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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916247/comparison-of-two-control-groups-for-estimation-of-oral-cholera-vaccine-effectiveness-using-a-case-control-study-design
#1
Molly F Franke, J Gregory Jerome, Wilfredo R Matias, Ralph Ternier, Isabelle J Hilaire, Jason B Harris, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: Case-control studies to quantify oral cholera vaccine effectiveness (VE) often rely on neighbors without diarrhea as community controls. Test-negative controls can be easily recruited and may minimize bias due to differential health-seeking behavior and recall. We compared VE estimates derived from community and test-negative controls and conducted bias-indicator analyses to assess potential bias with community controls. METHODS: From October 2012 through November 2016, patients with acute watery diarrhea were recruited from cholera treatment centers in rural Haiti...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914730/family-and-environmental-influences-on-child-behavioral-health-the-role-of-neighborhood-disorder-and-adverse-childhood-experiences
#2
Xiafei Wang, Kathryn Maguire-Jack
OBJECTIVE: The Adverse Childhood Experiences study suggests childhood adversity is a "root" origin for health and human development. Newer research is examining the more immediate impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on child development and the impact of neighborhood environment on the likelihood of and prevention ACEs. The extent to which all of these aspects of the child context fit together remains unclear. The current study seeks to fill this gap examining the precursors for ACEs and the multitude of ways in which a child's home life can impact his or her development...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913911/older-adults-awareness-of-deprescribing-a-population-based-survey
#3
Justin P Turner, Cara Tannenbaum
OBJECTIVES: To determine older adults' awareness of the concept of medication-induced harm and their familiarity with the term "deprescribing." Secondary objectives were to ascertain determinants of self-initiated deprescribing conversations and to identify how older adults seek information on medication harms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based household telephone survey using random-digit dialling. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older (N = 2,665; n = 898 men, n = 1,767 women, mean age 74...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913882/reducing-disparities-in-cancer-screening-and-prevention-through-community-based-participatory-research-partnerships-with-local-libraries-a-comprehensive-dynamic-trial
#4
Bruce D Rapkin, Elisa Weiss, David Lounsbury, Tamara Michel, Alexis Gordon, Jennifer Erb-Downward, Eilleen Sabino-Laughlin, Alison Carpenter, Carolyn E Schwartz, Linda Bulone, Margaret Kemeny
Reduction of cancer-related disparities requires strategies that link medically underserved communities to preventive care. In this community-based participatory research project, a public library system brought together stakeholders to plan and undertake programs to address cancer screening and risk behavior. This study was implemented over 48 months in 20 large urban neighborhoods, selected to reach diverse communities disconnected from care. In each neighborhood, Cancer Action Councils were organized to conduct a comprehensive dynamic trial, an iterative process of program planning, implementation and evaluation...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913331/health-effects-and-public-health-concerns-of-energy-drink-consumption-in-the-united-states-a-mini-review
#5
REVIEW
Laila Al-Shaar, Kelsey Vercammen, Chang Lu, Scott Richardson, Martha Tamez, Josiemer Mattei
As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911048/what-can-different-motor-circuits-tell-us-about-psychosis-an-rdoc-perspective
#6
Vijay A Mittal, Jessica A Bernard, Georg Northoff
Signs of motor dysfunction are evidenced across a range of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Historically, these features have been neglected but emerging theoretical and methodological advancements have shed new light on the utility of considering movement abnormalities. Indeed, the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria initiative has recently met to develop a Motor Systems Domain. This reflects a growing appreciation for the enhanced reliability and validity that can come along with evaluating disturbances relevant to psychiatric illnesses from multiple levels of analysis, and conceptualizing these domains with respect to the complexity of their role in a broader integrated system (ie, weighing contributions and interactions between the cognitive, affective, and motor domains)...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904705/a-study-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-hypertension-among-employees-working-at-a-call-centre-nairobi-kenya
#7
Mwagi Joseph Onyango, Iyeri Kombe, Daniel Sagwe Nyamongo, Moses Mwangi
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension often referred to as Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Causes of hypertension are classified into modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and other associated factors leading to the onset of hypertension among employees working at the call center. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross sectional study design. Data collection was done in two parts; part one comprised of clinical health assessments; weight and height to aid determine Body Mass Index and blood pressure measurement...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903891/health-information-national-trends-survey-in-american-sign-language-hints-asl-protocol-for-the-cultural-adaptation-and-linguistic-validation-of-a-national-survey
#8
Poorna Kushalnagar, Raychelle Harris, Raylene Paludneviciene, TraciAnn Hoglind
BACKGROUND: The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms...
September 13, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903700/motivational-differences-in-seeking-out-evaluative-categorization-information
#9
Rachel Smallman, Brittney Becker
Previous research shows that people draw finer evaluative distinctions when rating liked versus disliked objects (e.g., wanting a 5-point scale to evaluate liked cuisines and a 3-point scale to rate disliked cuisines). Known as the preference-categorization effect, this pattern may exist not only in how individuals form evaluative distinctions but also in how individuals seek out evaluative information. The current research presents three experiments that examine motivational differences in evaluative information seeking (rating scales and attributes)...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894787/prevalence-of-anemia-overweight-obesity-and-undiagnosed-hypertension-and-diabetes-among-residents-of-selected-communities-in-ghana
#10
Alex Kojo Anderson
The increasing numbers of lifestyle related chronic diseases in developing countries call for awareness, early detection, and effective management. The objective of this paper is to report the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and anemia among residents of selected communities in Ghana. The data comes from a community screening conducted in Ghana as part of the University of Georgia Summer Service Learning Program. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data while chi-square and independent t-test compared groups...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893212/associations-between-media-use-and-health-information-seeking-behavior-on-vaccinations-in-south-korea
#11
Jiyeon Kim, Minsoo Jung
BACKGROUND: Although vaccinations are critical for preventing emerging infectious diseases, scant research has been conducted on risk communication. With socio-economic characteristics, health behavior, and underlying diseases under control, we investigated associations between media use, health information-seeking behavior, health information type, and vaccination in the population. METHODS: This study relied on a national survey of Korean adults (n = 1367). Participants were adult males and females age 20 and older...
September 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892555/stigma-of-hiv-testing-on-online-hiv-forums-self-stigma-and-the-unspoken
#12
Chia-Ling Lynn Ho, Wenjing Pan, Laramie D Taylor
Most studies examining HIV-related content in web forums have revolved around the most frequently used terms in HIV-related messages and topics, as well as the supportive nature of those messages. The current study explored barriers that prevent individuals from seeking HIV testing (specifically stigma). The current study analyzed a total of 210 threads and 319 posts, yielding 13 threads that revealed how individuals self-stigmatize and expressed how the fear of being diagnosed prevented them from seeking HIV testing...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890908/validation-study-of-a-predictive-algorithm-to-evaluate-opioid-use-disorder-in-a-primary-care-setting
#13
Maneesh Sharma, Chee Lee, Svetlana Kantorovich, Maria Tedtaotao, Gregory A Smith, Ashley Brenton
BACKGROUND: Opioid abuse in chronic pain patients is a major public health issue. Primary care providers are frequently the first to prescribe opioids to patients suffering from pain, yet do not always have the time or resources to adequately evaluate the risk of opioid use disorder (OUD). PURPOSE: This study seeks to determine the predictability of aberrant behavior to opioids using a comprehensive scoring algorithm ("profile") incorporating phenotypic and, more uniquely, genotypic risk factors...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889058/the-relationship-between-family-based-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-substance-use-behaviors-among-a-diverse-sample-of-college-students
#14
Myriam Forster, Timothy J Grigsby, Christopher J Rogers, Stephanie M Benjamin
INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that college students are an especially vulnerable subset of the population for substance use and misuse. However, despite evidence of the high prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) among students and the link between family-based ACE and substance use among older adults, this relationship remains understudied in college populations. Moreover, whether ACE represents a shared risk across substance use behaviors and ethnic groups is unknown. METHODS: Data are student responses (n=2953) on the 2015 American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) administered at one of the largest, most diverse public universities in California...
September 1, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888944/the-novel-dopamine-d3-receptor-antagonists-partial-agonists-cab2-015-and-bak4-54-inhibit-oxycodone-taking-and-oxycodone-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#15
Zhi-Bing You, Jun-Tao Gao, Guo-Hua Bi, Yi He, Comfort Boateng, Jianjing Cao, Eliot L Gardner, Amy Hauck Newman, Zheng-Xiong Xi
The use of prescription opioid analgesics, particularly oxycodone, has dramatically increased, and parallels escalated opioid abuse and drug-related deaths worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of opioid dependence and expanding treatment options to counter prescription opioid abuse has become a critical public health matter. In the present study, we first evaluated the reinforcing effects of oxycodone in a rat model of self-administration and then explored the potential utility of two novel high affinity dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) antagonists/partial agonists, CAB2-015 and BAK4-54, for treatment of prescription opioid abuse and dependence...
September 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887737/child-with-vomiting
#16
REVIEW
Madhusudan Samprathi, Muralidharan Jayashree
Vomiting is a common problem in children for which parents seek health care consultation. It has a varied etiology encompassing many organ systems, ranging from a benign physiological behavior to a life-threatening systemic disease. Most often, it is benign and self-limiting. Infections within and outside the gastrointestinal tract are the commonest causes. A good history and meticulous physical examination can discern the cause and help in delineating the benign cause from the sinister. Red flags include unstable vital signs, acidotic breathing, presence of bile or blood stained vomitus, features of gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction, encephalopathy and papilledema...
September 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885946/the-association-between-service-members-participation-in-humanitarian-aid-and-disaster-relief-and-mental-health-symptoms-and-treatments
#17
Yeong Kim, Nilam Patel, Glen Diehl, Patrick Richard
INTRODUCTION: There is a scarcity of research establishing a relationship between mental illness and the U.S. military service members who participate in the field of military humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR). One of the few studies in this area showed that participation in military HA/DR was not associated with depressive symptoms, however, the study was limited by sample size. This study examined (1) the relationship between participation in military HA/DR and mental health symptoms and military stress and (2) the relationship between HA/DR and mental health treatment and therapy...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885922/management-of-acute-diarrheal-illness-during-deployment-a-deployment-health-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#18
Mark S Riddle, Gregory J Martin, Clinton K Murray, Timothy H Burgess, Patrick Connor, James D Mancuso, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Timothy P Ballard, Jamie Fraser, David R Tribble
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrheal illness during deployment causes significant morbidity and loss of duty days. Effective and timely treatment is needed to reduce individual, unit, and health system performance impacts. METHODS: This critical appraisal of the literature, as part of the development of expert consensus guidelines, asked several key questions related to self-care and healthcare-seeking behavior, antibiotics for self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea, what antibiotics/regimens should be considered for treatment of acute watery diarrhea and febrile diarrhea and/or dysentery, and when and what laboratory diagnostics should be used to support management of deployment-related travelers' diarrhea...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881073/parental-professional-help-seeking-for-infant-sleep
#19
Pei-Wen Hsu, Wei-Wen Wu, Yi-Ching Tung, Karen A Thomas, Shao-Yu Tsai
AIMS: To explore the perceptions and experiences of parental professional help-seeking for infant sleep and sleep-related concerns. BACKGROUND: Infant sleep is a frequent concern for parents. However, very little is known about the reasons parents seek, do not seek, or delay seeking professional attention about their concerns related to infant sleep. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative study design was used. Twenty audiotaped interviews with parents of healthy 12-month-old infants were conducted at a university-affiliated hospital or parents' homes depending on where parents felt more comfortable discussing their personal views and medical help-seeking experiences...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880355/-mental-health-as-a-front-line-service-for-bewildered-persons
#20
C L Mulder, J van Weeghel, A Wierdsma, J Zoeteman, A Schene
'Bewildered persons' have often been in the news over the last few years. There has been much discussion about the meaning of the term 'bewildered persons', the number of people involved, the way the problem should be tackled and the role of the mental health services.<br/> AIM: To look critically at the term 'bewildered persons' and to discuss the suspected increase in numbers and the role of mental health services.<br/> METHOD: Review and discussion of the relevant literature relating to 'bewildered persons' which has been published in the last 25 years...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
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