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Glucose transport

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531305/impact-of-age-and-antibody-type-on-progression-from-single-to-multiple-autoantibodies-in-type-1-diabetes-relatives
#1
Emanuele Bosi, David C Boulware, Dorothy J Becker, Jane H Buckner, Susan Geyer, Peter A Gottlieb, Courtney Henderson, Amanda Kinderman, Jay M Sosenko, Andrea K Steck, Polly J Bingley
Context: Islet autoantibodies are markers of type 1 diabetes and an increase in number of autoantibodies detected during the preclinical phase is predictive of progression to overt disease. Objective: To refine the impact of age in relation to islet antibody type on the progression from single to multiple autoantibodies in relatives of people with type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods: We examined 994 relatives with normal glucose tolerance and positive for a single autoantibody, followed prospectively in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531280/effects-of-calorie-restriction-and-fiber-type-on-glucose-uptake-and-abundance-of-electron-transport-chain-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-proteins-in-single-fibers-from-old-rats
#2
Haiyan Wang, Edward B Arias, Carmen S Yu, Anthony R P Verkerke, Gregory D Cartee
Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine in 23-26 months-old rats the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks-old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ±insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles...
May 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530702/metformin-alters-the-gut-microbiome-of-individuals-with-treatment-naive-type-2-diabetes-contributing-to-the-therapeutic-effects-of-the-drug
#3
Hao Wu, Eduardo Esteve, Valentina Tremaroli, Muhammad Tanweer Khan, Robert Caesar, Louise Mannerås-Holm, Marcus Ståhlman, Lisa M Olsson, Matteo Serino, Mercè Planas-Fèlix, Gemma Xifra, Josep M Mercader, David Torrents, Rémy Burcelin, Wifredo Ricart, Rosie Perkins, José Manuel Fernàndez-Real, Fredrik Bäckhed
Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but its mechanism of action is poorly defined. Recent evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a site of metformin action. In a double-blind study, we randomized individuals with treatment-naive T2D to placebo or metformin for 4 months and showed that metformin had strong effects on the gut microbiome. These results were verified in a subset of the placebo group that switched to metformin 6 months after the start of the trial. Transfer of fecal samples (obtained before and 4 months after treatment) from metformin-treated donors to germ-free mice showed that glucose tolerance was improved in mice that received metformin-altered microbiota...
May 22, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529949/microrna-expression-varies-according-to-glucose-tolerance-measurement-platform-and-biological-source
#4
S Dias, S Hemmings, C Muller, J Louw, C Pheiffer
Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression is observed during type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the consistency of miRNA expression across measurement platform and biological source is uncertain. Here we report miRNA profiling in the whole blood and serum of South African women with different levels of glucose tolerance, using next generation sequencing (NGS) and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Whole blood-derived miRNAs from women with newly diagnosed T2D (n = 4), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 4), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 4) were subjected to NGS, whereafter transcript levels of selected miRNAs were quantified in the whole blood and serum of these women using qRT-PCR...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528383/pretreatment-of-hardwood-and-miscanthus-with-trametes-versicolor-for-bioenergy-conversion-and-densification-strategies
#5
Ryan M Kalinoski, Hector D Flores, Sunil Thapa, Erin R Tuegel, Michael A Bilek, Evelin Y Reyes-Mendez, Michael J West, Tim J Dumonceaux, Thomas Canam
The pretreatment of plant biomass negatively impacts the economics of many bioenergy and bioproduct processes due to the thermochemical requirements for deconstruction of lignocelluluose. An effective strategy to reduce these severity requirements is to pretreat the biomass with white-rot fungi, such as Trametes versicolor, which have the innate ability to deconstruct lignocellulose with a suite of specialized enzymes. In the present study, the effects of 12 weeks of pretreatment with a wild-type strain (52J) and a cellobiose dehydrogenase-deficient strain (m4D) of T...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528355/increased-retinol-free-rbp4-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Yanmin Chen, Ping Lv, Mengkai Du, Zhaoxia Liang, Menglin Zhou, Danqing Chen
PURPOSE: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a circulating retinol transporter that is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RBP4 and retinol level in rat model of gestational diabetes mellitus and the relationship between retinol-free RBP4 (apo-RBP4), retinol-bound RBP4 (holo-RBP4) and insulin resistance. METHODS: Pregnant rats were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The RBP4 and retinol levels were evaluated in GDM and normal pregnant rats...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527957/streptozotocin-alters-glucose-transport-connexin-expression-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-functions-in-neurons-and-astrocytes
#7
Joyshree Biswas, Sonam Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sarika Singh
The study was undertaken to explore the cell specific streptozotocin (STZ) induced mechanistic alterations. STZ induced rodent model is a well established experimental model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in our previous studies we have established it as an in vitro screening model of AD by employing N2A neuronal cells. Therefore, STZ was selected in the present study to understand the STZ induced cell specific alterations by utilizing neuronal N2A and astrocytes C6 cells. Both neuronal and astrocyte cells were treated with STZ at 10, 50, 100 and 1000μM concentration for 48 h...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527765/lignocellulosic-sugar-management-for-xylitol-and-ethanol-fermentation-with-multiple-cell-recycling-by-kluyveromyces-marxianus-iipe453
#8
Diptarka Dasgupta, Debashish Ghosh, Sheetal Bandhu, Dilip K Adhikari
Optimum utilization of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass to deliver multiple products under biorefinery concept has been reported in this work. Alcohol fermentation has been carried out with multiple cell recycling of Kluyveromyces marxianus IIPE453. The yeast utilized xylose-rich fraction from acid and steam treated biomass for cell generation and xylitol production with an average yield of 0.315±0.01g/g while the entire glucose rich saccharified fraction had been fermented to ethanol with high productivity of 0...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526983/low-source-sink-ratio-reduces-reserve-starch-in-grapevine-woody-canes-and-modulates-sugar-transport-and-metabolism-at-transcriptional-and-enzyme-activity-levels
#9
Angélica Silva, Henrique Noronha, Zhanwu Dai, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation...
May 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526969/glycaemia-and-phosphatemia-after-oral-glucose-and-maltitol-ingestion-in-subjects-from-two-different-race-groups-preliminary-evidence-of-inter-race-differences-in-metabolism-and-possible-implications-for-urinary-stone-disease
#10
Takalani Theka, Allen Rodgers
PURPOSE: Glucose (Glu) and maltitol (Mal) ingestion affect calciuria and phosphaturia. Renal phosphate leak involving hypophosphatemia is thought to be a mechanism. Inter-race differences in carbohydrate metabolism are known. We investigated the effects of Glu and Mal ingestion on glycaemia and phosphatemia in subjects from two race groups to better understand potential implications for nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Healthy black (B) (n = 8) and white (W) (n = 8) males followed a self-selected standardized diet for 7 days and a strictly controlled standardized diet on Day 8...
May 19, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526884/combined-use-of-metformin-and-atorvastatin-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-rabbits-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#11
Fei Luo, Yuan Guo, Gui-Yun Ruan, Jun-Ke Long, Xi-Long Zheng, Qin Xia, Shui-Ping Zhao, Dao-Quan Peng, Zhen-Fei Fang, Xiang-Ping Li
Statins are widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. Unfortunately, some patients still experience cardiovascular events though prescribed with high-intensity statins. Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, was reported to possess anti-atherosclerotic effects. Therefore, the experiments were designed to evaluate whether combined use of metformin and atorvastatin can achieve additional benefits. In rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet, we evaluated the effects of the combination therapy on atherosclerotic plaques, lipid profiles, blood glucose levels, liver and kidney functions...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526692/understanding-the-interrelationship-between-the-synthesis-of-urea-and-gluconeogenesis-by-formulating-an-overall-balanced-equation
#12
Piero L Ipata, Rossana Pesi
It is well known that a strong metabolic interrelationship exists between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. In this paper, we present a detailed, overall equation, describing a possible metabolic link between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. We adopted a guided approach in which we strongly suggest that students, when faced with the problem of obtaining the overall equation of a metabolic pathway, carefully account for all atoms and charges of the single reactions, as well as the cellular localizations of the substrates, and the related transport systems...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526540/sodium-dependent-glucose-transporters-sglt-in-human-ischemic-heart-a-new-potential-pharmacological-target
#13
Alessandra Di Franco, Giulia Cantini, Alessia Tani, Raffaele Coppini, Sandra Zecchi-Orlandini, Laura Raimondi, Michaela Luconi, Edoardo Mannucci
BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin is reported to reduce cardiovascular mortality and the rate of hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients with prior cardiovascular events. The mechanisms underlying the cardiac effects of this sodium/glucose transporter 2 (SGT2) inhibitor have not yet been clarified, though a direct action of the drug on the cardiomyocytes could be hypothesized. The aim of the present study is to assess the relative expression of SGLT2 and SGLT1, the two most relevant members of the SGLT family being potentially responsive to empagliflozin, in normal, ischemic and hypertrophic human hearts...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526436/intracranial-il-17a-overexpression-decreases-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-by-upregulation-of-abca1-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Junling Yang, Jinghong Kou, Robert Lalonde, Ken-Ichiro Fukuchi
Neuroinflammation is a pervasive feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized by activated microglia, increased proinflammatory cytokines and/or infiltrating immune cells. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are found in AD brain parenchyma and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is identified around deposits of aggregated amyloid β protein (Aβ). However, the role of IL-17A in AD pathogenesis remains elusive. We overexpressed IL-17A in an AD mouse model via recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-mediated intracranial gene delivery...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526321/effects-of-dehp-and-its-metabolite-mehp-on-insulin-signalling-and-proteins-involved-in-glut4-translocation-in-cultured-l6-myotubes
#15
Mangala Priya Viswanathan, Vigneswari Mullainadhan, Mayilvanan Chinnaiyan, Balasubramanian Karundevi
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is the plasticizer used in variety of medical and consumer products to impart structural flexibility. DEHP and its primary metabolite mono-(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (MEHP) posed a considerable interest because of their contribution to insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and obesity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that DEHP affects blood glucose homeostasis. However, direct effect of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signal transduction and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation remain obscure...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524704/radiation-from-wireless-technology-elevates-blood-glucose-and-body-temperature-in-40-year-old-type-1-diabetic-male
#16
Catherine E Kleiber
A type 1 diabetic male reports multiple instances when his blood glucose was dramatically elevated by the presence of microwave radiation from wireless technology and plummeted when the radiation exposure ended. In one instance, his body temperature elevated in addition to his blood glucose. Both remained elevated for nearly 48 h after exposure with the effect gradually decreasing. Possible mechanisms for microwave radiation elevating blood glucose include effects on glucose transport proteins and ion channels, insulin conformational changes and oxidative stress...
May 19, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524154/an-analysis-of-the-polymorphisms-of-the-glut1-gene-in-urothelial-cell-carcinomas-of-the-bladder-and-its-correlation-with-p53-ki67-and-glut1-expressions
#17
C Xu, X Yang, Y Wang, N Ding, R Han, Y Sun, Y Wang
Frequencies of two glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (XbaI G>T and HaeIII T>C) were studied with urothelial cell carcinomas of the bladder (UCC) and 204 normal persons. And the expression of the p53, Ki67 and GLUT1 was assayed by immunohistochemistry. The frequency of the TT genotype and T allele of the XbaI G>T SNP was decreased in the patients with UCC. The frequency of the CC genotype and C allele of the HaeIII T>C SNP was decreased in the patients with UCC...
May 19, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522605/structure-function-analysis-of-human-sucrase-isomaltase-identifies-key-residues-required-for-catalytic-activity
#18
Birthe Gericke, Natalie Schecker, Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
Sucrase-isomaltase (SI) is an intestinal membrane-associated α-glucosidase that breaks down di- and oligosaccharides to absorbable monosaccharides. SI has two homologous functional subunits (sucrase and isomaltase) that both belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) and differ in substrate specificity. All GH31 enzymes share a consensus sequence harboring an aspartic acid residue as a catalytic nucleophile. Moreover, crystallographic structural analysis of isomaltase predicts that another aspartic acid residue functions as a proton donor in hydrolysis...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522450/lower-risk-of-heart-failure-and-death-in-patients-initiated-on-sglt-2-inhibitors-versus-other-glucose-lowering-drugs-the-cvd-real-study
#19
Mikhail Kosiborod, Matthew A Cavender, Alex Z Fu, John P Wilding, Kamlesh Khunti, Reinhard W Holl, Anna Norhammar, Kåre I Birkeland, Marit Jørgensen, Marcus Thuresson, Niki Arya, Johan Bodegård, Niklas Hammar, Peter Fenici
Background -Reduction in cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) was recently reported with the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) empagliflozin in type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We compared HHF and death in patients newly initiated on any SGLT-2i versus other glucose lowering drugs (oGLDs) in six countries to determine if these benefits are seen in real-world practice, and across SGLT-2i class. Methods -Data were collected via medical claims, primary care/hospital records and national registries from the US, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany and the UK...
May 18, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522226/electron-crystallography-reveals-that-substrate-release-from-the-pts-iic-glucose-transporter-is-coupled-to-a-subtle-conformational-change
#20
David Kalbermatter, Po-Lin Chiu, Jean-Marc Jeckelmann, Zöhre Ucurum, Thomas Walz, Dimitrios Fotiadis
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a structurally and functionally complex system that mediates sugar uptake in bacteria. Besides several soluble subunits, the glucose-specific PTS includes the integral membrane protein IICB that couples the transmembrane transport of glucose to its phosphorylation. Here, we used electron crystallography of sugar-embedded tubular crystals of the glucose-specific IIC transport domain from Escherichia coli (ecIIC(glc)) to visualize the structure of the transporter in the presence and absence of its substrate...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
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