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Glucose transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792163/different-patterns-of-inflammatory-and-angiogenic-factors-are-associated-with-peritoneal-small-solute-transport-and-peritoneal-protein-clearance-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#1
Yuanyuan Shi, Hao Yan, Jiangzi Yuan, He Zhang, Jiaying Huang, Zhaohui Ni, Jiaqi Qian, Wei Fang
BACKGROUND: Both peritoneal small solute transport and peritoneal protein clearance are closely linked to outcomes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, the associated factors of these two components are not fully understood so far. This study aimed to investigate the association between a panel of systemic and peritoneal inflammatory and angiogenic factors and peritoneal solute transport properties. METHODS: Stable PD patients in PD center of Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled in present study...
May 23, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792136/zinc-dependent-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-in-cancer-therapeutics-recent-update
#2
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Maria Divani, Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Peter R Mertens, Vassilios Liakopoulos
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) with intensive glycemic control and administration of agents blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system, the residual risk for nephropathy progression to end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD) remains high. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT-2)-inhibitors represent a newly-introduced anti-diabetic drug class with pleiotropic actions extending above their glucose-lowering efficacy. Herein, we provide an overview of preclinical and clinical-trial evidence supporting a protective effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on DKD...
May 23, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789716/xct-slc7a11-mediated-metabolic-reprogramming-promotes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-progression
#3
Xiangming Ji, Jun Qian, S M Jamshedur Rahman, Peter J Siska, Yong Zou, Bradford K Harris, Megan D Hoeksema, Irina A Trenary, Chen Heidi, Rosana Eisenberg, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Jamey D Young, Pierre P Massion
Many tumors increase uptake and dependence on glucose, cystine or glutamine. These basic observations on cancer cell metabolism have opened multiple new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues in cancer research. Recent studies demonstrated that smoking could induce the expression of xCT (SLC7A11) in oral cancer cells, suggesting that overexpression of xCT may support lung tumor progression. We hypothesized that overexpression of xCT occurs in lung cancer cells to satisfy the metabolic requirements for growth and survival...
May 23, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789424/the-c-terminal-region-of-the-yeast-monocarboxylate-transporter-jen1-acts-as-a-glucose-signal-responding-degron-recognized-by-the-%C3%AE-arrestin-rod1
#4
Shoki Fujita, Daichi Sato, Hirokazu Kasai, Masataka Ohashi, Shintaro Tsukue, Yutaro Takekoshi, Katsuya Gomi, Takahiro Shintani
In response to changes in nutrient conditions, cells rearrange the composition of plasma membrane (PM) transporters to optimize their metabolic flux. Not only transcriptional gene regulation, but also inactivation of specific transporters is important for fast rearrangement of the PM. In eukaryotic cells, endocytosis plays a role in transporter inactivation, which is triggered by ubiquitination of these transporters. The Nedd4 family E3 ubiquitin ligase is responsible for ubiquitination of the PM transporters and requires that a series of α-arrestin proteins are targeted to these transporters...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788902/dystonia-deafness-syndrome-caused-by-actb-p-arg183trp-heterozygosity-shows-striatal-dopaminergic-dysfunction-and-response-to-pallidal-stimulation
#5
Inger Marie Skogseid, Oddveig Røsby, Ane Konglund, James P Connelly, Bård Nedregaard, Greg Eigner Jablonski, Nadja Kvernmo, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen, Joel C Glover
BACKGROUND: Dystonia-deafness syndrome is a well-known clinical entity, with sensorineural deafness typically manifesting earlier than dystonia. ACTB p.Arg183Trp heterozygosity has been reported in six patients to cause combined infant-onset deafness and dystonia manifesting in adolescence or young adulthood. Three of these have received beneficial pallidal stimulation. Brain imaging to assess striatal function has not been reported previously, however. Nor has a comprehensive hypothesis been presented for how the pleiotropic manifestations of this specific beta-actin gene mutation originate developmentally...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788892/inhibition-of-glycolysis-and-glutaminolysis-emerging-drug-discovery-approach-to-combat-cancer
#6
Nicholas S Akins, Tanner C Nielson, Hoang V Le
Cancer cells have a very different metabolism from that of normal cells from which they are derived. Their metabolism is elevated, which allows them to sustain higher proliferative rate and resist some cell death signals. This phenomenon, known as the "Warburg effect", has become the focus of intensive efforts in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and new cancer drugs. Both glycolysis and glutaminolysis pathways are enhanced in cancer cells. While glycolysis is enhanced to satisfy the increasing energy demand of cancer cells, glutaminolysis is enhanced to provide biosynthetic precursors for cancer cells...
May 22, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788889/targeting-key-transporters-in-tumor-glycolysis-as-a-novel-anticancer-strategy
#7
Yunli Shi, Shengnan Liu, Shabir Ahmad, Qingzhi Gao
Increased glycolysis has been one of the metabolic characteristics known as the Warburg effect. The functional and therapeutic importance of the Warburg effect in targeted therapy is scientifically recognized and the glucose metabolic pathway has become a desirable target of anticancer strategies. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) play an important role in cancer glycolysis to sustain cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and survival. Utilizing the knowledge of differential expression and biological functions of GLUTs offers us the possibility of designing and delivering chemotherapeutics toward targeted tumor tissues for improved cancer selectivity...
May 22, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787809/eet-enhances-renal-function-in-obese-mice-resulting-in-restoration-of-mfn1-2-ho-1-signaling-and-decrease-in-hypertension-through-inhibition-of-sodium-chloride-co-transporter
#8
Joseph Schragenheim, Lars Bellner, Jian Cao, Shailendra P Singh, David Bamshad, John A McClung, Omri Maayan, Aliza Meissner, Ilana Grant, Charles T Stier, Nader G Abraham
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) has multiple beneficial effects on renal and adipose tissue function, in addition to its vasodilatory action; it increases insulin sensitivity and inhibits inflammation. In an examination of the signaling mechanisms by which EET reduces renal and peri-renal fat function, we hypothesized that EET ameliorates obesity-induced renal dysfunction by improving sodium excretion, reducing the sodium-chloride cotransporter NCC, lowering blood pressure, and enhancing mitochondrial and thermogenic gene levels in PGC-1α dependent mice...
May 19, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787242/membrane-topology-of-trafficking-regulator-of-glut4-1-trarg1
#9
Xiaowen Duan, James Krycer, Kristen Cooke, Guang Yang, David E James, Daniel Fazakerley
Trafficking regulator of GLUT4 1 (TRARG1) was recently identified to localise to glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) storage vesicles (GSVs) and to positively regulate GLUT4 trafficking. Our knowledge of TRARG1 structure and membrane topology is limited to predictive models, hampering efforts to further our mechanistic understanding of how it carries out its functions. Here, we use a combination of bioinformatics prediction tools and biochemical assays to define the membrane topology of the 173-amino acid mouse TRARG1...
May 22, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784777/structure-of-an-eiic-sugar-transporter-trapped-in-an-inward-facing-conformation
#10
Zhenning Ren, Jumin Lee, Mahdi Muhammad Moosa, Yin Nian, Liya Hu, Zhichun Xu, Jason G McCoy, Allan Chris M Ferreon, Wonpil Im, Ming Zhou
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) transports sugar into bacteria and phosphorylates the sugar for metabolic consumption. The PTS is important for the survival of bacteria and thus a potential target for antibiotics, but its mechanism of sugar uptake and phosphorylation remains unclear. The PTS is composed of multiple proteins, and the membrane-embedded Enzyme IIC (EIIC) component transports sugars across the membrane. Crystal structures of two members of the glucose superfamily of EIICs, bcChbC and bcMalT, were solved in the inward-facing and outward-facing conformations, and the structures suggest that sugar translocation could be achieved by movement of a structured domain that contains the sugar-binding site...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784647/regulation-of-rabgaps-involved-in-insulin-action
#11
REVIEW
Samaneh Mafakheri, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani
Rab (Ras-related proteins in brain) GTPases are key proteins responsible for a multiplicity of cellular trafficking processes. Belonging to the family of monomeric GTPases, they are regulated by cycling between their active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound conformations. Despite possessing a slow intrinsic GTP hydrolysis activity, Rab proteins rely on RabGAPs (Rab GTPase-activating proteins) that catalyze GTP hydrolysis and consequently inactivate the respective Rab GTPases. Two related RabGAPs, TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 (=AS160) have been described to be associated with obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes in both mice and humans...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784041/lipid-metabolism-reprogramming-and-its-potential-targets-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Chunming Cheng, Feng Geng, Xiang Cheng, Deliang Guo
Reprogramming of lipid metabolism is a newly recognized hallmark of malignancy. Increased lipid uptake, storage and lipogenesis occur in a variety of cancers and contribute to rapid tumor growth. Lipids constitute the basic structure of membranes and also function as signaling molecules and energy sources. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors in the endoplasmic reticulum, play a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Recent studies have revealed that SREBPs are highly up-regulated in various cancers and promote tumor growth...
May 21, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783787/plasma-pharmacokinetic-determination-of-canagliflozin-and-its-metabolites-in-a-type-2-diabetic-rat-model-by-uplc-ms-ms
#13
Song-Tao Dong, Hui-Min Niu, Yin Wu, Jia-Lei Jiang, Ying Li, Kun-Yu Jiang, Xin Wang, Mao-Fan Zhang, Ming-Feng Han, Sheng-Nan Meng
Canagliflozin is a novel, orally selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a sensitive and efficient UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of canagliflozin and its metabolites in rat plasma was established and applied to pharmacokinetics in a type 2 diabetic rat model. We firstly investigated the pharmacokinetic changes of canagliflozin and its metabolites in type 2 diabetic rats in order to use canagliflozin more safely, reasonably and effectively...
May 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781098/pet-imaging-of-the-influence-of-physiological-and-pathological-%C3%AE-synuclein-on-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-neurotransmission-in-mouse-models
#14
Elise Levigoureux, Caroline Bouillot, Thierry Baron, Luc Zimmer, Sophie Lancelot
AIMS: Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation is a neuropathological hallmark of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies. This in vivo study explored glucose metabolism and dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission in KO α-syn, wild-type mice and an accelerated murine model of synucleinopathy (M83). METHODS: MicroPET acquisitions were performed in all animals aged 5-6 months using five radiotracers exploring brain glucose metabolism ([18 F]FDG), dopamine neurotransmission ([11 C]raclopride, [11 C]PE2I) and serotonin neurotransmission ([18 F]MPPF, [11 C]DASB)...
May 20, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778441/hypoxic-postconditioning-enhances-functional-recovery-following-endothelin-1-induced-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-conscious-rats
#15
Hong L Nguyen, Alexander M Ruhoff, Thomas Fath, Nicole M Jones
Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major contributor to neurological disability in adults. Tissue plasminogen activator is the only approved treatment. However, due to its narrow therapeutic window, <5% of patients receive treatment. Recently, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) was shown to reduce stroke induced-injury in mice, but the mechanisms and functional outcomes are still unknown. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to endothelin-1 induced stroke. HPC (8% O2 , 1 h/d for 5d) or normoxia treatments were started 24 h after stroke...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777753/characterization-of-impaired-cerebrovascular-structure-in-app-ps1-mouse-brains
#16
Kee-Chan Ahn, Cameron R Learman, Gary L Dunbar, Panchanan Maiti, Won-Cheoul Jang, Hyeon-Cheol Cha, Mee-Sook Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by senile plaques, tauopathy and neuronal cell death in specific area of the brain. Recent studies suggest that neurovascular dysfunction may be an integral part of AD pathogenesis, contributing to the onset and development of AD pathologies such as neuronal death, inflammatory response, and breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB). In addition, vascular complications caused by age-related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure have high incidence in development of dementia and AD...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776755/neutral-ph-and-low-glucose-degradation-product-dialysis-fluids-induce-major-early-alterations-of-the-peritoneal-membrane-in-children-on-peritoneal-dialysis
#17
Betti Schaefer, Maria Bartosova, Stephan Macher-Goeppinger, Peter Sallay, Peter Vörös, Bruno Ranchin, Karel Vondrak, Gema Ariceta, Ariane Zaloszyc, Aysun K Bayazit, Uwe Querfeld, Rimante Cerkauskiene, Sara Testa, Christina Taylan, Johan VandeWalle, YokChin Yap, Rafael T Krmar, Rainer Büscher, Anne K Mühlig, Dorota Drozdz, Salim Caliskan, Felix Lasitschka, Sahar Fathallah-Shaykh, Enrico Verrina, Günter Klaus, Klaus Arbeiter, Raj Bhayadia, Anette Melk, Philipp Romero, Bradley A Warady, Franz Schaefer, Akos Ujszaszi, Claus Peter Schmitt
The effect of peritoneal dialysates with low-glucose degradation products on peritoneal membrane morphology is largely unknown, with functional relevancy predominantly derived from experimental studies. To investigate this, we performed automated quantitative histomorphometry and molecular analyses on 256 standardized peritoneal and 172 omental specimens from 56 children with normal renal function, 90 children with end-stage kidney disease at time of catheter insertion, and 82 children undergoing peritoneal dialysis using dialysates with low-glucose degradation products...
May 15, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773651/usp25m-protease-regulates-ubiquitin-like-processing-of-tug-proteins-to-control-glut4-glucose-transporter-translocation-in-adipocytes
#18
Estifanos N Habtemichael, Don T Li, Abel Alcázar-Román, Xavier O Westergaard, Muyi Li, Max C Petersen, Hanbing Li, Stephen G DeVries, Eric Li, Omar Julca-Zevallos, Joseph S Wolenski, Jonathan S Bogan
Insulin stimulates the exocytic translocation of specialized vesicles in adipocytes, which inserts GLUT4 glucose transporters into the plasma membrane to enhance glucose uptake.  Previous results support a model in which TUG proteins trap these GLUT4 storage vesicles at the Golgi matrix, and in which insulin triggers endoproteolytic cleavage of TUG to translocate GLUT4.  Here, we identify Usp25m as a protease required for insulin-stimulated TUG cleavage and GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes.  Usp25m is expressed in adipocytes, binds TUG and GLUT4, dissociates from TUG-bound vesicles after insulin addition, and colocalizes with TUG and insulin-responsive cargoes in unstimulated cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772905/retraction-of-development-of-a-novel-class-of-glucose-transporter-inhibitors
#19
Dasheng Wang, Po-Chen Chu, Chia-Ning Yang, Ribai Yan, Yu-Chung Chuang, Samuel K Kulp, Ching-Shih Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769329/isolation-of-state-dependent-monoclonal-antibodies-against-the-12-transmembrane-domain-glucose-transporter-4-using-virus-like-particles
#20
David F Tucker, Jonathan T Sullivan, Kimberly-Anne Mattia, Christine R Fisher, Trevor Barnes, Manu N Mabila, Rona Wilf, Chidananda Sulli, Meghan Pitts, Riley J Payne, Moniquetta Hall, Duncan Huston-Paterson, Xiaoxiang Deng, Edgar Davidson, Sharon H Willis, Benjamin J Doranz, Ross Chambers, Joseph B Rucker
The insulin-responsive 12-transmembrane transporter GLUT4 changes conformation between an inward-open state and an outward-open state to actively facilitate cellular glucose uptake. Because of the difficulties of generating conformational mAbs against complex and highly conserved membrane proteins, no reliable tools exist to measure GLUT4 at the cell surface, follow its trafficking, or detect the conformational state of the protein. Here we report the isolation and characterization of conformational mAbs that recognize the extracellular and intracellular domains of GLUT4, including mAbs that are specific for the inward-open and outward-open states of GLUT4...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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