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Glucose transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938485/duodenal-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-1-expression-under-fasting-conditions-is-associated-with-post-load-hyperglycemia
#1
Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Evelina Suraci, Gaetano Paride Arcidiacono, Antonio Cimellaro, Chiara Mignogna, Ivan Presta, Francesco Andreozzi, Marta Letizia Hribal, Francesco Perticone, Giuseppe Donato, Francesco Luzza, Giorgio Sesti
Context: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with a higher intestinal expression of the glucose transporters sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2). It is currently unsettled whether prediabetes conditions characterized by post-prandial hyperglycemia, such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with 1-h post-load glucose ≥155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) (NGT-1h-high) are associated with increased expression of these glucose carriers in the intestine...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938337/pulse-pressure-is-associated-with-plasma-amyloid-%C3%AE-transport-dysfunction
#2
Yu Jiang, Suhang Shang, Pei Li, Chen Chen, Liangjun Dang, Jin Wang, Kang Huo, Meiying Deng, Jingyi Wang, Qiumin Qu
OBJECTIVE: Increased pulse pressure (PP) has been implicated in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease in middle-aged and elderly adults. Considering the close relationship between peripheral amyloid-β clearance and brain amyloid-β deposition, we investigated the potential association between PP and plasma amyloid-β transport function. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1118 participants underwent a health assessment and quantification of plasma amyloid-β and amyloid-β transporter expression...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938220/metabolic-correlate-of-memory-deficit-awareness-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-implication-in-cortical-midline-structure
#3
Tomomichi Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
The neural substrate of memory-deficit awareness has been studied in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about that in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). To determine the neural substrates of memory-deficit awareness in DLB, we investigated the relationship between awareness of memory-deficit and glucose metabolism in DLB. Thirty-four patients with DLB were assessed by (18)F-FDG-PET and dopamine transporter (DAT)-SPECT. The awareness was evaluated using an awareness index that represents the discrepancy between objective and subjective memory scores...
September 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936585/understanding-intestinal-glucose-transporter-expression-in-obese-compared-to-non-obese-subjects
#4
Rebecca A Deal, Yueming Tang, Reid Fletcher, Alfonso Torquati, Philip Omotosho
INTRODUCTION: The impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on weight loss and co-morbid disease resolution is well established. However, the mechanisms underlying the procedure remain incompletely understood. Intestinal remodeling involving glucose transporters (GLUTs) may play a crucial role. Rat studies have demonstrated morphological adaptation of GLUTs within adipose and intestinal cells in association with the reprogramming of glucose metabolism. There is a limited understanding of the variations in expression amongst GLUT family receptors in the human intestine...
September 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935925/interference-of-stress-with-the-somatotropic-axis-in-pigs-lights-on-new-biomarkers
#5
Elisa Wirthgen, Martin Kunze, Sébastien Goumon, Christina Walz, Christine Höflich, Marion Spitschak, Julia Brenmoehl, Ellen Kanitz, Margret Tuchscherer, Winfried Otten, Ulrike Gimsa, Peter Schön, Christian Manteuffel, Armin Tuchscherer, Ralf Pfuhl, Cornelia C Metges, Bernd Stabenow, Sandra Erdmann, Kathleen Schluricke, Luigi Faucitano, Andreas Hoeflich
The acceptance of animal products is increasingly associated with standardized animal welfare, which relates to appropriate animal husbandry from birth to slaughter. In particular, shipment to the slaughterhouse is considered as a critical process exposing the animals to a number of, in part severe, stressors. New biomarkers may be useful for the assessment of animal welfare. The IGF-system has been assessed in a commercial pig transport in conjunction with established markers of stress response. Furthermore, the effect of repeated restraint as an experimental model for repeated acute stress was investigated...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934619/distinct-brain-metabolic-patterns-separately-associated-with-cognition-motor-function-and-aging-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#6
Ji Hyun Ko, Audrey Katako, Maram Aljuaid, Andrew L Goertzen, Andrew Borys, Douglas E Hobson, Seok Min Kim, Chong Sik Lee
We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis...
August 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934557/a-safety-evaluation-of-empagliflozin-plus-linagliptin-for-treating-type-2-diabetes
#7
Baptist Gallwitz
Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-4i) and sodium-glucose-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are oral antidiabetic drugs that improve glycemic parameters and possess a very low intrinsic hypoglycemia risk and favorable cardiovascular data. Areas covered: An overview on the clinical studies investigating the combination therapy with the DPP-4i linagliptin and the SGLT-2i empagliflozin is given. The clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of free combinations as well as for their fixed dose combinations is presented...
September 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933733/melatonin-decreases-glucose-metabolism-in-prostate-cancer-cells-a-13-c-stable-isotope-resolved-metabolomic-study
#8
David Hevia, Pedro Gonzalez-Menendez, Mario Fernandez-Fernandez, Sergio Cueto, Pablo Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Jose I Garcia-Alonso, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz
The pineal neuroindole melatonin exerts an exceptional variety of systemic functions. Some of them are exerted through its specific membrane receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2) while others are mediated by receptor-independent mechanisms. A potential transport of melatonin through facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT/SLC2A) was proposed in prostate cancer cells. The prostate cells have a particular metabolism that changes during tumor progression. During the first steps of carcinogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation is reactivated while the switch to the "Warburg effect" only occurs in advanced tumors and in the metastatic stage...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933603/autophagy-enables-retromer-dependent-plasma-membrane-translocation-of-slc2a1-glut-to-enhance-glucose-uptake
#9
Srirupa Roy, Jayanta Debnath
Macroautophagy/autophagy is traditionally viewed as an intracellular catabolic pathway that recycles core metabolites during starvation or stress. Recently, we found that autophagy also functions in the control of glucose uptake from the extracellular environment by facilitating cell surface expression of the glucose transporter SLC2A1/GLUT1. In response to increased glycolytic demand or acute glucose starvation, autophagosome induction titrates the RabGAP protein TBC1D5 away from its inhibitory interaction with the retromer complex and into MAP1LC3(+) compartments...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931587/maternal-choline-supplementation-modulates-placental-nutrient-transport-and-metabolism-in-late-gestation-of-mouse-pregnancy
#10
Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Julia H King, Jian Yan, Zhen Wang, Xinyin Jiang, Jason S Hutzler, Hallie R Klein, J Thomas Brenna, Mark S Roberson, Marie A Caudill
Background: Fetal growth is dependent on placental nutrient supply, which is influenced by placental perfusion and transporter abundance. Previous research indicates that adequate choline nutrition during pregnancy improves placental vascular development, supporting the hypothesis that choline may affect placental nutrient transport.Objective: The present study sought to determine the impact of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental nutrient transporter abundance and nutrient metabolism during late gestation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928791/wu-mei-wan-reduces-insulin-resistance-via-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-hepg2-cells
#11
Xueping Yang, Lingli Li, Ke Fang, Ruolan Dong, Jingbin Li, Yan Zhao, Hui Dong, Ping Yi, Zhaoyi Huang, Guang Chen, Fuer Lu
Wu-Mei-Wan (WMW) is a Chinese herbal formula used to treat type 2 diabetes. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of WMW on insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were pretreated with palmitate (0.25 mM) to impair the insulin signaling pathway. Then, they were treated with different doses of WMW-containing medicated serum and stimulated with 100 nM insulin. Results showed that palmitate could reduce the glucose consumption rate in HepG2 cells and impair insulin signaling related to phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), thereby regulating the downstream signaling pathways...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928671/aerobic-exercise-training-selectively-changes-oxysterol-levels-and-metabolism-reducing-cholesterol-accumulation-in-the-aorta-of-dyslipidemic-mice
#12
Guilherme Silva Ferreira, Paula R Pinto, Rodrigo T Iborra, Vanessa Del Bianco, Monique Fátima Mello Santana, Edna Regina Nakandakare, Valéria S Nunes, Carlos E Negrão, Sergio Catanozi, Marisa Passarelli
Background: Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training (AET) prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928236/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-ameliorates-hypertension-and-hyperglycemia-in-a-model-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#13
Hae-Ahm Lee, Seol-Hee Kang, Mina Kim, Eunjo Lee, Hyun-Min Cho, Eun-Kyung Moon, Inkyeom Kim
Cushing's syndrome (CS) caused by hypercortisolism is occasionally accompanied by metabolic disorders such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and central obesity. Thus, morbidity and mortality, observed in cardiovascular disease, are elevated in patients with CS. We hypothesized that HDAC inhibition (HDACi) decreased transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which ameliorates hypertension and hyperglycemia in patients with CS. To establish an animal model of hypercortisolism, Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, 40 ng/day) or dexamethasone (Dex, 10 μg/day) via osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928113/pdk4-inhibits-cardiac-pyruvate-oxidation-in-late-pregnancy
#14
Laura Liu, Glenn C Rowe, Steven Yang, Jian Li, Federico Damilano, Mun Chun Chan, Wenyun Lu, Cholsoon Jang, Shogo Wada, Michael Morley, Michael Hesse, Bernd K Fleischmann, Joshua Rabinowitz, Saumya Das, Anthony Rosenzweig, Zoltan Arany
Rationale: Pregnancy profoundly alters maternal physiology. The heart hypertrophies during pregnancy, but its metabolic adaptations are not well understood. Objective: To determine the mechanisms underlying cardiac substrate use during pregnancy. Methods and Results: We use here (13)C-glucose, (13)C-lactate, and (13)C-fatty acid tracing analyses to show that hearts in late pregnant mice increase fatty acid uptake and oxidation into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, while reducing glucose and lactate oxidation...
September 19, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928090/investigation-of-antidiabetic-potential-of-phyllanthus-niruri-l-using-assays-for-%C3%AE-glucosidase-muscle-glucose-transport-liver-glucose-production-and-adipogenesis
#15
Maliheh Najari Beidokhti, Mia Vesterholm Andersen, Hoda M Eid, Mayra Luz Sanchez Villavicencio, Dan Staerk, Pierre S Haddad, Anna K Jäger
Phyllanthus niruri is used in herbal medicine for treatment of diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of P. niruri, using assays for α-glucosidase, muscle glucose transport, liver glucose production and adipogenesis. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was performed on aqueous and ethanolic extract of aerial parts of P. niruri. The aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. niruri showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 3.7 ± 1.1 and 6.3 ± 4...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926527/genistein-suppresses-aerobic-glycolysis-and-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-death
#16
Sainan Li, Jingjing Li, Weiqi Dai, Qinghui Zhang, Jiao Feng, Liwei Wu, Tong Liu, Qiang Yu, Shizan Xu, Wenwen Wang, Xiya Lu, Kan Chen, Yujing Xia, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Xiaoming Fan, Wenhui Mo, Ling Xu, Chuanyong Guo
BACKGROUND: Genistein is a natural isoflavone with many health benefits, including antitumour effects. Increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α) levels and glycolysis in tumour cells are associated with an increased risk of mortality, cancer progression, and resistance to therapy. However, the effect of genistein on HIF-1α and glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. METHODS: Cell viability, apoptosis rate, lactate production, and glucose uptake were measured in HCC cell lines with genistein incubation...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926063/methylglyoxal-attenuates-insulin-signaling-and-downregulates-the-enzymes-involved-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#17
Arati B Deshmukh, Shakuntala Bai, Aarthy T, Rubina S Kazi, Reema Banarjee, Rajeshwari Rathore, Vijayakumar Mv, Thulasiram Hv, Manoj Kumar Bhat, Kulkarni Mj
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl known to be elevated under the hyperglycemic conditions of diabetes and is implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the current study investigates the role of MG in exacerbating insulin resistance at the insulin signaling level, as well as its effect on the global proteomic level. By using insulin sensitive rat muscle cells (L6) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (IR) and a glucose transporter fused with green fluorescent protein (GLUT4-GFP), we have observed that MG impairs insulin signaling, inhibits GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake...
September 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924948/magnetic-nanoparticles-for-the-delivery-of-dapagliflozin-to-hypoxic-tumors-physicochemical-characterization-and-cell-studies
#18
Athina Angelopoulou, Efstathia Voulgari, Argiris Kolokithas-Ntoukas, Aristides Bakandritsos, Konstantinos Avgoustakis
In solid tumors, hypoxia (lack of oxygen) is developed, which leads to the development of resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy through various mechanisms. Nevertheless, hypoxic cells are particularly vulnerable when glycolysis is inhibited. For this reason, in this study, the development of magnetically targetable nanocarriers of the sodium-glucose transporter protein (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAPA) was developed for the selective delivery of DAPA in tumors. This nanomedicine in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy should be useful for effective treatment of hypoxic tumors...
September 18, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924380/intracellular-insulin-and-impaired-autophagy-in-a-zebrafish-model-and-a-cell-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
Xiang-Hui Meng, Bo Chen, Jing-Pu Zhang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance. However, the complete molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, zebrafish were fed a long-term high-fat diet to induce type 2 diabetes, which resulted in a higher body weight, body mass index, more lipid vacuoles in liver, increased insulin transcription level in liver, brain and muscle, and high fasting blood glucose in the high-fat diet zebrafish. Oppositely, the transcription levels of insulin substrate-2 and glucose transporter 2 were significantly decreased, indicating insulin signaling pathway and glucose transport impaired in the insulin-targeting tissues...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923931/endothelial-insulin-receptors-differentially-control-insulin-signaling-kinetics-in-peripheral-tissues-and-brain-of-mice
#20
Masahiro Konishi, Masaji Sakaguchi, Samuel M Lockhart, Weikang Cai, Mengyao Ella Li, Erica P Homan, Christian Rask-Madsen, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin receptors (IRs) on endothelial cells may have a role in the regulation of transport of circulating insulin to its target tissues; however, how this impacts on insulin action in vivo is unclear. Using mice with endothelial-specific inactivation of the IR gene (EndoIRKO), we find that in response to systemic insulin stimulation, loss of endothelial IRs caused delayed onset of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, brown fat, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex but not in liver or olfactory bulb...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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