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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923596/chemically-activated-luminopsins-allow-optogenetic-inhibition-of-distributed-nodes-in-an-epileptic-network-for-non-invasive-and-multi-site-suppression-of-seizure-activity
#1
Jack K Tung, Fu Hung Shiu, Kevin Ding, Robert E Gross
Although optogenetic techniques have proven to be invaluable for manipulating and understanding complex neural dynamics over the past decade, they still face practical and translational challenges in targeting networks involving multiple, large, or difficult-to-illuminate areas of the brain. We utilized inhibitory luminopsins to simultaneously inhibit multiple limbic structures of the rat brain in a hardware-independent and cell-type specific manner to suppress seizure activity in a rat model of epilepsy. In addition to elucidating mechanisms of seizure suppression never directly demonstrated before, this work also illustrates how precise multi-focal control of pathological circuits can be advantageous for the treatment of epilepsy, which may also be applicable to the treatment and understanding of other neurological disorders involving broad neural circuits...
September 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922856/building-up-absence-seizures-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-from-network-to-cellular-epileptogenic-processes
#2
Guillaume Jarre, Tristan Altwegg-Boussac, Mark S Williams, Florian Studer, Mathilde Chipaux, Olivier David, Stéphane Charpier, Antoine Depaulis, Séverine Mahon, Isabelle Guillemain
The epileptogenic processes leading to recurrent seizures in Genetic Epilepsies are largely unknown. Using the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rat from Strasbourg, we investigated in vivo the network and single neuron mechanisms responsible for the early emergence of epileptic activity. Local field potential recordings in the primary somatosensory cortex (SoCx), from the second post-natal week to adulthood, showed that immature cortical discharges progressively evolved into typical spike-and-wave discharges following a 3-step maturation process...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913875/alterations-in-the-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-ligand-thrombospondin-1-in-a-rat-model-of-spontaneous-absence-epilepsy-and-in-patients-with-idiopathic-genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#3
Ines Santolini, Roberta Celli, Milena Cannella, Tiziana Imbriglio, Michela Guiducci, Pasquale Parisi, Julian Schubert, Michele Iacomino, Federico Zara, Holger Lerche, Slavianka Moyanova, Richard Teke Ngomba, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Pasquale Striano, Ferdinando Nicoletti
OBJECTIVES: Thrombospondins, which are known to interact with the α2 δ subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels to stimulate the formation of excitatory synapses, have recently been implicated in the process of epileptogenesis. No studies have been so far performed on thrombospondins in models of absence epilepsy. We examined whether expression of the gene encoding for thrombospondin-1 was altered in the brain of WAG/Rij rats, which model absence epilepsy in humans. In addition, we examined the frequency of genetic variants of THBS1 in a large cohort of children affected by idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsies (IGE/GGEs)...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912687/alterations-in-properties-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-following-pilocarpine-induced-acute-seizures-in-wistar-rats
#4
Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Julia L Ergina, Kirill A Kryukov, Ekaterina A Veniaminova, Olga E Zubareva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in humans, and is often developed after an initial precipitating brain injury. This form of epilepsy is frequently resistant to pharmacological treatment; therefore, the prevention of TLE is the prospective approach to TLE therapy. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rats replicates some of the main features of TLE in human, including the pathogenic mechanisms of cell damage and epileptogenesis after a primary brain injury. In the present study, we investigated changes in the properties of glutamatergic transmission during the first 3 days after pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in Wistar rats (PILO-rats)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912545/the-cacna1h-mutation-in-the-gaers-model-of-absence-epilepsy-enhances-t-type-ca-2-currents-by-altering-calnexin-dependent-trafficking-of-cav3-2-channels
#5
Juliane Proft, Yuriy Rzhepetskyy, Joanna Lazniewska, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Stuart M Cain, Terrance P Snutch, Gerald W Zamponi, Norbert Weiss
Low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels are essential contributors to the functioning of thalamocortical neurons by supporting burst-firing mode of action potentials. Enhanced T-type calcium conductance has been reported in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rat from Strasbourg (GAERS) and proposed to be causally related to the overall development of absence seizure activity. Here, we show that calnexin, an endoplasmic reticulum integral membrane protein, interacts with the III-IV linker region of the Cav3...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905646/express-side-effects-of-convulsive-seizures-and-anti-seizure-therapy-on-bone-in-a-rat-model-of-epilepsy
#6
Sebnem Garip Ustaoglu, Zafer Evis, Gul Ilbay, Adele Boskey, Feride Severcan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902172/behavioral-and-neurochemical-consequences-of-pentylenetetrazol-induced-kindling-in-young-and-middle-aged-rats
#7
Alexandre Ademar Hoeller, Cristiane Ribeiro de Carvalho, Pedro Leite Costa Franco, Douglas Affonso Formolo, Alexandre Kracker Imthon, Henrique Rodighero Dos Santos, Ingrid Eidt, Gabriel Roman Souza, Leandra Celso Constantino, Camila Leite Ferreira, Rui Daniel Prediger, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Roger Walz
(1) Objectives: Epilepsy disorder is likely to increase with aging, leading to an increased incidence of comorbidities and mortality. In spite of that, there is a lack of information regarding this issue and little knowledge of cognitive and emotional responses in aging subjects following epileptogenesis. We investigated whether and how aging distress epilepsy-related behavioral and biochemical outcomes are associated with cognition and emotion. (2) Methods: Young and middle-aged Wistar rats (3 or 12 months old) were treated with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 35 mg/kg) and injected on alternated days for 20 (young rats) and 32 days (middle-aged rats)...
September 13, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894217/the-faah-inhibitor-urb597-suppresses-hippocampal-maximal-dentate-afterdischarges-and-restores-seizure-induced-impairment-of-short-and-long-term-synaptic-plasticity
#8
Roberto Colangeli, Massimo Pierucci, Arcangelo Benigno, Giuseppe Campiani, Sefania Butini, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Synthetic cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids have been shown to suppress seizures both in humans and experimental models of epilepsy. However, they generally have a detrimental effect on memory and memory-related processes. Here we compared the effect of the inhibition of the endocannabinoid (eCB) degradation versus synthetic CB agonist on limbic seizures induced by maximal dentate activation (MDA) acute kindling. Moreover, we investigated the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell reactivity and synaptic plasticity in naïve and in MDA-kindled anaesthetised rats...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893669/mismatch-novelty-exploration-training-enhances-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-a-tool-for-cognitive-stimulation
#9
M F Aidil-Carvalho, A J S Carmo, J A Ribeiro, D Cunha-Reis
Memory formation relies on experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength such as long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic activity, that in turn depend on previous learning experiences through metaplasticity. Novelty detection is a particularly important cognitive stimulus in this respect, and mismatch novelty has been associated with the activation of the hippocampal CA1 area in human studies. A single exposure a new location of known objects in a familiar environment, a behavioural mismatch novelty paradigm, is known to favour the expression of LTD in hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synaptic transmission in vivo, through short-term metaplasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892741/effect-of-diet-with-omega-3-in-basal-brain-electrical-activity-and-during-status-epilepticus-in-rats
#10
Daniella Tavares Pessoa, Eva Luana Almeida da Silva, Edbhergue Ventura Lola Costa, Romildo Albuquerque Nogueira
Western diets are high in saturated fat and low in omega-3. Certain animals cannot produce omega-3 from their own lipids, making it necessary for it to be acquired from the diet. However, omega-3s are important components of the plasma membrane, and altering their proportions can promote physical and chemical alterations in the membranes, which may modify neuronal excitability. These alterations occur in healthy individuals, as well as in patients with epilepsy who are more sensitive to changes in brain electrical activity...
September 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888867/pick1facilitates-lasting-reduction-in-glua2-concentration-in-the-hippocampus-during-chronic-epilepsy
#11
Jan-Øyvind Lorgen, Daniel Lawer Egbenya, Janniche Hammer, Svend Davanger
Overstimulation of glutamate receptors resulting in excessive intracellular calcium concentrations is a major cause of neuronal cell death in epilepsy. The main source of increased calcium concentration during this excitotoxicity is an influx through NMDA subtype of glutamate receptors. The GluR2 hypothesis states that following a neurological insult such as an epileptic seizure, the AMPAR subunit GluR2 protein is down regulated. This increases the likelihood of the formation of GluR2-lacking, calcium-permeable AMPARs which might further enhance the toxicity of the neurotransmitter, glutamate...
August 31, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888818/consequences-of-perinatal-hypoxia-in-developing-brain-changes-in-gaba-transporter-functioning-in-cortical-hippocampal-and-thalamic-rat-nerve-terminals
#12
Natalia Pozdnyakova
Perinatal hypoxia leads to behavioral abnormalities, cognitive disabilities, and epilepsy resulting from alterations in neurodevelopment, maturation and construction of the network. Considering a particular role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for an immature brain, we analysed transporter-mediated [(3)H]GABA uptake in the cortical, hippocampal and thalamic nerve terminals isolated from rats of different age in the control and after perinatal hypoxia. The state of hypoxia was induced by exposure of rats at the age of 10 postnatal days (pd) (that corresponds approximately to the time of birth in humans) to a respiratory medium with low O2 content (4% O2 and 96%N2) for 12min (up to the initiation of clonico-tonic seizures)...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886886/are-changes-in-excitability-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-male-rats-induced-by-prenatal-methamphetamine-exposure-or-stress
#13
Klara Bernaskova, Simona Tomkova, Romana Slamberova
Prenatal stress and drug exposure induce permanent alterations of the brain. Even though different brain structures are involved, alterations almost always refer to the hippocampus. The aim of this study was to investigate the excitability of hippocampal slices in low-magnesium epilepsy model of prenatally methamphetamine (MA, 5mg/kg sc.) or saline (sc., stress model) exposed animals in adult male rats. The second aim was to investigate, if a low dose of MA (1ml/kgs.c.) administered in adulthood changes the hippocampal activity of these animals...
September 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886474/functional-connectivity-of-the-hippocampus-to-the-thalamocortical-circuitry-in-an-animal-model-of-absence-seizures
#14
Seyed Reza Mousavi, Justin A Arcaro, L Stan Leung, Jeffrey R Tenney, Seyed M Mirsattari
OBJECTIVE: Using the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) rat model of absence seizures, this study investigated the functional connectivity of the hippocampus, thalamus and cerebral cortex before and during absence seizures. METHODS: Functional connectivity between the hippocampus, thalamus and sensory and motor cortecies, were examined by the temporal correlations of the resting state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Functional connectivity between these regions was calculated at baseline, 5min after saline injection, and at 5, 20 and 52min after GBL injection...
August 24, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879430/high-mobility-group-box-1-enhances-hyperthermia-induced-seizures-and-secondary-epilepsy-associated-with-prolonged-hyperthermia-induced-seizures-in-developing-rats
#15
Masanori Ito, Hisaaki Takahashi, Hajime Yano, Yusuke I Shimizu, Yoshiaki Yano, Yoshito Ishizaki, Junya Tanaka, Eiichi Ishii, Mitsumasa Fukuda
Levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an important inflammatory mediator, are high in the serum of febrile seizure (FS) patients. However, its roles in FS and secondary epilepsy after prolonged FS are poorly understood. We demonstrate HMGB1's role in the pathogenesis of hyperthermia-induced seizures (HS) and secondary epilepsy after prolonged hyperthermia-induced seizures (pHS). In the first experiment, 14-15-day-old male rats were divided into four groups: high-dose HMGB1 (100 μg), moderate-dose (10 μg), low-dose (1 μg), and control...
September 6, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878165/mitochondrial-liver-toxicity-of-valproic-acid-and-its-acid-derivatives-is-related-to-inhibition-of-945-lipoamide-dehydrogenase
#16
Alexei P Kudin, Hafiz Mawasi, Arik Eisenkraft, Christian E Elger, Meir Bialer, Wolfram S Kunz
The liver toxicity of valproic acid (VPA) is an established side effect of this widely used antiepileptic drug, which is extremely problematic for patients with metabolic epilepsy and particularly epilepsy due to mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present report, we investigated the reason for liver mitochondrial toxicity of VPA and several acid and amide VPA analogues. While the pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate oxidation rates of rat brain mitochondria were nearly unaffected by VPA, rat liver mitochondrial pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate oxidation was severely impaired by VPA concentrations above 100 µM...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874824/eif4b-phosphorylation-at-ser504-links-synaptic-activity-with-protein-translation-in-physiology-and-pathology
#17
Barbara Bettegazzi, Serena Bellani, Paolo Roncon, Fabrizia Claudia Guarnieri, Alice Bertero, Franca Codazzi, Flavia Valtorta, Michele Simonato, Fabio Grohovaz, Daniele Zacchetti
Neuronal physiology requires activity-driven protein translation, a process in which translation initiation factors are key players. We focus on eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), a regulator of protein translation, whose function in neurons is undetermined. We show that neuronal activity affects eIF4B phosphorylation and identify Ser504 as a phosphorylation site regulated by casein kinases and sensitive to the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Ser504 phosphorylation increases eIF4B recruitment to the pre-initiation complex and influences eIF4B localization at synapses...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867572/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-interaction-of-hydroalcoholic-extract-of-ocimum-sanctum-with-valproate
#18
Sudhir Chandra Sarangi, Dipesh Joshi, Ritesh Kumar, Thomas Kaleekal, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
For effective control of seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are administered at higher dose which is associated with several adverse effects. This study envisaged antiepileptic and neuroprotective potential of Tulsi, a commonly used herb for its immunomodulatory property. The optimal dose of Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extract (OSHE) was determined using maximal electroshock seizure (MES)- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure models in Wistar rats (200-250g) after administering OSHE (200-1000mg/kg) orally for 14days...
August 31, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867480/vagus-nerve-stimulation-produces-a-hippocampal-formation-theta-rhythm-in-anesthetized-rats
#19
Adam Broncel, Renata Bocian, Paulina Kłos-Wojtczak, Jan Konopacki
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been used for years to treat patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. In the present study, the effect of different stimulation protocols of VNS on the hippocampal formation (HPC) type II theta field potentials were evaluated in anesthetized rats. The following theta parameters were analysed: power, frequency and duration of theta epochs. We documented for the first time the presence of HPC type II theta in response to the application of VNS. A VNS-induced theta rhythm appeared in different experimental protocols and, depending on the current intensity, could occur directly during VNS (brief effect) or after vagal stimulation (delayed effect), using lower intensity stimuli...
August 31, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866333/epilepsy-may-cause-increased-pain-sensitivity-evidence-from-absence-epileptic-wag-rij-rats
#20
Sibel K Velioglu, Oznur Gedikli, Mehmet Yıldırım, Ahmet Ayar
OBJECTIVE: The comorbidity of epilepsy and pain disorders as well as effectiveness of certain therapeutic approaches in both conditions attracted attention to epilepsy-pain interactions. This lead to the discovery of significantly shared pathophysiological mechanisms although many aspects remain largely unknown. To test the hypothesis that epilepsy may be associated with altered pain sensitivity, we analyzed interictal pain sensitivity using epilepsy prone WAG/Rij rats, a genetic model exhibiting age-related-onset absence epilepsy...
August 31, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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