394/note-a-ndir-instrument-for-multicomponent-gas-detection-using-the-galvanometer-modulation
#13
Huijie Wang, Jing Wang, Xiangyun Ma, Wenliang Chen, Da Chen, Qifeng Li
The non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) instruments are widely applied to multicomponent gas detection in many fields. In this paper, a NDIR instrument using the galvanometer modulation is proposed, which has a common optical path for multicomponent gas detection. Compared with the conventional NDIR instrument using the chopper modulation, the proposed instrument with a simpler configuration has better detection efficiency and stability. The proposed instrument has been successfully used to measure the main gas components of vehicle emissions...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176572/emergent-wave-phenomena-in-coupled-elastic-bars-from-extreme-attenuation-to-realization-of-elastodynamic-switches
#14
Qianli Chen, Ahmed Elbanna
Metamaterials with acoustic and elastic band gaps are of great interest to scientists and engineers. Here, we introduce a novel mechanism for emergence of multiple band gaps with extreme attenuation by coupling continuous one-dimensional elastic structures. We show that it is possible to develop extreme attenuation at several frequencies from coupling two homogenous bars of different elastodynamic properties even though each bar individually possesses no such gaps. Moreover, if each bar is a composite on its own, multiple resonant band gaps appear in the compound system which do not exist in either bar...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136366/use-of-an-efficient-measurement-uncertainty-approach-to-compare-room-temperature-and-cryogenic-sample-processing-in-the-analysis-of-chemical-contaminants-in-foods
#15
Lijun Han, Steven J Lehotay, Yelena Sapozhnikova
In this study, analytical results were compared when using different approaches to bulk food sample comminution, consisting of a vertical chopper (Blixer) at room temperature and dry ice cryogenic conditions, followed by further subsample processing (20 g) using liquid nitrogen cryogenic conditions (cryomill). Analysis of the 43 targeted spiked and incurred contaminants in a food mixture consisting of equal parts orange, apple, kale, salmon, and croaker involved quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) with automated mini-column solid-phase extraction (known as ITSP) cleanup, followed by low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS)...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107413/modelling-firing-regularity-in-the-ventral-cochlear-nucleus-mechanisms-and-effects-of-stimulus-level-and-synaptopathy
#16
Dan F M Goodman, Ian M Winter, Agnès C Léger, Alain de Cheveigné, Christian Lorenzi
The auditory system processes temporal information at multiple scales, and disruptions to this temporal processing may lead to deficits in auditory tasks such as detecting and discriminating sounds in a noisy environment. Here, a modelling approach is used to study the temporal regularity of firing by chopper cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus, in both the normal and impaired auditory system. Chopper cells, which have a strikingly regular firing response, divide into two classes, sustained and transient, based on the time course of this regularity...
September 20, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092522/design-and-operating-characteristic-of-a-vacuum-furnace-for-time-of-flight-inelastic-neutron-scattering-measurements
#17
J L Niedziela, R Mills, M J Loguillo, H D Skorpenske, D Armitage, H L Smith, J Y Y Lin, M S Lucas, M B Stone, D L Abernathy
We present the design and operating characteristics of a vacuum furnace used for inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a time-of-flight chopper spectrometer. The device is an actively water cooled radiant heating furnace capable of performing experiments up to 1873 K. Inelastic neutron scattering studies performed with this furnace include studies of phonon dynamics and metallic liquids. We describe the design, control, characterization, and limitations of the equipment. Further, we provide comparisons of the neutron performance of our device with commercially available options...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092492/note-demodulation-of-spectral-signal-modulated-by-optical-chopper-with-unstable-modulation-frequency
#18
Shengzhao Zhang, Gang Li, Jiexi Wang, Donggen Wang, Ying Han, Hui Cao, Ling Lin, Chunhong Diao
When an optical chopper is used to modulate the light source, the rotating speed of the wheel may vary with time and subsequently cause jitter of the modulation frequency. The amplitude calculated from the modulated signal would be distorted when the frequency fluctuations occur. To precisely calculate the amplitude of the modulated light flux, we proposed a method to estimate the range of the frequency fluctuation in the measurement of the spectrum and then extract the amplitude based on the sum of power of the signal in the selected frequency range...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047553/laser-characteristics-of-nd-3-doped-calcium-barium-niobate-ferroelectric-crystal-at-1-06-and-1-34-%C3%AE-m
#19
Jinglong Lan, Xiaoxu Huang, Xiaofeng Guan, Bin Xu, Huiying Xu, Zhiping Cai, Xiaodong Xu, Dongzhen Li, Jun Xu
We report on diode-pumped Nd3+ -doped calcium barium niobate ferroelectric crystal (Nd:CBN-28) lasers at 1.06 and 1.34 μm. The maximum output power of the 1.06 μm laser reaches 0.69 W in the continuous-wave regime, which is believed to be the highest output power with Nd:CBN-28 crystal to date. Using a chopper to modulate the pump, the highest output power further improves to 0.77 W. Passively Q-switched laser operation at 1.06 μm, using a Cr:YAG saturable absorber, is realized with a maximum average output power of 89 mW, a pulse width of 220 ns, and a pulse energy 10...
May 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041086/ultrabroadband-2d-electronic-spectroscopy-with-high-speed-shot-to-shot-detection
#20
Minjung Son, Sandra Mosquera-Vázquez, Gabriela S Schlau-Cohen
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is an incisive tool for disentangling excited state energies and dynamics in the condensed phase by directly mapping out the correlation between excitation and emission frequencies as a function of time. Despite its enhanced frequency resolution, the spectral window of detection is limited to the laser bandwidth, which has often hindered the visualization of full electronic energy relaxation pathways spread over the entire visible region. Here, we describe a high-sensitivity, ultrabroadband 2DES apparatus...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
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