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Glucose transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333753/comparative-performance-of-different-scale-down-simulators-of-substrate-gradients-in-penicillium-chrysogenum-cultures-the-need-of-a-biological-systems-response-analysis
#1
Guan Wang, Junfei Zhao, Cees Haringa, Wenjun Tang, Jianye Xia, Ju Chu, Yingping Zhuang, Siliang Zhang, Amit T Deshmukh, Walter van Gulik, Joseph J Heijnen, Henk J Noorman
In a 54 m3 large-scale penicillin fermentor, the cells experience substrate gradient cycles at the timescales of global mixing time about 20-40 s. Here, we used an intermittent feeding regime (IFR) and a two-compartment reactor (TCR) to mimic these substrate gradients at laboratory-scale continuous cultures. The IFR was applied to simulate substrate dynamics experienced by the cells at full scale at timescales of tens of seconds to minutes (30 s, 3 min and 6 min), while the TCR was designed to simulate substrate gradients at an applied mean residence time (τc) of 6 min...
January 15, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333721/carbohydrate-dose-influences-liver-and-muscle-glycogen-oxidation-and-performance-during-prolonged-exercise
#2
Andy J King, John P O'Hara, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Roderick F G J King
This study investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) dose and composition on fuel selection during exercise, specifically exogenous and endogenous (liver and muscle) CHO oxidation. Ten trained males cycled in a double-blind randomized order on 5 occasions at 77% V˙O2max for 2 h, followed by a 30-min time-trial (TT) while ingesting either 60 g·h-1 (LG) or 75 g·h-113 C-glucose (HG), 90 g·h-1 (LGF) or 112.5 g·h-113 C-glucose-13 C-fructose ([2:1] HGF) or placebo. CHO doses met or exceed reported intestinal transporter saturation for glucose and fructose...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333720/degree-of-sglt1-phosphorylation-is-associated-with-but-does-not-determine-segment-specific-glucose-transport-features-in-the-porcine-small-intestines
#3
Stefanie Klinger, Patrick Lange, Elisabeth Brandt, Karin Hustedt, Bernd Schröder, Gerhard Breves, Jens Herrmann
Glucose-induced electrogenic ion transport is higher in the porcine ileum compared with the jejunum despite equal apical abundance of SGLT1. The objective of this study was a detailed determination of SGLT1 and GLUT2 expressions at mRNA and protein levels along the porcine small intestinal axis. Phosphorylation of SGLT1 at serine 418 was assessed as a potential modulator of activity. Porcine intestinal tissues taken along the intestinal axis 1 h or 3 h after feeding were analyzed for relative mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein levels (immunoblot) of SGLT1, pSGLT1, GLUT2, (p)AMPK, β2 -receptor, and PKA substrates...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332791/highly-sensitive-and-reproducible-non-enzymatic-glucose-sensor-fabricated-by-drop-casting-novel-nanocomposite-with-3d-architecture-and-tailorable-properties-prepared-in-controllable-way
#4
Min Ma, Taotao Zhe, Yiyue Ma, Zonghan Wang, Qiang Chen, Jianlong Wang
Novel nanocomposite has tailorable properties and ordered 3D architecture similar to the structure of materials prepared by electrodeposition which is convenient and efficient but the reproducibility is limited because of the uncontrollable preparation process, was scientifically synthetized in controllable way and used for non-enzymatic glucose sensor for the first time. Flower-like α-Ni(OH)2 with high specific surface areas and good anion transport ability benefited from its distinctive stacking faults and turbostratic disorder structure was synthesized through facile one-step hydrothermal method...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331868/zinc-supplementation-alleviates-the-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-the-overexpression-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-molecular-markers-in-streptozotocin-induced-experimental-rats
#5
Susmita Barman, Seetur R Pradeep, Krishnapura Srinivasan
Zinc deficiency during diabetes projects a role for zinc nutrition in the management of diabetic nephropathy. The current study explored whether zinc supplementation protects against diabetic nephropathy through modulation of kidney oxidative stress and stress-induced expression related to the inflammatory process in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Groups of hyperglycemic rats were exposed to dietary interventions for 6 weeks with zinc supplementation (5 times and 10 times the normal level). Supplemental-zinc-fed diabetic groups showed a significant reversal of increased kidney weight and creatinine clearance...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331414/inhibition-of-fasn-and-er%C3%AE-signalling-during-hyperglycaemia-induced-matrix-specific-emt-promotes-breast-cancer-cell-invasion-via-a-caveolin-1-dependent-mechanism
#6
H A Zielinska, J M P Holly, A Bahl, C M Perks
Since disturbed metabolic conditions such as obesity and diabetes can be critical determinants of breast cancer progression and therapeutic failure, we aimed to determine the mechanism responsible for their pro-oncogenic effects. Using non-invasive, epithelial-like ERα-positive MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cells we found that hyperglycaemia induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key programme responsible for the development of metastatic disease. This was demonstrated by loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin together with increases in mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, fibronectin and the transcription factor SLUG, together with an enhancement of cell growth and invasion...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330794/hypoxia-mediated-in-vivo-tumor-glucose-uptake-measurement-and-analysis
#7
Surendra K Shukla, Scott E Mulder, Pankaj K Singh
Most solid tumors are hypoxic in nature due to the limited supply of oxygen to internal tissues. Hypoxia plays an important role in metabolic adaptations of tumors that contribute significantly to cancer pathogenesis. Among the several metabolic alterations induced by hypoxia, hypoxia-mediated increased glucose uptake serves as the hallmark of metabolic reprogramming. Hypoxia-mediated stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) transcription factor leads to altered expression of several glycolytic genes and glucose transporters, which results in increased glucose uptake by tumor cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330356/metabolic-and-molecular-changes-associated-with-the-increased-skeletal-muscle-insulin-action-24-48%C3%A2-h-after-exercise-in-young-and-old-humans
#8
REVIEW
Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single bout of exercise in humans remain unresolved. Moreover, whether these mechanisms differ with age is unclear. It is well established that a single bout of exercise increases the translocation of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Previous research using unilateral limb muscle contraction models in combination with hyperinsulinaemia has demonstrated that the increase in insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis 24 h after exercise is also associated with an increase in hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA and protein content, suggesting an increase in the capacity of the muscle to phosphorylate glucose and divert it towards glycogen synthesis...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329760/sodium-glucose-transporter-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target-in-disease
#9
REVIEW
Yui Yamazaki, Shinichi Harada, Shogo Tokuyama
Glucose is the primary energy fuel of life. A glucose transporter, the sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT), is receiving attention as a novel therapeutic target in disease. This review summarizes the physiological role of SGLT in cerebral ischemia, cancer, cardiac disease, and intestinal ischemia, which has encouraged analysis of SGLT function. In cerebral ischemia and cardiomyopathy, SGLT-1 is involved in worsening of the injury. In addition, SGLT-1 promotes the development of cancer. On the other hand, SGLT-1 has a protective effect against cardiac and intestinal ischemia...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329013/antiobesity-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-263-associated-with-energy-metabolism-remodeling-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-high-energy-diet-fed-rats
#10
Li-Han Chen, Yi-Hsing Chen, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Ting-Yi Chien, Ching-Hung Chan, Shu-Ping Tsao, Hui-Yu Huang
Obesity is a serious and costly issue to the medical welfare worldwide. Probiotics have been suggested as one of the candidates to resolve the obesity-associated problems, but how they combat obesity is not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri 263 (L. reuteri 263) on antiobesity using four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/group), namely, C (normal diet with vehicle treatment), HE [high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle treatment], 1X (HED with 2.1×109 CFU/kg/day of L...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327406/short-and-medium-term-efficacy-of-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-sglt-2-inhibitors-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#11
Matteo Monami, Francesco Liistro, Alessia Scatena, Besmir Nreu, Edoardo Mannucci
AIMS: Sodium glucose co-transport-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors reduce tubular glucose reabsorption, producing a reduction of blood glucose without stimulating insulin release. Aim of this meta-analysis is the systematic collection of available data from randomized trials, in order to establish the durability of the efficacy of SGLT-2 inhibitors on glycemic control and body mass index. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed including all trials with a duration of at least 12 weeks, comparing SGLT-2 inhibitors with a non-SGLT-2 inhibitor agents in type 2 diabetes...
January 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327317/transcript-levels-of-members-of-the-slc2-and-slc5-families-of-glucose-transport-proteins-in-eel-swimbladder-tissue-the-influence-of-silvering-and-the-influence-of-a-nematode-infection
#12
Gabriel Schneebauer, David Mauracher, Birgit Fiechtner, Bernd Pelster
The rate of glucose metabolism has been shown to be correlated to glucose uptake in swimbladder gas gland cells. Therefore, it is assumed that in the European eel silvering, i.e., the preparation of the eel for the spawning migration to the Sargasso Sea, coincides with an enhanced capacity for glucose uptake. To test this hypothesis expression of all known glucose transport proteins has been assessed at the transcript level in yellow and in silver eels, and we also included Anguillicola crassus infected swimbladders...
January 11, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327148/autoantibodies-against-zinc-transporter-8-are-related-to-age-and-metabolic-state-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-autoimmune-diabetes
#13
Elżbieta Niechciał, Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Stanisław Piłaciński, Marta Fichna, Bogda Skowrońska, Piotr Fichna, Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz
AIMS: To assess the prevalence of ZnT8-ab and its correlation to other autoimmune markers and diabetic ketoacidosis occurrence in children and adults with T1DM onset. METHODS: The study included 367 patients (218 children; 149 adults) at the T1DM onset. Selected diabetes-related autoantibodies such as GAD-ab, IA2-ab, ZnT8-ab were tested before the initiation of insulin therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis was defined as glucose concentration > 13.9 mmol/l, pH < 7...
January 11, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326137/expression-changes-in-lactate-and-glucose-metabolism-and-associated-transporters-in-basal-ganglia-following-hypoxic-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-in-piglets
#14
Y Zheng, X-M Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neonatal brain has active energy metabolism, and glucose oxidation is the major energy source of brain tissue. Lactate is produced by astrocytes and released to neurons. In the central nervous system, lactate is transported between neurons and astrocytes via the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes in the basal ganglia of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury piglet model...
January 11, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325553/sitagliptin-improved-glucose-assimilation-in-detriment-of-fatty-acid-utilization-in-experimental-type-ii-diabetes-role-of-glp-1-isoforms-in-glut4-receptor-trafficking
#15
E Ramírez, B Picatoste, A González-Bris, M Oteo, F Cruz, A Caro-Vadillo, J Egido, J Tuñón, M A Morcillo, Ó Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: The distribution of glucose and fatty-acid transporters in the heart is crucial for energy consecution and myocardial function. In this sense, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhancer, sitagliptin, improves glucose homeostasis but it could also trigger direct cardioprotective actions, including regulation of energy substrate utilization. METHODS: Type-II diabetic GK (Goto-Kakizaki), sitagliptin-treated GK (10 mg/kg/day) and wistar rats (n = 10, each) underwent echocardiographic evaluation, and positron emission tomography scanning for [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG)...
January 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324867/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-key-genes-potentially-related-to-soluble-sugar-and-organic-acid-accumulation-in-watermelon
#16
Lei Gao, Shengjie Zhao, Xuqiang Lu, Nan He, Hongju Zhu, Junling Dou, Wenge Liu
Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323154/effects-of-metformin-on-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells-depend-on-alterations-in-glutamine-metabolism
#17
Jae Hyun Kim, Kyoung Jin Lee, Yoojeong Seo, Ji-Hee Kwon, Jae Pil Yoon, Jo Yeon Kang, Hyun Jung Lee, Soo Jung Park, Sung Pil Hong, Jae Hee Cheon, Won Ho Kim, Tae Ii Kim
Metformin has been known to suppress cancer stem cells (CSCs) in some cancers. However, the differential effects of metformin on CSCs and their mechanisms have not been reported. Herein, metformin induced pAMPK activation and pS6 suppression in metformin-sensitive (HT29) cells, but not in metformin-resistant (SW620) cells. The oxygen consumption rate was higher in HT29 cells than in SW620 cells and showed a prominent decrease after metformin treatment in HT29 cells. In glutamine-depleted medium, but not in low-glucose medium, SW620 cells became sensitive to the CSC-suppressing effect of metformin...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322486/dapagliflozin-and-empagliflozin-ameliorate-hepatic-dysfunction-among-chinese-subjects-with-diabetes-in-part-through-glycemic-improvement-a-single-center-retrospective-observational-study
#18
Paul Chi Ho Lee, Yunjuan Gu, Man Yi Yeung, Carol Ho Yi Fong, Yu Cho Woo, Wing Sun Chow, Kathryn Tan, Karen Siu Ling Lam
INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve hepatic dysfunction, although studies focusing on their underlying mechanisms are lacking, especially ones on dapagliflozin and empagliflozin. Here, we investigated the relationship between amelioration of hepatic dysfunction and improvement in various metabolic parameters among Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective, observational study that involved 115 Chinese participants with T2DM treated with either dapagliflozin or empagliflozin for at least 6 months between July 2016 and February 2017...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321811/gene-stacking-of-multiple-traits-for-high-yield-of-fermentable-sugars-in-plant-biomass
#19
Aude Aznar, Camille Chalvin, Patrick M Shih, Michael Maimann, Berit Ebert, Devon S Birdseye, Dominique Loqué, Henrik V Scheller
Background: Second-generation biofuels produced from biomass can help to decrease dependency on fossil fuels, bringing about many economic and environmental benefits. To make biomass more suitable for biorefinery use, we need a better understanding of plant cell wall biosynthesis. Increasing the ratio of C6 to C5 sugars in the cell wall and decreasing the lignin content are two important targets in engineering of plants that are more suitable for downstream processing for second-generation biofuel production...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321810/metabolic-engineering-of-pichia-pastoris-for-production-of-isobutanol-and-isobutyl-acetate
#20
Wiparat Siripong, Philipp Wolf, Theodora Puspowangi Kusumoputri, Joe James Downes, Kanokarn Kocharin, Sutipa Tanapongpipat, Weerawat Runguphan
Background: Interests in renewable fuels have exploded in recent years as the serious effects of global climate change become apparent. Microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered Pichia pastoris, an industrial workhorse in heterologous enzyme production, to produce the biofuel isobutanol from two renewable carbon sources, glucose and glycerol...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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