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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053730/assessment-of-intra-and-interregional-genetic-variation-in-the-eastern-red-backed-salamander-plethodon-cinereus-via-analysis-of-novel-microsatellite-markers
#1
Alexander C Cameron, Jeffry J Anderson, Robert B Page
The red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) has long-served as a model system in ecology, evolution, and behavior, and studies surveying molecular variation in this species have become increasingly common over the past decade. However, difficulties are commonly encountered when extending microsatellite markers to populations that are unstudied from a genetic perspective due to high levels of genetic differentiation across this species' range. To ameliorate this issue, we used 454 pyrosequencing to identify hundreds of microsatellite loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770079/evolutionary-response-to-global-change-climate-and-land-use-interact-to-shape-color-polymorphism-in-a-woodland-salamander
#2
Bradley J Cosentino, Jean-David Moore, Nancy E Karraker, Martin Ouellet, James P Gibbs
Evolutionary change has been demonstrated to occur rapidly in human-modified systems, yet understanding how multiple components of global change interact to affect adaptive evolution remains a critical knowledge gap. Climate change is predicted to impose directional selection on traits to reduce thermal stress, but the strength of directional selection may be mediated by changes in the thermal environment driven by land use. We examined how regional climatic conditions and land use interact to affect genetically based color polymorphism in the eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus)...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751633/chemical-characterization-of-the-adhesive-secretions-of-the-salamander-plethodon-shermani-caudata-plethodontidae
#3
Janek von Byern, Ingo Grunwald, Max Kosok, Ralph A Saporito, Ursula Dicke, Oliver Wetjen, Karsten Thiel, Kai Borcherding, Thomas Kowalik, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann
Salamanders have developed a wide variety of antipredator mechanisms, including tail autotomy, colour patterns, and noxious skin secretions. As an addition to these tactics, the red-legged salamander (Plethodon shermani) uses adhesive secretions as part of its defensive strategy. The high bonding strength, the fast-curing nature, and the composition of the biobased materials makes salamander adhesives interesting for practical applications in the medical sector. To understand the adhesive secretions of P. shermani, its components were chemically analysed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), amino acid analysis, and spectroscopy (ATR-IR, Raman)...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731800/natural-history-constrains-the-macroevolution-of-foot-morphology-in-european-plethodontid-salamanders
#4
Dean C Adams, Dana Korneisel, Morgan Young, Annamaria Nistri
The natural history of organisms can have major effects on the tempo and mode of evolution, but few examples show how unique natural histories affect rates of evolution at macroevolutionary scales. European plethodontid salamanders (Plethodontidae: Hydromantes) display a particular natural history relative to other members of the family. Hydromantes commonly occupy caves and small crevices, where they cling to the walls and ceilings. On the basis of this unique and strongly selected behavior, we test the prediction that rates of phenotypic evolution will be lower in traits associated with climbing...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682480/effects-of-host-species-and-environment-on-the-skin-microbiome-of-plethodontid-salamanders
#5
Carly R Muletz Wolz, Stephanie A Yarwood, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Karen R Lips
The amphibian skin microbiome is recognized for its role in defence against pathogens, including the deadly fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Yet, we have little understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes that structure these communities, especially for salamanders and closely related species. We investigated patterns in the distribution of bacterial communities on Plethodon salamander skin across host species and environments. Quantifying salamander skin microbiome structure contributes to our understanding of how host-associated bacteria are distributed across the landscape, among host species, and their putative relationship with disease...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551363/salamanders-on-the-bench-a-biocompatibility-study-of-salamander-skin-secretions-in-cell-cultures
#6
Janek von Byern, Dietrich Mebs, Egon Heiss, Ursula Dicke, Oliver Wetjen, Kristin Bakkegard, Ingo Grunwald, Susanne Wolbank, Severin Mühleder, Alfred Gugerell, Heidemarie Fuchs, Sylvia Nürnberger
Salamanders have evolved a wide variety of antipredator mechanisms and behavior patterns, including toxins and noxious or adhesive skin secretions. The high bonding strength of the natural bioadhesives makes these substances interesting for biomimetic research and applications in industrial and medical sectors. Secretions of toxic species may help to understand the direct effect of harmful substances on the cellular level. In the present study, the biocompatibility of adhesive secretions from four salamander species (Plethodon shermani, Plethodon glutinosus, Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma opacum) were analyzed using the MTT assay in cell culture and evaluated against toxic secretions of Pleurodeles waltl, Triturus carnifex, Pseudotriton ruber, Tylototriton verrucosus, and Salamandra salamandra...
May 25, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459986/color-biased-dispersal-inferred-by-fine-scale-genetic-spatial-autocorrelation-in-a-color-polymorphic-salamander
#7
Alexa H Grant, Eric B Liebgold
Behavioral traits can be influenced by predation rates of color morphs, potentially leading to reduced boldness or increased escape behaviors in one color morph. The red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is a small terrestrial salamander whose color morphs have different diets and select different microhabitats, but little is known about potential differences in dispersal behaviors. We used fine-scale genetic spatial autocorrelation to examine 122 P. cinereus in a color-polymorphic population at 10 microsatellite loci in order to generate estimates of spatial genetic structure for each color morph...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358844/olfactory-effects-of-a-hypervariable-multicomponent-pheromone-in-the-red-legged-salamander-plethodon-shermani
#8
Damien B Wilburn, Kari A Doty, Adam J Chouinard, Sarah L Eddy, Sarah K Woodley, Lynne D Houck, Richard C Feldhoff
Chemical communication via chemosensory signaling is an essential process for promoting and modifying reproductive behavior in many species. During courtship in plethodontid salamanders, males deliver a mixture of non-volatile proteinaceous pheromones that activate chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) and increase female receptivity. One component of this mixture, Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF), is a hypervariable pheromone expressed as more than 30 unique isoforms that differ between individual males-likely driven by co-evolution with female receptors to promote gene duplication and positive selection of the PMF gene complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262636/effects-of-corticosterone-on-infection-and-disease-in-salamanders-exposed-to-the-amphibian-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Chris W Fonner, Shreya A Patel, Shelby M Boord, Matthew D Venesky, Sarah K Woodley
Although it is well established that glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) alter immune function and disease resistance in humans and laboratory animal models, fewer studies have linked elevated GCs to altered immune function and disease resistance in wild animals. The chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infects amphibians and can cause the disease chytridiomycosis, which is responsible for worldwide amphibian declines. It is hypothesized that long-term exposure to environmental stressors reduces host resistance to Bd by suppressing host immunity via stress-induced release of GCs such as corticosterone (CORT)...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213545/antifungal-bacteria-on-woodland-salamander-skin-exhibit-high-taxonomic-diversity-and-geographic-variability
#10
Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Graziella V DiRenzo, Stephanie A Yarwood, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Karen R Lips
Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin; some of those bacteria inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Yet there has been no systematic survey of anti-B. dendrobatidis bacteria across localities, species, and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variations in amphibian susceptibility to B. dendrobatidis Our collection sites were at locations within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling had indicated low B. dendrobatidis prevalence. We determined the numbers and identities of anti-B...
May 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166938/population-level-differences-in-thermal-sensitivity-of-energy-assimilation-in-terrestrial-salamanders
#11
Timothy A Clay, Matthew E Gifford
Thermal adaptation predicts that thermal sensitivity of physiological traits should be optimized to thermal conditions most frequently experienced. Furthermore, thermodynamic constraints predict that species with higher thermal optima should have higher performance maxima and narrower performance breadths. We tested these predictions by examining the thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation between populations within two species of terrestrial-lungless salamanders, Plethodon albagula and P. montanus. Within P...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121461/the-dynamic-evolutionary-history-of-genome-size-in-north-american-woodland-salamanders
#12
Catherine E Newman, T Ryan Gregory, Christopher C Austin
The genus Plethodon is the most species-rich salamander genus in North America, and nearly half of its species face an uncertain future. It is also one of the most diverse families in terms of genome sizes, which range from 1C = 18.2 to 69.3 pg, or 5-20 times larger than the human genome. Large genome size in salamanders results in part from accumulation of transposable elements and is associated with various developmental and physiological traits. However, genome sizes have been reported for only 25% of the species of Plethodon (14 of 55)...
April 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035265/evaluating-within-population-variability-in-behavior-and-demography-for-the-adaptive-potential-of-a-dispersal-limited-species-to-climate-change
#13
David J Muñoz, Kyle Miller Hesed, Evan H Campbell Grant, David A W Miller
Multiple pathways exist for species to respond to changing climates. However, responses of dispersal-limited species will be more strongly tied to ability to adapt within existing populations as rates of environmental change will likely exceed movement rates. Here, we assess adaptive capacity in Plethodon cinereus, a dispersal-limited woodland salamander. We quantify plasticity in behavior and variation in demography to observed variation in environmental variables over a 5-year period. We found strong evidence that temperature and rainfall influence P...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862524/sequence-capture-and-next-generation-sequencing-of-ultraconserved-elements-in-a-large-genome-salamander
#14
Catherine E Newman, Christopher C Austin
Amidst the rapid advancement in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology over the last few years, salamanders have been left behind. Salamanders have enormous genomes-up to 40 times the size of the human genome-and this poses challenges to generating NGS data sets of quality and quantity similar to those of other vertebrates. However, optimization of laboratory protocols is time-consuming and often cost prohibitive, and continued omission of salamanders from novel phylogeographic research is detrimental to species facing decline...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766381/comparative-and-developmental-patterns-of-amphibious-auditory-function-in-salamanders
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jeffrey N Zeyl, Carol E Johnston
Early amphibious tetrapods may have detected aquatic sound pressure using sound-induced lung vibrations, but their lack of tympanic middle ears would have restricted aerial sensitivity. Sharing these characteristics, salamanders could be models for the carryover of auditory function across an aquatic-terrestrial boundary without tympanic middle ears. We measured amphibious auditory evoked potential audiograms in five phylogenetically and ecologically distinct salamanders (Amphiuma means, Notophthalmus viridescens, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea spp...
December 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545109/lesions-of-the-dorsal-striatum-impair-orienting-behaviour-of-salamanders-without-affecting-visual-processing-in-the-tectum
#16
Tim Ruhl, Sabrina Hanslian, Ursula Dicke
In amphibians, visual information in the midbrain tectum is relayed via the thalamus to telencephalic centres. Lesions of the dorsal thalamus of the salamander Plethodon shermani result in impairment of orienting behaviour and in modulation of spike pattern of tectal neurons. These effects may be induced by an interruption of a tectum-thalamus-telencephalon-tectum feedback loop enabling spatial attention and selection of visual objects. The striatum is a potential candidate for involvement in this pathway; accordingly, we investigated the effects of lesioning the dorsal striatum...
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144403/invasive-asian-earthworms-negatively-impact-keystone-terrestrial-salamanders
#17
Julie L Ziemba, Cari-Ann M Hickerson, Carl D Anthony
Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087010/tongue-and-taste-organ-development-in-the-ontogeny-of-direct-developing-salamander-plethodon-cinereus-lissamphibia-plethodontidae
#18
Karolina A Budzik, Krystyna Żuwała, Ryan Kerney
The latest research on direct developing caecilian and anuran species indicate presence of only one generation of taste organs during their ontogeny. This is distinct from indirect developing batrachians studied thus far, which possess taste buds in larvae and anatomically distinct taste discs in metamorphs. This study is a description of the tongue and taste organ morphology and development in direct developing salamander Plethodon cinereus (Plethodontidae) using histology and electron microscopy techniques...
July 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26974148/multilocus-phylogeography-and-species-delimitation-in-the-cumberland-plateau-salamander-plethodon-kentucki-incongruence-among-data-sets-and-methods
#19
Shawn R Kuchta, Ashley D Brown, Paul E Converse, Richard Highton
Species are a fundamental unit of biodiversity, yet can be challenging to delimit objectively. This is particularly true of species complexes characterized by high levels of population genetic structure, hybridization between genetic groups, isolation by distance, and limited phenotypic variation. Previous work on the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki, suggested that it might constitute a species complex despite occupying a relatively small geographic range. To examine this hypothesis, we sampled 135 individuals from 43 populations, and used four mitochondrial loci and five nuclear loci (5693 base pairs) to quantify phylogeographic structure and probe for cryptic species diversity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26612894/dynamics-and-thermal-sensitivity-of-ballistic-and-non-ballistic-feeding-in-salamanders
#20
Stephen M Deban, Jeffrey A Scales
Low temperature reduces the performance of muscle-powered movements, but in movements powered by elastic recoil mechanisms, this effect can be mitigated and performance can be increased. To better understand the morphological basis of high performance and thermal robustness of elastically powered movements, we compared feeding dynamics at a range of temperatures (5-25°C) in two species of terrestrial plethodontid salamanders, Plethodon metcalfi and Ensatina eschscholtzii, which differ in tongue muscle architecture and the mechanism of tongue projection...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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