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Nídia Cangi, Jonathan L Gordon, Laure Bournez, Valérie Pinarello, Rosalie Aprelon, Karine Huber, Thierry Lefrançois, Luís Neves, Damien F Meyer, Nathalie Vachiéry
The disease, Heartwater, caused by the Anaplasmataceae E. ruminantium, represents a major problem for tropical livestock and wild ruminants. Up to now, no effective vaccine has been available due to a limited cross protection of vaccinal strains on field strains and a high genetic diversity of Ehrlichia ruminantium within geographical locations. To address this issue, we inferred the genetic diversity and population structure of 194 E. ruminantium isolates circulating worldwide using Multilocus Sequence Typing based on lipA, lipB, secY, sodB, and sucA genes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alexandre Hassanin, Nicolas Nesi, Julie Marin, Blaise Kadjo, Xavier Pourrut, Éric Leroy, Guy-Crispin Gembu, Prescott Musaba Akawa, Carine Ngoagouni, Emmanuel Nakouné, Manuel Ruedi, Didier Tshikung, Célestin Pongombo Shongo, Céline Bonillo
Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae...
October 13, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Sereina Rutschmann, Harald Detering, Sabrina Simon, David H Funk, Jean-Luc Gattolliat, Samantha J Hughes, Pedro M Raposeiro, Rob DeSalle, Michel Sartori, Michael T Monaghan
The study of processes driving diversification requires a fully sampled and well resolved phylogeny. Multilocus approaches to the study of recent diversification provide a powerful means to study the evolutionary process, but their application remains restricted because multiple unlinked loci with suitable variation for phylogenetic or coalescent analysis are not available for most non-model taxa. Here we identify novel, putative single-copy nuclear DNA (nDNA) phylogenetic markers to study the colonization and diversification of an aquatic insect species complex, Cloeon dipterum L...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Luciana Cristina Vitorino, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Levi Carina Terribile, Rosane G Collevatti
BACKGROUND: We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography...
October 13, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Xenia Freilich, José D Anadón, Jolanta Bukala, Ordaliza Calderon, Ronveer Chakraborty, Stéphane Boissinot
BACKGROUND: The Ethiopian highlands are a biodiversity hotspot, split by the Great Rift Valley into two distinct systems of plateaus and mountains. The Rift Valley is currently hot and dry and acts as a barrier to gene flow for highland-adapted species. It is however unlikely that the conditions in the Rift were inhospitable to highland species during the entire Pleistocene. To assess the significance of the Ethiopian Rift as a biogeographic barrier as well as the impact Pleistocene climatic changes have had on the evolution of Ethiopian organisms, we performed phylogeographic analyses and developed present and past niche models on seven anuran species with different elevational and ecological preferences...
October 10, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Elder Assis Miranda, Henrique Batalha-Filho, Carlos Congrains, Antônio Freire Carvalho, Kátia Maria Ferreira, Marco Antonio Del Lama
The South America encompasses the highest levels of biodiversity found anywhere in the world and its rich biota is distributed among many different biogeographical regions. However, many regions of South America are still poorly studied, including its xeric environments, such as the threatened Caatinga and Cerrado phytogeographical domains. In particular, the effects of Quaternary climatic events on the demography of endemic species from xeric habitats are poorly understood. The present study uses an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Partamona rustica, an endemic stingless bee from dry forest diagonal in Brazil, in a spatial-temporal framework...
2016: PloS One
David García-Vázquez, Ignacio Ribera
In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae). Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions...
2016: PeerJ
Caroline Fromont, Markus Riegler, James M Cook
While obligate primary (P-) endosymbionts usually co-speciate with their insect hosts, less is known about co-diversification of secondary (S-) endosymbionts that are generally considered facultative. Typically, insects of the superfamily Psylloidea harbour one P- (Carsonella) and at least one S-endosymbiont, thought to compensate for Carsonella genome reduction. Most co-diversification studies have used phylogenies of psyllids and their endosymbionts across and within host families or genera, but few have explored patterns within species...
October 3, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Guangpeng Ren, Rubén G Mateo, Jianquan Liu, Tomasz Suchan, Nadir Alvarez, Antoine Guisan, Elena Conti, Nicolas Salamin
The effects of Quaternary climatic oscillations on the demography of organisms vary across regions and continents. In taxa distributed in Europe and North America, several paradigms regarding the distribution of refugia have been identified. By contrast, less is known about the processes that shaped the species' spatial genetic structure in areas such as the Himalayas, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. Here, we investigated the phylogeographic structure and population dynamics of Primula tibetica by combining genomic phylogeography and species distribution models (SDMs)...
October 3, 2016: New Phytologist
Elisabeth Njamkepo, Nizar Fawal, Alicia Tran-Dien, Jane Hawkey, Nancy Strockbine, Claire Jenkins, Kaisar A Talukder, Raymond Bercion, Konstantin Kuleshov, Renáta Kolínská, Julie E Russell, Lidia Kaftyreva, Marie Accou-Demartin, Andreas Karas, Olivier Vandenberg, Alison E Mather, Carl J Mason, Andrew J Page, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Chantal Bizet, Andrzej Gamian, Isabelle Carle, Amy Gassama Sow, Christiane Bouchier, Astrid Louise Wester, Monique Lejay-Collin, Marie-Christine Fonkoua, Simon Le Hello, Martin J Blaser, Cecilia Jernberg, Corinne Ruckly, Audrey Mérens, Anne-Laure Page, Martin Aslett, Peter Roggentin, Angelika Fruth, Erick Denamur, Malabi Venkatesan, Hervé Bercovier, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Chien-Shun Chiou, Dominique Clermont, Bianca Colonna, Svetlana Egorova, Gururaja P Pazhani, Analia V Ezernitchi, Ghislaine Guigon, Simon R Harris, Hidemasa Izumiya, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Anna Lutyńska, Malika Gouali, Francine Grimont, Céline Langendorf, Monika Marejková, Lorea A M Peterson, Guillermo Perez-Perez, Antoinette Ngandjio, Alexander Podkolzin, Erika Souche, Mariia Makarova, German A Shipulin, Changyun Ye, Helena Žemličková, Mária Herpay, Patrick A D Grimont, Julian Parkhill, Philippe Sansonetti, Kathryn E Holt, Sylvain Brisse, Nicholas R Thomson, François-Xavier Weill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Xiaomin Xia, Frédéric Partensky, Laurence Garczarek, Koji Suzuki, Cui Guo, Shun Yan Cheung, Hongbin Liu
The widespread unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus are major contributors to global marine primary production. Here we report their abundance, phylogenetic diversity (as assessed using the RNA polymerase gamma subunit gene rpoC1) and pigment diversity (as indirectly assessed using the laterally transferred cpeBA genes, encoding phycoerythrin-I) in surface waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, sampled over nine distinct cruises (2008-2015). Abundance of Synechococcus was low in the subarctic ocean and South China Sea, intermediate in the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, and the highest in the Japan and East China seas...
September 26, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Andrea M Bernard, Kevin A Feldheim, Michael R Heithaus, Sabine P Wintner, Bradley M Wetherbee, Mahmood S Shivji
Knowledge of genetic connectivity dynamics in the world's large-bodied, highly migratory, apex predator sharks across their global ranges is limited. One such species, the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), occurs worldwide in warm temperate and tropical waters, uses remarkably diverse habitats (nearshore to pelagic) and possesses a generalist diet that can structure marine ecosystems through top-down processes. We investigated the phylogeography and the global population structure of this exploited, phylogenetically enigmatic shark by using 10 nuclear microsatellites (n = 380) and sequences from the mitochondrial control region (CR, n = 340) and cytochrome oxidase I gene (n = 100)...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Teivi Laurimäe, Liina Kinkar, Vanessa Andresiuk, Karen Luisa Haag, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Teresa Garate, Luis Miguel Gonzàlez, Urmas Saarma
Echinococcus granulosus is a taeniid cestode and the etiological agent of an infectious zoonotic disease known as cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease. CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world, including the Americas, where it is highly endemic in many regions. Echinococcus granulosus displays high intraspecific genetic variability and is divided into multiple genotypes (G1-G8, G10) with differences in their biology and etiology. Of these, genotype G1 is responsible for the majority of human and livestock infections and has the broadest host spectrum...
September 19, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Remco Bouckaert
BACKGROUND: Techniques for reconstructing geographical history along a phylogeny can answer many questions of interest about the geographical origins of species. Bayesian models based on the assumption that taxa move through a diffusion process have found many applications. However, these methods rely on diffusion processes on a plane, and do not take the spherical nature of our planet in account. Performing an analysis that covers the whole world thus does not take in account the distortions caused by projections like the Mercator projection...
2016: PeerJ
Daniel Cardoso Carvalho, Violeta da Rocha Perini, Alex Schomaker Bastos, Igor Rodrigues da Costa, Ronald Kennedy Luz, Carolina Furtado, Francisco Prosdocimi
Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic catfish from the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) popularly known as pacamã, which has economic potential for aquaculture farming. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the threatened Neotropical catfish L. alexandri. Assembly into scaffolds using MIRA and MITObim software produced the whole, circularized mitochondrial genome, which comprises 16,445 bp and presents the typical gene arrangement of Teleostei mitochondria. A phylogenomic analysis was performed after the concatenation of all proteins obtained from whole mitogenomes of 20 Siluriformes and two outgroups...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Ying Zheng, Jian Liu, Xun Gong
Dramatic crustal deformation and river incision in Southwest China induced by the Indo-Asian collision have long been argued to contribute to the complicated landscapes, heterogeneous environment and abundant biodiversity in this region. However, biological impacts in promoting intraspecific phylogeographical subdivision and divergence along the Red River Fault zone (RRF) remain poorly understood. To investigate the possible biological effects of tectonic movements and environment variations within the RRF, the phylogeography of Cycas dolichophylla-an endemic but widely distributed Cycas in Southwest China and North Vietnam along the RRF were carried out based on four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers (cpDNA), three nuclear DNA sequences (nDNA) and 16 simple sequence repeat variations (SSR)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Frank Wen, Trevor Bedford, Sarah Cobey
Most antigenically novel and evolutionarily successful strains of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) originate in East, South and Southeast Asia. To understand this pattern, we simulated the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of influenza in a host metapopulation representing the temperate north, tropics and temperate south. Although seasonality and air traffic are frequently used to explain global migratory patterns of influenza, we find that other factors may have a comparable or greater impact. Notably, a region's basic reproductive number (R0) strongly affects the antigenic evolution of its viral population and the probability that its strains will spread and fix globally: a 17-28% higher R0 in one region can explain the observed patterns...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Alex Garcia-Cisneros, Creu Palacín, Yousra Ben Khadra, Rocío Pérez-Portela
Understanding the phylogeography and genetic structure of populations and the processes responsible of patterns therein is crucial for evaluating the vulnerability of marine species and developing management strategies. In this study, we explore how past climatic events and ongoing oceanographic and demographic processes have shaped the genetic structure and diversity of the Atlanto-Mediterranean red starfish Echinaster sepositus. The species is relatively abundant in some areas of the Mediterranean Sea, but some populations have dramatically decreased over recent years due to direct extraction for ornamental aquariums and souvenir industries...
2016: Scientific Reports
Eleonora Cella, Alessandra Lo Presti, Marta Giovanetti, Carla Veo, Alessia Lai, Giordano Dicuonzo, Silvia Angeletti, Marco Ciotti, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Massimo Ciccozzi
CONTEXT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infections are mainly restricted to West Africa; however, in the recent years, the prevalence of HIV-2 is a growing concern in some European countries and the Southwestern region of India. Despite the presence of different HIV-2 groups, only A and B Groups have established human-to-human transmission chains. AIMS: This work aimed to evaluate the phylogeographic inference of HIV-2 Group B worldwide to estimate their data of origin and the population dynamics...
July 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Daniel G Streicker, Jamie C Winternitz, Dara A Satterfield, Rene Edgar Condori-Condori, Alice Broos, Carlos Tello, Sergio Recuenco, Andrés Velasco-Villa, Sonia Altizer, William Valderrama
Anticipating how epidemics will spread across landscapes requires understanding host dispersal events that are notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we contrast host and virus genetic signatures to resolve the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying geographic expansions of vampire bat rabies virus (VBRV) in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis revealed recent viral spread between populations that, according to extreme geographic structure in maternally inherited host mitochondrial DNA, appeared completely isolated. In contrast, greater population connectivity in biparentally inherited nuclear microsatellites explained the historical limits of invasions, suggesting that dispersing male bats spread VBRV between genetically isolated female populations...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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