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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444472/the-effect-of-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-sglt-2-inhibitors-on-cardiometabolic-profile-beyond-the-hypoglycaemic-action
#1
Eirini Lioudaki, Emmanouil S Androulakis, Martin Whyte, Konstantinos G Stylianou, Eugenios K Daphnis, Emmanouil S Ganotakis
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has growing prevalence worldwide and major clinical implications, chiefly cardiovascular (CV) and renal disease burden. Sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors are a new drug class in the management of T2DM with a mechanism of action independent of insulin. In addition to their hypoglycaemic effect, SGLT-2 inhibitors appear to have haemodynamic and nephroprotective effects. Studies have consistently showed a modest but significant blood pressure (BP) reduction. Metabolic benefits are also attributed to SGLT-2 inhibitors with a modest but consistent body weight decrease recorded along with improvements in lipid profile and uric acid levels...
April 25, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444441/the-activity-of-the-rectal-gland-of-the-north-pacific-spiny-dogfish-squalus-suckleyi-is-glucose-dependent-and-stimulated-by-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#2
Courtney A Deck, W Gary Anderson, J Michael Conlon, Patrick J Walsh
Elasmobranchs possess a specialised organ, the rectal gland, which is responsible for excreting sodium chloride via the posterior intestine. Previous work has indicated that the gland may be activated by a number of hormones, some of which are likely related to the salt or volume loads associated with feeding. Furthermore, evidence exists for the gland being glucose dependent which is atypical for an elasmobranch tissue. In this study, the presence of sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLTs) in the rectal gland and their regulation by feeding were investigated...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443597/a-different-slc2a1-gene-mutation-in-glut-1-deficiency-syndrome-c-734a-c
#3
Rüya Çolak, Senem Alkan Özdemir, Ezgi Yangın Ergon, Mehtap Kağnıcı, Şebnem Çalkavur
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures can be the first symptom of the inborn errors of metabolism. Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) is the result of impaired glucose transport into the brain. GLUT1DS patient presents with infantile seizures with resistant to traditional seizure medications, developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, spasticity and ataxia. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a rare case of Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome caused by a different pathogenic variant in a 10-day-old neonate who presented with intractable seizures and respiratory arrest...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443090/immunometabolic-regulations-mediated-by-coinhibitory-receptors-and-their-impact-on-t-cell-immune-responses
#4
REVIEW
Nikolaos Patsoukis, Jessica D Weaver, Laura Strauss, Christoph Herbel, Pankaj Seth, Vassiliki A Boussiotis
Host immunity provides wide spectrum protection that serves to eradicate pathogens and cancer cells, while maintaining self-tolerance and immunological homeostasis. Ligation of the T cell receptor (TCR) by antigen activates signaling pathways that coordinately induce aerobic glycolysis, mitochondrial activity, anabolic metabolism, and T effector cell differentiation. Activation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR triggers the switch to anabolic metabolism by inducing transcription factors such as Myc and HIF1, and the glucose transporter Glut1, which is pivotal for the increase of glucose uptake after T cell activation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443032/fatty-acid-binding-protein-11a-is-required-for-brain-vessel-integrity-in-zebrafish
#5
Jie Zhang, Jialing Qi, Shuilong Wu, Lijiao Peng, Yunwei Shi, Jinxian Yang, Zhenhua Yin, Yu Gao, Chengniu Wang, Jie Gong, Haijun Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Dong Liu
The monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs) lining the intima of all blood vessel wall forms a semipermeable barrier that regulates tissue-fluid homeostasis, transport of nutrients, and migration of blood cells across the barrier. A number of signaling pathways and molecules mediate endothelial permeability, which plays important roles in a variety of the physiological and pathological conditions. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are able to bind various hydrophobic molecules, such as long-chain fatty acids, prostaglandins and eicosanoids...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442777/serotonin-transporter-deficiency-drives-estrogen-dependent-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance
#6
Weibin Zha, Horace T B Ho, Tao Hu, Mary F Hebert, Joanne Wang
Depression and use of antidepressant medications are both associated with increased risk of obesity, potentially attributed to a reduced serotonin transporter (SERT) function. However, how SERT deficiency promotes obesity is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that SERT (-/-) mice display abnormal fat accumulation in both white and brown adipose tissues, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance while exhibiting suppressed aromatase (Cyp19a1) expression and reduced circulating 17β-estradiol levels. 17β-estradiol replacement in SERT (-/-) mice reversed the obesity and glucose intolerance, supporting a role for estrogen in SERT deficiency-associated obesity and glucose intolerance...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441735/effects-of-flavonoids-and-triterpene-analogues-from-leaves-of-eleutherococcus-sieboldianus-makino-koidz-himeukogi-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#7
Atsuyoshi Nishina, Masaya Itagaki, Yuusuke Suzuki, Mamoru Koketsu, Masayuki Ninomiya, Daisuke Sato, Takashi Suzuki, Satoshi Hayakawa, Makoto Kuroda, Hirokazu Kimura
Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Makino) Koidz. is a local product from the area in and around Yonezawa City in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. It has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time. We isolated and identified four types of flavonoid glycosides [astragalin (1), isoquercetin (2), rhamnocitrin 3-O-glucoside (3), and nicotiflorin (4)], a triterpene [methyl hederagenin (5)], and three types of triterpene glycosides [δ-hederin (6), echinocystic acid 3-O-arabinoside (7), and cauloside B (8)] from the methanol extract of E...
April 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440735/nuclear-factor-e2-related-factor-2-knockdown-enhances-glucose-uptake-and-alters-glucose-metabolism-in-aml12-hepatocytes
#8
Xiaoyang Yuan, Huijing Huang, Yi Huang, Jinli Wang, Jinhua Yan, Ling Ding, Cuntai Zhang, Le Zhang
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to induce the expression of a variety of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Recently, increasing evidence has revealed roles for Nrf2 in glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism; however, the exact functions of Nrf2 in hepatocyte biology are largely unclear. In the current study, the transient knockdown of Nrf2 via siRNA transfection enhanced the glucose uptake of fasting AML12 hepatocytes to 325.3 ± 11.1% ( P < 0.05) of that of untransfected control cells...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440694/fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-a-risk-factor-of-rat-gestational-diabetes-with-altered-blood-glucose-and-pancreatic-glut2-expression
#9
Liu Yi, Chen Wei, Wang Fan
Recent studies have shown an association between air pollution and diabetic risk. This study was to investigate the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on glucose consequences and pancreas glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) expression and its related mechanisms in a gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) rat model. GDM rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose while the controls received saline. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and blood routine tests (BRT) were detected for analyzing coagulation and inflammation. Pancreas tissues underwent pathologic examination, the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were detected for oxidative stress estimation, and the degree of GLUT2 expression of pancreas was analyzed...
April 25, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440667/camelus-dromedarius-glucose-transporter-4-in-silico-analysis-cloning-expression-purification-and-characterisation-in-e-coli
#10
Anwar Ahmed, Mohammed Arshad, Ajamaluddin Malik, Shama Parveen, Abdulrahman M Alsenaidy
Camels have exceptional carbohydrate metabolism as their plasma glucose level is high and have low whole body insulin sensitivity, similar to that observed in type 2 diabetes patients. We aimed at studing an important component of insulin signalling pathway, the GLUT4, in camel. Camelus dromedarius GLUT4 (CdGLUT4) CDS is 1530 nucleotide in length that encodes for a 55KDa protein. CdGLUT4 has 23 amino acid substitutions and 3N-glycosylation sites, compared to 2 in Human GLUT4. 3 D structures of CdGLUT4 and HsGLUT4 generated by homology modelling revealed conservation of characteristic signature motifs...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440590/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors-and-fracture-risk-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis
#11
Darin Ruanpeng, Patompong Ungprasert, Jutarat Sangtian, Tasma Harindhanavudhi
INTRODUCTION: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors could potentially alter calcium and phosphate homeostasis and may increase the risk of bone fracture. METHODS: The current meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the fracture risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with SGLT2 inhibitors. Randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors to placebo were identified. The risk ratios of fracture among patients who received SGLT2 inhibitors versus placebo were extracted from each study...
April 25, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440446/temporal-and-spatial-changes-of-monocarboxylate-transporter-4-expression-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-region-following-transient-forebrain-ischemia-in-the-mongolian-gerbil
#12
Dae Young Yoo, Joon Ha Park, Kwon Young Lee, Hyun Jung Kwon, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Dae Won Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Seung Myung Moon, Yeo Sung Yoon, Moo-Ho Won, In Koo Hwang
Transient forebrain ischemia depletes glucose and oxygen levels in the brain. In this pathological condition, lactate serves an important role in cellular metabolism as the end product of glycolysis. The present study investigated the expression of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) in lactate metabolism in the hippocampal CA1 region following induction of transient forebrain ischemia. MCT4 immunoreactivity was detected in CA1 pyramidal cells of the sham-operated group. Animals from the ischemic group exhibited a transient decrease in MCT4 immunoreactivity in the CA1 region between 30 min and 3 h following ischemia compared with the sham‑operated group...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440199/anti-hyperglycemic-agents-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-role-in-cardioprotection-during-the-last-decade
#13
Duygu Kocyigit, Kadri Murat Gurses, Muhammed Ulvi Yalcin, Lale Tokgozoglu
Type 2 diabetic patients are known to have a tendency to develop cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), and related unfavourable outcomes such as heart failure, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular events (eg. stroke), and related mortality. Long- term clinical trials have revealed contradictory findings regarding the relationship between glycemic control and CV benefits due to variations in the key characteristics of the study population. During the last decade, number of pharmacological agents used for glucose- lowering in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased owing to the introduction of dipeptidyl peptidase- IV (DPP- IV) inhibitors, glucagon- like peptide- 1 (GLP- 1) receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT- 2) inhibitors...
April 23, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440026/mir-148b-inhibits-glycolysis-in-gastric-cancer-through-targeting-slc2a1
#14
Xiangfu Ding, Jingjing Liu, Tianzhou Liu, Zhiming Ma, Dacheng Wen, Jiaming Zhu
Although the molecular biology of GC has been well characterized, early diagnostic biomarkers and effective therapeutic options in gastric cancer are still under investigation. Here, we found that miR-148b expression decreased in human gastric cancer tissues compared with matched adjacent nontumor tissues by q-PCR analysis and in situ hybridization. Further investigation revealed that overexpression of miR-148b limited glycolysis including glucose consumption, lactate production in gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and MKN45...
April 24, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440009/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-an-overview-for-the-primary-care-physician
#15
REVIEW
Paresh Dandona, Ajay Chaudhuri
AIMS: Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of anti-hyperglycaemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review examines their mechanism of action and provides an overview of safety and efficacy from the main studies of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the United States and Europe, namely, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database to identify relevant publications on the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors and clinical trial reports...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439986/coordinated-membrane-fusion-of-proteinosomes-by-contact-induced-hydrogel-self-healing
#16
Ping Wen, Xiaoman Liu, Lei Wang, Mei Li, Yudong Huang, Xin Huang, Stephen Mann
Controlled membrane fusion of proteinosome-based protocells is achieved via a hydrogel-mediated process involving dynamic covalent binding, self-healing, and membrane reconfiguration at the contact interface. The rate of proteinosome fusion is dependent on dynamic Schiff base covalent interchange, and is accelerated in the presence of encapsulated glucose oxidase and glucose, or inhibited with cinnamyl aldehyde due to enzyme-mediated decreases in pH or competitive covalent binding, respectively. The coordinated fusion of the proteinosomes leads to the concomitant transportation and redistribution of entrapped payloads such as DNA and dextran...
April 25, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439667/myricetin-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-prevents-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-db-db-mice
#17
Tao Hu, Xiaoxue Yuan, Gang Wei, Haoshu Luo, Hyuek Jong Lee, Wanzhu Jin
PURPOSE: Myricetin, a dietary flavonoid, is effective in the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance by increasing glucose transport and lipogenesis in adipocyte and diminishing systemic inflammation in obesity. However, it has not been revealed yet whether myricetin is associated with brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation that tightly mediates systemic energy metabolism. Therefore, this study assessed whether myricetin activated brown adipose tissue in db/db mouse. METHODS: Myricetin (400 mg/kg) in distilled water was fed daily by oral gavage to leptin receptor-deficient db/db male mice at 4 weeks of age for 14 weeks...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439258/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Paras K Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K Patel, Sushil K Mahata
The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437535/clinical-aspects-of-glucose-transporter-type-1-deficiency-information-from-a-global-registry
#19
Jian Hao, Dorothy I Kelly, Jianzhong Su, Juan M Pascual
Importance: Case reports regularly document unique or unusual aspects of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency (G1D). In contrast, population studies from which to draw global inferences are lacking. Twenty-five years after the earliest case reports, this deficiency still particularly affects treatment and prognostic counseling. Objective: To examine the most common features of G1D. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this study, data were collected electronically from 181 patients with G1D through a web-based, worldwide patient registry from December 1, 2013, through December 1, 2016...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437014/cyclodextrin-films-with-fast-solvent-transport-and-shape-selective-permeability
#20
Luis Francisco Villalobos, Tiefan Huang, Klaus-Viktor Peinemann
This study describes the molecular-level design of a new type of filtration membrane made of crosslinked cyclodextrins-inexpensive macrocycles of glucose, shaped like hollow truncated cones. The channel-like cavities of cyclodextrins spawn numerous paths of defined aperture in the separation layer that can effectively discriminate between molecules. The transport of molecules through these membranes is highly shape-sensitive. In addition, the presence of hydrophobic (cavity) and hydrophilic (ester-crosslinked outer part) domains in these films results in high permeances for both polar and nonpolar solvents...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
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