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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214380/application-of-the-mechpeff-model-to-predict-passive-effective-intestinal-permeability-in-the-different-regions-of-the-rodent-small-intestine-and-colon
#1
D Pade, M Jamei, A Rostami-Hodjegan, D B Turner
A major component of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is prediction of the rate and extent of absorption of orally dosed drugs for which knowledge of effective passive intestinal permeability (Peff ) is essential. Single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies are used to establish effective permeability in vivo but are difficult to perform in rodents while mechanistic models to predict drug Peff in rat and mouse have not been published. This work evaluates the predictive performance of the 'MechPeff' model to predict Peff in the rodent intestine based upon knowledge of regional gut physiology and drug-specific physicochemical parameters...
February 18, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214368/evaluation-of-deformable-image-registration-between-external-beam-radiotherapy-and-hdr-brachytherapy-for-cervical-cancer-with-a-3d-printed-deformable-pelvis-phantom
#2
Noriyuki Kadoya, Yuya Miyasaka, Yujiro Nakajima, Yoshihiro Kuroda, Kengo Ito, Mizuki Chiba, Kiyokazu Sato, Suguru Dobashi, Takaya Yamamoto, Noriyoshi Takahashi, Masaki Kubozono, Ken Takeda, Keiichi Jingu
PURPOSE: In this study, we developed a 3D-printed deformable pelvis phantom for evaluating spatial DIR accuracy. We then evaluated the spatial DIR accuracies of various DIR settings for cervical cancer. METHODS: A deformable female pelvis phantom was created based on patient CT data using 3D printing. To create the deformable uterus phantom, we first 3D printed both a model of uterus and a model of the internal cavities of the vagina and uterus. We then made a mold using the 3D printed uterus phantom...
February 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214117/evaluating-carbon-fluxes-of-global-forest-ecosystems-by-using-an-individual-tree-based-model-forcchn
#3
Jianyong Ma, Herman H Shugart, Xiaodong Yan, Cougui Cao, Shuang Wu, Jing Fang
The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213985/capillary-dynamics-driven-by-molecular-self-layering
#4
Pingkeng Wu, Alex Nikolov, Darsh Wasan
Capillary dynamics is a ubiquitous everyday phenomenon. It has practical applications in diverse fields, including ink-jet printing, lab-on-a-chip, biotechnology, and coating. Understanding capillary dynamics requires essential knowledge on the molecular level of how fluid molecules interact with a solid substrate (the wall). Recent studies conducted with the surface force apparatus (SFA), atomic force microscope (AFM), and statistical mechanics simulation revealed that molecules/nanoparticles confined into the film/wall surfaces tend to self-layer into 2D layer/s and even 2D in-layer with increased confinement and fluid volume fraction...
February 10, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213941/population-pharmacokinetic-and-exposure-simulation-analysis-for-cediranib-azd2171-in-pooled-phase-i-ii-studies-in-patients-with-cancer
#5
Jianguo Li, Nidal Al-Huniti, Anja Henningsson, Weifeng Tang, Eric Masson
AIMS: A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed for cediranib to simulate cediranib exposure for different doses, including co-medication with strong UGT/Pgp inducers such as rifampicin, in cancer patients. METHODS: Plasma concentrations and covariates from 625 cancer patients after single or multiple oral cediranib administrations ranging from 0.5 to 90 mg in 19 Phase I and II studies were included in the analysis. Stepwise covariate modelling was used to develop the PPK model...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213940/estimating-mating-rates-in-wild-drosophila-melanogaster-females-by-decay-rates-of-male-reproductive-proteins-in-their-reproductive-tracts
#6
Thomas J Giardina, Andrew G Clark, Anthony C Fiumera
Female Drosophila melanogaster frequently mate with multiple males in nature as shown through parentage analysis. Although polyandry is well documented, we know little about the timing between mating events in wild Drosophila populations due to the challenge of following behaviors of individual females. In this study we used the presence of a male reproductive protein that is transferred to the female during mating (Sex Peptide, SP) to determine whether she had recently mated. We sampled females throughout the day, conducted control matings to determine the decay rate of SP within the female reproductive tract and performed computer simulations to fit the observed proportion of mated females to a non-homogenous Poisson process that defined the expected time between successive matings for a given female...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213834/molecular-simulation-of-receptor-occupancy-and-tumor-penetration-of-an-antibody-and-smaller-scaffolds-application-to-molecular-imaging
#7
Kelly D Orcutt, Gregory P Adams, Anna M Wu, Matthew D Silva, Catey Harwell, Jack Hoppin, Manabu Matsumura, Masakatsu Kotsuma, Jonathan Greenberg, Andrew M Scott, Robert A Beckman
PURPOSE: Competitive radiolabeled antibody imaging can determine the unlabeled intact antibody dose that fully blocks target binding but may be confounded by heterogeneous tumor penetration. We evaluated the hypothesis that smaller radiolabeled constructs can be used to more accurately evaluate tumor expressed receptors. PROCEDURES: The Krogh cylinder distributed model, including bivalent binding and variable intervessel distances, simulated distribution of smaller constructs in the presence of increasing doses of labeled antibody forms...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213831/a-phenomenological-cohesive-model-for-the-macroscopic-simulation-of-cell-matrix-adhesions
#8
M Cóndor, J M García-Aznar
Cell adhesion is crucial for cells to not only physically interact with each other but also sense their microenvironment and respond accordingly. In fact, adherent cells can generate physical forces that are transmitted to the surrounding matrix, regulating the formation of cell-matrix adhesions. The main purpose of this work is to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions through a cohesive formulation within the framework of the finite element method and based on the principles of continuum damage mechanics...
February 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213678/unifying-differential-item-functioning-in-factor-analysis-for-categorical-data-under-a-discretization-of-a-normal-variant
#9
Yu-Wei Chang, Nan-Jung Hsu, Rung-Ching Tsai
The multiple-group categorical factor analysis (FA) model and the graded response model (GRM) are commonly used to examine polytomous items for differential item functioning to detect possible measurement bias in educational testing. In this study, the multiple-group categorical factor analysis model (MC-FA) and multiple-group normal-ogive GRM models are unified under the common framework of discretization of a normal variant. We rigorously justify a set of identified parameters and determine possible identifiability constraints necessary to make the parameters just-identified and estimable in the common framework of MC-FA...
February 17, 2017: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213505/revealing-the-concealed-nature-of-long-qt-type-3-syndrome
#10
Amara Greer-Short, Sharon A George, Steven Poelzing, Seth H Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5) are associated with the long-QT-3 (LQT3) syndrome. Nav1.5 is densely expressed at the intercalated disk, and narrow intercellular separation can modulate cell-to-cell coupling via extracellular electric fields and depletion of local sodium ion nanodomains. Models predict that significantly decreasing intercellular cleft widths slows conduction because of reduced sodium current driving force, termed "self-attenuation...
February 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213474/a-bayesian-approach-for-analysis-of-whole-genome-bisulphite-sequencing-data-identifies-disease-associated-changes-in-dna-methylation
#11
Owen J L Rackham, Sarah R Langley, Thomas Oates, Eleni Vradi, Nathan Harmston, Prashant K Srivastava, Jacques Behmoaras, Petros Dellaportas, Leonardo Bottolo, Enrico Petretto
DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification involved in gene regulation whose contribution to disease susceptibility remains to be fully understood. Here, we present a novel Bayesian smoothing approach (called ABBA) to detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs) from whole-genome bisulphite sequencing (WGBS). We also show how this approach can be leveraged to identify disease-associated changes in DNA methylation, suggesting mechanisms through which these alterations might affect disease. From a data modeling perspective, ABBA has the distinctive feature of automatically adapting to different correlation structures in CpG methylation levels across the genome whilst taking into account the distance between CpG sites as a covariate...
February 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213442/amplitude-normalization-of-dendritic-epsps-at-the-soma-of-binaural-coincidence-detector-neurons-of-the-medial-superior-olive
#12
Bradley D Winters, Shan-Xue Jin, Kenneth R Ledford, Nace L Golding
The principal neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) encode cues for horizontal sound localization through comparisons of the relative timing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). To understand how the timing and amplitude of EPSPs is maintained during propagation in the dendrites, we made dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings from MSO principal neurons in brain slices from Mongolian gerbils. In somatic recordings, EPSP amplitudes were largely uniform following minimal stimulation of excitatory synapses at visualized locations along the dendrites...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213373/cost-effectiveness-of-the-2014-u-s-preventive-services-task-force-uspstf-recommendations-for-intensive-behavioral-counseling-interventions-for-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#13
Ji Lin, Xiaohui Zhuo, Barbara Bardenheier, Deborah B Rolka, W Edward Gregg, Yuling Hong, Guijing Wang, Ann Albright, Ping Zhang
OBJECTIVE: In 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended behavioral counseling interventions for overweight or obese adults with the following known cardiovascular disease risk factors: impaired fasting glucose (IFG), hypertension, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome. We assessed the long-term cost-effectiveness (CE) of implementing the recommended interventions in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a disease progression model to simulate the 25-year CE of the USPSTF recommendation for eligible U...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213166/influence-of-clamping-stress-and-duration-on-the-trauma-of-liver-tissue-during-surgery-operation
#14
Jin Wang, Qing-Yuan Yu, Wei Li, Bing-Rui Wang, Zhong-Rong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tissue grasping damage often occurs in minimally invasive surgery, which would increase the postoperative recovery time and the risk of surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between liver tissue trauma and compression stress magnitude and duration during tissue clamping operation. METHODS: The clamping experiments of liver tissues in vivo were conducted by using a universal soft tissue mechanical testing machine under different clamping stress magnitudes and durations...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212957/a-systematic-review-of-health-economics-simulation-models-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
REVIEW
Zafar Zafari, Stirling Bryan, Don D Sin, Tania Conte, Rahman Khakban, Mohsen Sadatsafavi
BACKGROUND: Many decision-analytic models with varying structures have been developed to inform resource allocation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To review COPD models for their adherence to the best practice modeling recommendations and their assumptions regarding important aspects of the natural history of COPD. METHODS: A systematic search of English articles reporting on the development or application of a decision-analytic model in COPD was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, and citations within reviewed articles...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212786/interplay-between-microbial-trait-dynamics-and-population-dynamics-revealed-by-the-combination-of-laboratory-experiment-and-computational-approaches
#16
Kenta Suzuki, Yuji Yamauchi, Takehito Yoshida
Filament formation is a common bacterial defense mechanism and possibly has a broad impact on microbial community dynamics. In order to examine the impact of filament formation on population dynamics, we developed an experimental system with a filamentous bacterium Flectobacillus sp. MWH38 and a ciliate predator Tetrahymena pyriformis. In this system, the effective defense of Flectobacillus resulted in the extinction of Tetrahymena by allowing almost no population growth. The result of a kairomone experiment suggested the existence of chemical signals for filament formation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212510/impact-of-paint-shop-decanter-effluents-on-biological-treatability-of-automotive-industry-wastewater
#17
Didem Güven, Oytun Hanhan, Elif Ceren Aksoy, Güçlü Insel, Emine Çokgör
A lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was implemented to investigate biological treatability and kinetic characteristics of paint shop wastewater (PSW) together with main stream wastewater (MSW) of a bus production factory. Readily biodegradable and slowly biodegradable COD fractions of MWS were determined by respirometric analysis: 4.2% (SS), 10.4% (SH) and 59.3% (XS). Carbon and nitrogen removal performance of the SBR feeding with MSW alone were obtained as 89% and 58%, respectively. When PSW was introduced to MSW, both carbon and nitrogen removal were deteriorated...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212405/a-simplified-fractional-order-impedance-model-and-parameter-identification-method-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#18
Qingxia Yang, Jun Xu, Binggang Cao, Xiuqing Li
Identification of internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries is a useful tool to evaluate battery performance, and requires an effective model and algorithm. Based on the least square genetic algorithm, a simplified fractional order impedance model for lithium-ion batteries and the corresponding parameter identification method were developed. The simplified model was derived from the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data and the transient response of lithium-ion batteries with different states of charge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212385/the-effect-of-tumour-size-on-drug-transport-and-uptake-in-3-d-tumour-models-reconstructed-from-magnetic-resonance-images
#19
Wenbo Zhan, Wladyslaw Gedroyc, Xiao Yun Xu
Drug transport and its uptake by tumour cells are strongly dependent on tumour properties, which vary in different types of solid tumours. By simulating the key physical and biochemical processes, a numerical study has been carried out to investigate the transport of anti-cancer drugs in 3-D tumour models of different sizes. The therapeutic efficacy for each tumour is evaluated by using a pharmacodynamics model based on the predicted intracellular drug concentration. Simulation results demonstrate that interstitial fluid pressure and interstitial fluid loss vary non-linearly with tumour size...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212336/the-influence-of-anion-shape-on-the-electrical-double-layer-microstructure-and-capacitance-of-ionic-liquids-based-supercapacitors-by-molecular-simulations
#20
Ming Chen, Song Li, Guang Feng
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. In this work, we investigate the effects of different supercapacitor models and anion shape on the electrical double layers (EDLs) of two different RTILs: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf₂N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(cyano)pyrrolide ([Emim][CNPyr]) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The EDL microstructure is represented by number densities of cations and anions, and the potential drop near neutral and charged electrodes reveal that the supercapacitor model with a single electrode has the same EDL structure as the model with two opposite electrodes...
February 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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