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Jeffrey L Weinell, Aaron M Bauer
A systematic study of the Trachylepis varia complex was conducted using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers for individuals sampled across the species range. The taxonomic history of T. varia has been complicated and its broad geographic distribution and considerable phenotypic variation has made taxonomic revision difficult, leading earlier taxonomists to suggest that T. varia is a species complex. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate gene trees and a multilocus time-tree, respectively, and we used these trees to identify the major clades (putative species) within T...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Pascal Milesi, Benoît S Assogba, Célestine M Atyame, Nicolas Pocquet, Arnaud Berthomieu, Sandra Unal, Patrick Makoundou, Mylène Weill, Pierrick Labbé
Gene duplications occur at a high rate. Although most appear detrimental, some homogeneous duplications (identical gene copies) can be selected for beneficial increase in produced proteins. Heterogeneous duplications, which combine divergent alleles of a single locus, are seldom studied due to the paucity of empirical data. We investigated their role in an ongoing adaptive process at the ace-1 locus in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. We assessed the worldwide diversity of the ace-1 alleles (single-copy, susceptible S and insecticide-resistant R, and duplicated D that pair one S and one R copy), analyzed their phylogeography, and measured their fitness to understand their early dynamics using population genetics models...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Agostino Leone, Ilenia Urso, Dimitrios Damalas, Jann Martinsohn, Antonella Zanzi, Stefano Mariani, Emilio Sperone, Primo Micarelli, Fulvio Garibaldi, Persefoni Megalofonou, Luca Bargelloni, Rafaella Franch, David Macias, Paulo Prodöhl, Séan Fitzpatrick, Marco Stagioni, Fausto Tinti, Alessia Cariani
Background: The blue shark (Prionace glauca, Linnaeus 1758) is one of the most abundant epipelagic shark inhabiting all the oceans except the poles, including the Mediterranean Sea, but its genetic structure has not been confirmed at basin and interoceanic distances. Past tagging programs in the Atlantic Ocean failed to find evidence of migration of blue sharks between the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic, despite the extreme vagility of the species. Although the high rate of by-catch in the Mediterranean basin, to date no genetic study on Mediterranean blue shark was carried out, which constitutes a significant knowledge gap, considering that this population is classified as "Critically Endangered", unlike its open-ocean counterpart...
2017: PeerJ
Xiao Chen, Jun-Jie Wang, Wei-Ming Ai, Hao Chen, Hung-Du Lin
The population structure of Scoliodon macrorhynchos from the Chinese coast was investigated using the mitochondrial control region. All 19 mtDNA haplotypes from 219 sequences were identified. Relatively high average haplotype diversity (0.797) and relatively low average nucleotide diversity (0.0013) were found together with a recent and sudden population expansion. Analysis of the mismatch distributions, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plot showed a pattern consistent with a recent population expansion event that may have taken place during the last glacial maximum (LGM)...
December 11, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Shahnaz Bibi, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem, Andrew Stephen Wiewel, Mirza Azhar Beg, Khalid Hameed, Musarrat Jabeen, Ghazala Kaukab Raja
Regions of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India have been proposed as the place of origin of Mus musculus castaneus. But despite the fact that Pakistan encompasses an important part of its range, M. m. castaneus populations in Pakistan have not been the subject of intensive genetic and biogeographic studies, except for a very small number of samples included in past studies. We studied genetic variation in M. m. castaneus (CAS) from northern Punjab Province, Pakistan, by using cytochrome b (Cytb) analysis in a sample of 98 individuals...
December 2017: Zoological Science
Alex Garcia-Cisneros, Creu Palacín, Carlos Renato Rezende Ventura, Barbara Feital, Paulo Cesar Paiva, Rocío Pérez-Portela
Intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence have a large influence on the adaption and evolutionary potential of species. The widely distributed starfish, Coscinasterias tenuispina, combines sexual reproduction with asexual reproduction via fission. Here we analyse the phylogeography of this starfish to reveal historical and contemporary processes driving its intraspecific genetic divergence. We further consider whether asexual reproduction is the most important method of propagation throughout the distribution range of this species...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Camila Madeira Tavares Lopes, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, Márcio Galvão Pavan, Mirian Cláudia De Souza Pereira, André Luiz R Roque
BACKGROUND: Didelphis spp. are a South American marsupial species that are among the most ancient hosts for the Trypanosoma spp. OBJECTIVES: We characterise a new species (Trypanosoma janseni n. sp.) isolated from the spleen and liver tissues of Didelphis aurita in the Atlantic Rainforest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: The parasites were isolated and a growth curve was performed in NNN and Schneider's media containing 10% foetal bovine serum...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Zhe Wang, Yanfei Zeng, Zhendong Zhang, Songbai Sheng, Ju Tian, Rongling Wu, Xiaoming Pang
There is evidence that a band of dry climate separated plants in East Asia into distinct northern and southern groups. However, few studies have focused on the arid belt in this region, especially with regard to plants. We analyzed genetic variation in 22 populations of Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.), a temperate deciduous species distributed in this arid belt, using two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences, seven chloroplast microsatellite loci (cpSSRs), and 31 nuclear microsatellite loci (nSSRs), to study its phylogeography...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Israel Solano-Zavaleta, Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca
The widely distributed, Central American anguid lizard Mesaspis moreletii is currently recognized as a polytypic species with five subspecies (M. m. fulvus, M. m. moreletii, M. m. rafaeli, M. m. salvadorensis, and M. m. temporalis). We reevaluated the species limits within Mesaspis moreletii using DNA sequences of one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. The multi-locus data set included samples of all of the subspecies of M. moreletii, the other species of Mesaspis in Central America (M. cuchumatanus and M...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Daniele Salvi, Ana Perera, Filipa L Sampaio, Salvador Carranza, D James Harris
Biogeographic and evolutionary patterns in the North African portion of the Western Palaearctic are poorly known. A high fraction of undescribed diversity is expected in this region, especially in groups such as reptiles. Here we used mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb) and nuclear (pomc, rag2, cmos) markers and morphological data to investigate phyletic diversification and phylogeographical structure in the amphisbaenian Trogonophis wiegmanni endemic to the Maghreb. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses based on gene trees and species trees support three deeply divergent lineages of Pliocene origin, two in Morocco and one in central Algeria and Tunisia...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Licínio Manco, Joana Albuquerque, Maria Francisca Sousa, Rui Martiniano, Ricardo Costa de Oliveira, Sofia Marques, Verónica Gomes, António Amorim, Luís Alvarez, Maria João Prata
OBJECTIVES: We examined internal lineages and haplotype diversity in Portuguese samples belonging to J-M304 to improve the spatial and temporal understanding of the introduction of this haplogroup in Iberia, using the available knowledge about the phylogeography of its main branches, J1-M267 and J2-M172. METHODS: A total of 110 males of Portuguese descent were analyzed for 17 Y-chromosome bi-allelic markers and seven Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STR) loci...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Brendan F Kohrn, Jessica M Persinger, Mitchell B Cruzan
Premise of the study: Seed dispersal contributes to gene flow and is responsible for colonization of new sites and range expansion. Sequencing chloroplast haplotypes offers a way to estimate contributions of seed dispersal to population genetic structure and enables studies of population history. Whole-genome sequencing is expensive, but resources can be conserved by pooling samples. Unfortunately, haplotype associations among single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are lost in pooled samples, and treating SNP allele frequencies as independent markers provides biased estimates of genetic structure...
November 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Kunyuan Wanghe, Yongtao Tang, Fei Tian, Chenguang Feng, Renyi Zhang, Guogang Li, Sijia Liu, Kai Zhao
Schizopygopsis stoliczkai (Cyprinidae, subfamily Schizothoracinae) is one of the major freshwater fishes endemic to the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In the current study, we used mitochondrial DNA markers cytochrome b (Cyt b) and 16S rRNA (16S), as well as the nuclear marker, the second intron of the nuclear beta-actin gene (Act2), to uncover the phylogeography of S. stoliczkai. In total, we obtained 74 haplotypes from 403 mitochondrial concatenated sequences. The mtDNA markers depict the phylogenetic structures of S...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
G Veera Singham, Ahmad Sofiman Othman, Chow-Yang Lee
Dispersal of soil-dwelling organisms via the repeatedly exposed Sunda shelf through much of the Pleistocene in Southeast Asia has not been studied extensively, especially for invertebrates. Here we investigated the phylogeography of an endemic termite species, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen), to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of dispersal routes of terrestrial fauna in Pleistocene Southeast Asia. We sampled 213 termite colonies from 66 localities throughout the region. Independently inherited microsatellites and mtDNA markers were used to infer the phylogeographic framework of M...
2017: PloS One
Benita Hyldgaard, Carla Lambertini, Hans Brix
Ceratophyllum demersum (common hornwort) is presently considered the worst invasive submerged aquatic macrophyte in New Zealand. We explored the global phylogeographic pattern of the species, based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA, in order to identify the origin of the invasive populations in New Zealand and to clarify if there were multiple introductions. The phylogeographic study identified geographically differentiated gene pools in North America, tropical Asia, Australia, and South Africa, likely native to these regions, and a recent dispersal event of a Eurasian-related haplotype to North America, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
A G Little, G Lau, K Mathers, S C Leary, C D Moyes
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the electron transport system, is central to aerobic metabolism of animals. Many aspects of its structure and function are highly conserved, yet, paradoxically, it is also an important model for studying the evolution of the metabolic phenotype. In this review, part of a special issue honouring Peter Hochachka, we consider the biology of COX from the perspective of comparative and evolutionary biochemistry. The approach is to consider what is known about the enzyme in the context of conventional biochemistry, but focus on how evolutionary researchers have used this background to explore the role of the enzyme in biochemical adaptation of animals...
November 25, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Mónica Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Christopher L Parkinson, Juan M Daza, Wolfgang Wüster, Mahmood Sasa
The uplift and final connection of the Central American land bridge is considered the major event that allowed biotic exchange between vertebrate lineages of northern and southern origin in the New World. However, given the complex tectonics that shaped Middle America, there is still substantial controversy over details of this geographical reconnection, and its role in determining biogeographic patterns in the region. Here, we examine the phylogeography of Bothrops asper, a widely distributed pitviper in Middle America and northwestern South America, in an attempt to evaluate how the final Isthmian uplift and other biogeographical boundaries in the region influenced genealogical lineage divergence in this species...
2017: PloS One
Amanda de Faria Santos, Tiago Fernandes Carrijo, Eliana Marques Cancello, Adriana Coletto Morales-Corrêa E Castro
BACKGROUND: The Neotropical Region is known for its biodiversity and ranks third in number of known termite species. However, biogeographic and phylogeographic information of termites of this region is limited compared to other world geographic regions. Nasutitermes corniger is widely distributed in the region and is of considerable economic importance. The goal of this study was to describe the phylogeography of N. corniger in the Neotropical Region, to better understand its evolutionary processes...
November 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Khurram Shahzad, Yun Jia, Fu-Lin Chen, Umar Zeb, Zhong-Hu Li
Mountain uplift and climatic fluctuations are important driving forces that have affected the geographic distribution and population dynamics history of organisms. However, it is unclear how geological and climatic events might have affected the phylogeographic history and species divergence in high-alpine herbal plants. In this study, we analyzed the population demographic history and species differentiation of four endangered Notopterygium herbs on the high-altitude Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent areas...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Giorgio Chiozzi, Melanie L J Stiassny, S Elizabeth Alter, Giuseppe De Marchi, Yohannes Mebrahtu, Misikire Tessema, Berhan Asmamaw, Mauro Fasola, Adriana Bellati
The Danakil Depression in northeastern Africa represents one of the harshest arid environments on Earth, yet two genera of fishes, Danakilia (Cichlidae) and Aphanius (Cyprinodontidae), share its sparse aquatic habitats. The evolutionary history of these fishes is investigated here in the context of genetic, geological and paleoenvironmental information. We collected samples from seven sites and assessed phylogeographic relationships using concatenated COI and cytb mtDNA genes. Danakilia morphospecies show low differentiation at mitochondrial markers, but variation is partitioned between a northern cluster containing D...
November 22, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
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