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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862524/sequence-capture-and-next-generation-sequencing-of-ultraconserved-elements-in-a-large-genome-salamander
#1
Catherine E Newman, Christopher C Austin
Amidst the rapid advancement in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology over the last few years, salamanders have been left behind. Salamanders have enormous genomes - up to 40 times the size of the human genome - and this poses challenges to generating NGS data sets of quality and quantity similar to those of other vertebrates. However, optimization of laboratory protocols is time-consuming and often cost prohibitive, and continued omission of salamanders from novel phylogeographic research is detrimental to species facing decline...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766381/comparative-and-developmental-patterns-of-amphibious-auditory-function-in-salamanders
#2
Jeffrey N Zeyl, Carol E Johnston
Early amphibious tetrapods may have detected aquatic sound pressure using sound-induced lung vibrations, but their lack of tympanic middle ears would have restricted aerial sensitivity. Sharing these characteristics, salamanders could be models for the carryover of auditory function across an aquatic-terrestrial boundary without tympanic middle ears. We measured amphibious auditory evoked potential audiograms in five phylogenetically and ecologically distinct salamanders (Amphiuma means, Notophthalmus viridescens, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea spp...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545109/lesions-of-the-dorsal-striatum-impair-orienting-behaviour-of-salamanders-without-affecting-visual-processing-in-the-tectum
#3
Tim Ruhl, Sabrina Hanslian, Ursula Dicke
In amphibians, visual information in the midbrain tectum is relayed via the thalamus to telencephalic centres. Lesions of the dorsal thalamus of the salamander Plethodon shermani result in impairment of orienting behaviour and in modulation of spike pattern of tectal neurons. These effects may be induced by an interruption of a tectum-thalamus-telencephalon-tectum feedback loop enabling spatial attention and selection of visual objects. The striatum is a potential candidate for involvement in this pathway; accordingly, we investigated the effects of lesioning the dorsal striatum...
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144403/invasive-asian-earthworms-negatively-impact-keystone-terrestrial-salamanders
#4
Julie L Ziemba, Cari-Ann M Hickerson, Carl D Anthony
Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087010/tongue-and-taste-organ-development-in-the-ontogeny-of-direct-developing-salamander-plethodon-cinereus-lissamphibia-plethodontidae
#5
Karolina A Budzik, Krystyna Żuwała, Ryan Kerney
The latest research on direct developing caecilian and anuran species indicate presence of only one generation of taste organs during their ontogeny. This is distinct from indirect developing batrachians studied thus far, which possess taste buds in larvae and anatomically distinct taste discs in metamorphs. This study is a description of the tongue and taste organ morphology and development in direct developing salamander Plethodon cinereus (Plethodontidae) using histology and electron microscopy techniques...
July 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26974148/multilocus-phylogeography-and-species-delimitation-in-the-cumberland-plateau-salamander-plethodon-kentucki-incongruence-among-data-sets-and-methods
#6
Shawn R Kuchta, Ashley D Brown, Paul E Converse, Richard Highton
Species are a fundamental unit of biodiversity, yet can be challenging to delimit objectively. This is particularly true of species complexes characterized by high levels of population genetic structure, hybridization between genetic groups, isolation by distance, and limited phenotypic variation. Previous work on the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki, suggested that it might constitute a species complex despite occupying a relatively small geographic range. To examine this hypothesis, we sampled 135 individuals from 43 populations, and used four mitochondrial loci and five nuclear loci (5693 base pairs) to quantify phylogeographic structure and probe for cryptic species diversity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26612894/dynamics-and-thermal-sensitivity-of-ballistic-and-non-ballistic-feeding-in-salamanders
#7
Stephen M Deban, Jeffrey A Scales
Low temperature reduces the performance of muscle-powered movements, but in movements powered by elastic recoil mechanisms, this effect can be mitigated and performance can be increased. To better understand the morphological basis of high performance and thermal robustness of elastically powered movements, we compared feeding dynamics at a range of temperatures (5-25°C) in two species of terrestrial plethodontid salamanders, Plethodon metcalfi and Ensatina eschscholtzii, which differ in tongue muscle architecture and the mechanism of tongue projection...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26385001/co-option-and-evolution-of-non-olfactory-proteinaceous-pheromones-in-a-terrestrial-lungless-salamander
#8
Kari A Doty, Damien B Wilburn, Kathleen E Bowen, Pamela W Feldhoff, Richard C Feldhoff
Gene co-option is a major force in the evolution of novel biological functions. In plethodontid salamanders, males deliver proteinaceous courtship pheromones to the female olfactory system or transdermally to the bloodstream. Molecular studies identified three families of highly duplicated, rapidly evolving pheromones (PRF, PMF, and SPF). Analyses for Plethodon salamanders revealed pheromone mixtures of primarily PRF and PMF. The current study demonstrates that in Desmognathus ocoee--a plesiomorphic species with transdermal delivery--SPF is the major pheromone component representing >30% of total protein...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26163863/morphological-characterization-of-the-glandular-system-in-the-salamander-plethodon-shermani-caudata-plethodontidae
#9
Janek von Byern, Ursula Dicke, Egon Heiss, Ingo Grunwald, Stanislav Gorb, Yannick Staedler, Norbert Cyran
Amphibians have evolved a wide variety of mechanisms that provide a certain degree of protection against predators, including camouflage, tail autonomy, encounter behavior and noxious or toxic skin secretions. In addition to these strategies, some amphibians release a glue-like secretion onto the surface of their skin when threatened. While some information regarding the origin and production of these adhesive secretions is available for frogs such as Notaden bennetti, these aspects are only partially understood in salamanders...
October 2015: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26132077/thriving-in-the-cold-glacial-expansion-and-post-glacial-contraction-of-a-temperate-terrestrial-salamander-plethodon-serratus
#10
Catherine E Newman, Christopher C Austin
The dynamic geologic history of the southeastern United States has played a major role in shaping the geographic distributions of amphibians in the region. In the phylogeographic literature, the predominant pattern of distribution shifts through time of temperate species is one of contraction during glacial maxima and persistence in refugia. However, the diverse biology and ecology of amphibian species suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" model may be inappropriate. Nearly 10% of amphibian species in the region have a current distribution comprised of multiple disjunct, restricted areas that resemble the shape of Pleistocene refugia identified for other temperate taxa in the literature...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26079479/is-geographic-variation-within-species-related-to-macroevolutionary-patterns-between-species
#11
M C Fisher-Reid, J J Wiens
The relationship between microevolution and macroevolution is a central topic in evolutionary biology. An aspect of this relationship that remains very poorly studied in modern evolutionary biology is the relationship between within-species geographic variation and among-species patterns of trait variation. Here, we tested the relationship between climate and morphology among and within species in the salamander genus Plethodon. We focus on a discrete colour polymorphism (presence and absence of a red dorsal stripe) that appears to be related to climatic distributions in a common, wide-ranging species (Plethodon cinereus)...
August 2015: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26020008/calibrating-abundance-indices-with-population-size-estimators-of-red-back-salamanders-plethodon-cinereus-in-a-new-england-forest
#12
Ahmed A Siddig, Aaron M Ellison, Scott Jackson
Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators...
2015: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25786622/batesian-mimics-influence-the-evolution-of-conspicuousness-in-an-aposematic-salamander
#13
A C Kraemer, J M Serb, D C Adams
Conspicuousness, or having high contrast relative to the surrounding background, is a common feature of unpalatable species. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of conspicuousness, and while most involve the role of conspicuousness as a direct signal of unpalatability to potential predators, one hypothesis suggests that exaggerated conspicuousness may evolve in unpalatable species to reduce predator confusion with palatable species (potential Batesian mimics). This hypothesis of antagonistic coevolution between palatable and unpalatable species hinges on the 'cost of conspicuousness', in which conspicuousness increases the likelihood of predation more in palatable species than in unpalatable species...
May 2015: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25775182/partitioning-detectability-components-in-populations-subject-to-within-season-temporary-emigration-using-binomial-mixture-models
#14
Katherine M O'Donnell, Frank R Thompson, Raymond D Semlitsch
Detectability of individual animals is highly variable and nearly always < 1; imperfect detection must be accounted for to reliably estimate population sizes and trends. Hierarchical models can simultaneously estimate abundance and effective detection probability, but there are several different mechanisms that cause variation in detectability. Neglecting temporary emigration can lead to biased population estimates because availability and conditional detection probability are confounded. In this study, we extend previous hierarchical binomial mixture models to account for multiple sources of variation in detectability...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25517409/effects-of-timber-harvests-and-silvicultural-edges-on-terrestrial-salamanders
#15
Jami E MacNeil, Rod N Williams
Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25505537/a-metagenomics-based-approach-to-the-top-down-effect-on-the-detritivore-food-web-a-salamanders-influence-on-fungal-communities-within-a-deciduous-forest
#16
Donald M Walker, Brandy R Lawrence, Dakota Esterline, Sean P Graham, Michael A Edelbrock, Jessica A Wooten
The flow of energy within an ecosystem can be considered either top-down, where predators influence consumers, or bottom-up, where producers influence consumers. Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander) is a terrestrial keystone predator who feeds on invertebrates within the ecosystem. We investigated the impact of the removal of P. cinereus on the detritivore food web in an upland deciduous forest in northwest Ohio, U.S.A. A total of eight aluminum enclosures, each containing a single P. cinereus under a small log, were constructed in the deciduous forest...
November 2014: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25414176/historical-species-distribution-models-predict-species-limits-in-western-plethodon-salamanders
#17
Tara A Pelletier, Charlie Crisafulli, Steve Wagner, Amanda J Zellmer, Bryan C Carstens
Allopatry is commonly used to predict boundaries in species delimitation investigations under the assumption that currently allopatric distributions are indicative of reproductive isolation; however, species ranges are known to change over time. Incorporating a temporal perspective of geographic distributions should improve species delimitation; to explore this, we investigate three species of western Plethodon salamanders that have shifted their ranges since the end of the Pleistocene. We generate species distribution models (SDM) of the current range, hindcast these models onto a climatic model 21 Ka, and use three molecular approaches to delimit species in an integrated fashion...
November 2015: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25230362/questioning-the-use-of-an-amphibian-colour-morph-as-an-indicator-of-climate-change
#18
Jean-David Moore, Martin Ouellet
The effects of recent climate changes on earth ecosystems are likely among the most important ecological concerns in human history. Good bioindicators are essential to properly assess the magnitude of these changes. In the last decades, studies have suggested that the morph proportion of the eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), one of the most widely distributed and abundant vertebrate species in forests of eastern North America, could be used as a proxy for monitoring climate changes. Based on new discoveries in the northern areas of the species' range and on one of the largest compilation ever made for a vertebrate in North America (236 109 observations compiled from 1880 to 2013 in 1148 localities), we demonstrate however that climatic and geographic variables do not influence the colour morph proportions in P...
February 2015: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25191317/interactions-between-amphibians-symbiotic-bacteria-cause-the-production-of-emergent-anti-fungal-metabolites
#19
Andrew H Loudon, Jessica A Holland, Thomas P Umile, Elizabeth A Burzynski, Kevin P C Minbiole, Reid N Harris
Amphibians possess beneficial skin bacteria that protect against the disease chytridiomycosis by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Metabolite production may be a mechanism of competition between bacterial species that results in host protection as a by-product. We expect that some co-cultures of bacterial species or strains will result in greater Bd inhibition than mono-cultures. To test this, we cultured four bacterial isolates (Bacillus sp., Janthinobacterium sp...
2014: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25179396/proteomic-analyses-of-courtship-pheromones-in-the-redback-salamander-plethodon-cinereus
#20
Damien B Wilburn, Kathleen E Bowen, Pamela W Feldhoff, Richard C Feldhoff
The evolutionary success of plethodontid salamanders for ~100 MY is due partly to the use of courtship pheromones that regulate female receptivity. In ~90 % of plethodontid species, males deliver pheromones by "scratching" a female's dorsum, where pheromones diffuse transdermally into the bloodstream. However, in a single clade, representing ~10 % of Plethodon spp., males apply pheromones to the female's nares for olfactory delivery. Molecular studies have identified three major pheromone families: Plethodontid Receptivity Factor (PRF), Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF), and Sodefrin Precursor-like Factor (SPF)...
August 2014: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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