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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725010/glucose-deficiency-elevates-acid-sensing-ion-channel-2a-expression-and-increases-seizure-susceptibility-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Haitao Zhang, Guodong Gao, Yu Zhang, Yang Sun, Huanfa Li, Shan Dong, Wei Ma, Bei Liu, Weiwen Wang, Hao Wu, Hua Zhang
Brain hypometabolism is a common epilepsy-related finding in both patients and animal models. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies have shown that recurrent seizures lead to reduced glucose metabolism in certain brain regions, but no studies have definitively determined whether this induces epileptogenesis. There is evidence that acid-sensing ion channel 2a (ASIC2a) affects epilepsy susceptibility. Transcription factor CP2 (TFCP2) regulates ASIC2a expression. We report that suppressed TFCP2 expression and elevated ASIC2a expression were associated with glucose hypometabolism in the hippocampi of humans with epilepsy and of rat epilepsy model brains...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722103/decreased-levels-of-active-upa-and-klk8-assessed-by-111-in-mica-401-binding-correlate-with-the-seizure-burden-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Stephan Missault, Lore Peeters, Halima Amhaoul, David Thomae, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Barbara Favier, Anagha Thakur, Jeroen Van Soom, Asla Pitkänen, Koen Augustyns, Jurgen Joossens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVE: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [(111) In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [(111) In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [(111) In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719803/elevated-sterol-regulatory-elementary-binding-protein-1-and-glua2-levels-in-the-hippocampal-nuclear-fraction-of-genetic-absence-epilepsy-rats-from-strasbourg
#3
Sathiya Sekar, Entesar Omran, Venkat Gopalakrishnan, John G Howland, Terrance P Snutch, Changiz Taghibiglou
Studies in animal models and human tissues show that nuclear translocation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and glutamate A2 subunit (GluA2) of cell-surface AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trigger neuronal excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis in stroke. However, it is not known whether a similar type of underlying pathophysiology occurs in absence epilepsy. To explore this issue, we examined the levels of mature SREBP1, GluA2, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), p53, and activated to total caspase 3 ratio in nuclear fractions (NF) of hippocampal homogenate from 8 to 10 week old male Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and non-epileptic control (NEC) strains...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716398/serotonin-depletion-increases-seizure-susceptibility-and-worsens-neuropathological-outcomes-in-kainate-model-of-epilepsy
#4
Gisela H Maia, Cátia S Brazete, Joana I Soares, Liliana L Luz, Nikolai V Lukoyanov
Serotonin is implicated in the regulation of seizures, but whether or not it can potentiate the effects of epileptogenic factors is not fully established. Using the kainic acid model of epilepsy in rats, we tested the effects of serotonin depletion on (1) susceptibility to acute seizures, (2) development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and (3) behavioral and neuroanatomical sequelae of kainic acid treatment. Serotonin was depleted by pretreating rats with p-chlorophenylalanine. In different groups, kainic acid was injected at 3 different doses: 6...
July 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715338/closed-loop-neurostimulators-a-survey-and-a-seizure-predicting-design-example-for-intractable-epilepsy-treatment
#5
Hossein Kassiri, Sana Tonekaboni, M Tariqus Salam, Nima Soltani, Karim Abdelhalim, Jose Luis Perez Velazquez, Roman Genov
First, existing commercially available open-loop and closed-loop implantable neurostimulators are reviewed and compared in terms of their targeted application, physical size, system-level features, and performance as a medical device. Next, signal processing algorithms as the primary strength point of the closed-loop neurostimulators are reviewed, and various design and implementation requirements and trade-offs are discussed in details along with quantitative examples. The review results in a set of guidelines for algorithm selection and evaluation...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713955/altered-axon-initial-segment-in-hippocampal-newborn-neurons-associated-with-recurrence-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-rats
#6
Tian-Tian Liu, Li Feng, Heng-Fang Liu, Yi Shu, Bo Xiao
Hippocampal neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may result in alteration of the excitability of neurons, which contributes to spontaneous recurrent seizures. Axon initial segment (AIS) structural and functional plasticity is important in the control of neuronal excitability. It remains to be elucidated whether the plasticity of AIS occurs in hippocampal newly‑generated neurons that are involved in recurrent seizures following pilocarpine‑induced status epilepticus (SE). The present study first established a pilocarpine‑induced TLE rat model to assess the features of newborn neurons and AIS plasticity alterations using double immunofluorescence staining of Ankyrin G and doublecortin (DCX)...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713279/antiepileptogenic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-pergularia-daemia-on-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#7
Antoine K Kandeda, Germain S Taiwe, Fleur C O Moto, Gwladys T Ngoupaye, Gisele C N Nkantchoua, Jacqueline S K Njapdounke, Jean P O Omam, Simon Pale, Nadege Kouemou, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
In this study, we investigated antiepileptogenic and neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extract of Pergularia daemia roots (PDR) using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. In in vivo studies, status epilepticus caused by pilocarpine injection triggers epileptogenesis which evolves during about 1-2 weeks. After 2 h of status epilepticus, mice were treated during the epileptogenesis period for 7 days with sodium valproate and vitamin C (standards which demonstrated to alter epileptogenesis), or Pergularia daemia...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710024/intranasal-nerve-growth-factor-attenuating-the-seizure-onset-via-p75r-caspase-pathway-in-the-experimental-epilepsy
#8
Jing'an Lei, Fang Feng, Yuanyuan Duan, Feng Xu, Zhiguang Liu, Lifei Lian, Qiming Liang, Na Zhang, Furong Wang
BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) shows neuroprotection while it is hard to cross the blood-brain barrier due to its large molecular weight. Our study used intranasal delivery of NGF to treat the experimental epilepsy. METHODS: The seizure was induced by injection of pentylenetetrazol (40mg/kg) into the rat. Based on the behavior performance, the successful models were randomized into control and NGF groups, given medium or NGF intranasally, respectively. The onset and duration of seizure were recorded...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709992/time-dependent-evolution-of-seizures-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Charles Behr, Maxime Lévesque, Thomas Stroh, Massimo Avoli
Low-voltage fast (LVF) and hypersynchronous (HYP) - onset seizures occur in the EEG obtained with depth electrodes from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients and animal models. In epileptic rats analyzed up to approximately two weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), these patterns are associated with specific high-frequency oscillation (HFO) content: ripples (80-200Hz) or fast-ripples (250-500Hz) predominate in LVF or HYP seizures, respectively. To establish whether these features change over the course of the disease, we recorded the EEG from the hippocampal CA3 subfield, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus in two groups of pilocarpine-treated rats: the "early stage group" (n=8) was analyzed from day 3 to 20 post-SE while the "late stage group" (n=7) was studied from day 27 to 53 post-SE...
July 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708842/evaluating-whole-genome-sequence-data-from-the-genetic-absence-epilepsy-rat-from-strasbourg-and-its-related-non-epileptic-strain
#10
Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Kim L Powell, Mingfu Zhu, C Ryan Campbell, Jessica M Maia, Zhong Ren, Nigel C Jones, Terence J O'Brien, Slavé Petrovski
OBJECTIVE: The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) are an inbreed Wistar rat strain widely used as a model of genetic generalised epilepsy with absence seizures. As in humans, the genetic architecture that results in genetic generalized epilepsy in GAERS is poorly understood. Here we present the strain-specific variants found among the epileptic GAERS and their related Non-Epileptic Control (NEC) strain. The GAERS and NEC represent a powerful opportunity to identify neurobiological factors that are associated with the genetic generalised epilepsy phenotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708399/development-and-validation-of-a-computational-model-ensemble-for-the-early-detection-of-bcrp-abcg2-substrates-during-the-drug-design-stage
#11
Melisa Edith Gantner, Roxana Noemí Peroni, Juan Francisco Morales, María Luisa Villalba, María Esperanza Ruiz, Alan Talevi
Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux transporter linked to the multidrug resistance phenomenon in many diseases such as epilepsy and cancer, and a potential source of drug interactions. For those reasons, the early identification of substrates and non-substrates of this transporter during the drug discovery stage is of great interest. We have developed a computational non-linear model ensemble based on conformational independent molecular descriptors using a combined strategy of genetic algorithms, J48 decision tree classifiers and data fusion...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697972/neuroprotection-of-edaravone-on-the-hippocampus-of-kainate-induced-epilepsy-rats-through-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#12
Zhiguang Liu, Chengzhi Yang, Xinyan Meng, Zaili Li, Cunling Lv, Peiwei Cao
Epilepsy is a severe and chronic neurological disease. Edaravone is an effective free radical scavenger and has been reported to prevent neuronal loss induced by Kainate (KA). However, the molecular mechanisms by which edaravone inhibits KA-induced neuron injury remain elusive. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. For KA treatment, Kainate (4 μg/kg) were administrated in the right hippocampus CA3 region with sereotactic technique. And for edaravone treatment, the rats were intraperitoneal injection with edaravone (10 mg kg (- 1) d (- 1))...
July 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691717/interaction-between-urethane-and-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-agonist-and-antagonist-in-penicillin-induced-epileptiform-activity
#13
Gokhan Arslan, Sabiha Kubra Alici, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Erdal Agar
Previous experimental studies have shown that various anesthetics alter the effects of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists on the cardiac response to different stimuli. Since no data have shown an interaction between urethane and cannabinoid signaling in epilepsy, we examined the suitability of urethane with regard to testing the effects of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and an antagonist on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Permanent screw electrodes for electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings, and a permanent cannula for administration of the substances to the brain ventricles, were placed into the cranium of rats...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691204/mortality-with-brainstem-seizures-from-focal-4-aminopyridine-induced-recurrent-hippocampal-seizures
#14
Muhammad Tariqus Salam, Gaspard Montandon, Roman Genov, Orrin Devinsky, Martin Del Campo, Peter L Carlen
OBJECTIVE: Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy is the leading cause of death in young adult epilepsy patients, typically occurring during the early postictal period, presumably resulting from brainstem and cardiorespiratory dysfunction. We hypothesized that ictal discharges in the brainstem disrupt the cardiorespiratory network, causing mortality. To study this hypothesis, we chose an animal model comprising focal unilateral hippocampal injection of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), which produced focal recurrent hippocampal seizures with secondary generalization in awake, behaving rats...
July 10, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691158/anticonvulsant-effect-of-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-in-models-of-seizures-in-developing-rats
#15
Megan N Huizenga, Evan Wicker, Veronica C Beck, Patrick A Forcelli
OBJECTIVE: Although drugs targeting the cannabinoid system (e.g., CB1 receptor agonists) display anticonvulsant efficacy in adult animal models of seizures/epilepsy, they remain unexplored in developing animal models. However, cannabinoid system functions emerge early in development, providing a rationale for targeting this system in neonates. We examined the therapeutic potential of drugs targeting the cannabinoid system in three seizure models in developing rats. METHODS: Postnatal day (P) 10, Sprague-Dawley rat pups were challenged with the chemoconvulsant methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), after treatment with either CB1/2 mixed agonist (WIN 55,212-2), CB1 agonist (arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide [ACEA]), CB2 agonist (HU-308), CB1 antagonist (AM-251), CB2 antagonist (AM-630), fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor (URB-597), or G protein-coupled receptor 55 agonist (O-1602)...
July 10, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688333/toxoplasmosis-accelerates-acquisition-of-epilepsy-in-rats-undergoing-chemical-kindling
#16
Jalal Babaie, Mohammad Sayyah, Samira Choopani, Tara Asgari, Majid Golkar, Kourosh Gharagozli
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders worldwide with no distinguishable cause in 60% of patients. One-third of the world population has been infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This intracellular parasite has high tropism for excitable cells including neurons. We assessed impact of acute and chronic T. gondii infection on epileptogenesis in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in male rats. T. gondii cysts were administered to rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The presence of T. gondii cysts in the brain of rats was verified by hematoxylin-eosin staining...
June 24, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687854/neuroprotective-effects-of-vitamin-d-alone-or-in-combination-with-lamotrigine-against-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-status-epilepticus-in-rats
#17
Amal M Mahfoz, Ali F Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed A Afify, Naiyer Shahzad, Ibrahim A A Ibrahim, Naser A ElSawy, Ghazi A Bamagous, Saeed S Al Ghamdi
Status epilepticus (SE) is considered one of the major serious forms of epilepsy with high mortality rate. Since the currently available antiepileptic drugs have low efficacy and high adverse effects, new more efficient and safe therapies are critically needed. There is increasing evidence supporting dietary and alternative therapies for epilepsy, including the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and omega-3 fatty acids. Recent studies have shown significant prophylactic and therapeutic potential of vitamin D (vit-D) use in many neurological disorders...
July 7, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686803/the-calcium-sensor-synaptotagmin-1-is-expressed-and-regulated-in-hippocampal-postsynaptic-spines
#18
Suleman Hussain, Daniel Lawer Egbenya, Yi-Chen Lai, Zita J Dosa, Jakob B Sørensen, Anne Anderson, Svend Davanger
Synaptotagmin 1 is a presynaptic calcium sensor, regulating SNARE-mediated vesicle exocytosis of transmitter. Increasing evidence indicate roles of SNARE proteins in postsynaptic glutamate receptor trafficking. However, a possible postsynaptic expression of synaptotagmin 1 has not been demonstrated previously. Here, we used postembedding immunogold electron microscopy to determine the subsynaptic localization of synaptotagmin 1 in rat hippocampal CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. We report for the first time that synaptotagmin 1 is present in rat hippocampal postsynaptic spines, both on cytoplasmic vesicles and at the postsynaptic density (PSD)...
July 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675559/neuroinflammation-in-epileptogenesis-insights-and-translational-perspectives-from-new-models-of-epilepsy
#19
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Wolfgang Löscher, H Steve White, Aristea S Galanopoulou
Animal models have provided a wealth of information on mechanisms of epileptogenesis and comorbidogenesis, and have significantly advanced our ability to investigate the potential of new therapies. Processes implicating brain inflammation have been increasingly observed in epilepsy research. Herein we discuss the progress on animal models of epilepsy and comorbidities that inform us on the potential role of inflammation in epileptogenesis and comorbidity pathogenesis in rodent models of West syndrome and the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) mouse model of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673833/the-glutamate-receptor-antagonists-cnqx-and-mpep-decrease-fast-ripple-events-in-rats-treated-with-kainic-acid
#20
Laura Medina-Ceja, Carla García-Barba
Fast ripples (FR) are high frequency oscillations (250-600Hz) that have been associated with epilepsy. FR are assumed to be generated in small areas of the hippocampus (1mm(3)) that contain pathologically interconnected glutamate pyramidal cell clusters. Additionally, a relation between glutamate neurotransmission and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainite (AMPA/KA) and metabotropic mGluR5 receptors is well established. Therefore, we hypothesized that antagonism of these glutamate receptors would decrease FR activity...
June 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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