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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345307/competitive-ability-stress-tolerance-and-plant-interactions-along-stress-gradients
#1
Man Qi, Tao Sun, SuFeng Xue, Wei Yang, DongDong Shao, Javier Martínez-López
Exceptions to the generality of the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) may be reconciled by considering species-specific traits and stress tolerance strategies. Studies have tested stress tolerance and competitive ability in mediating interaction outcomes, but few have incorporated this to predict how species interactions shift between competition and facilitation along stress gradients. We used field surveys, salt tolerance and competition experiments to develop a predictive model interspecific interaction shifts across salinity stress gradients...
January 18, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345200/distinct-niches-within-the-extracellular-matrix-dictate-fibroblast-function-in-cell-free-3d-lung-tissue-cultures
#2
Gerald Burgstaller, Arunima Sengupta, Sarah Vierkotten, Gerhard Preissler, Michael Lindner, Jürgen Behr, Melanie Königshoff, Oliver Eickelberg
Instructive cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and their functional interplay with cells play pivotal roles for development, tissue repair, and disease. However, the precise nature of this interplay remains elusive. We used an innovative 3D cell culture ECM model by decellularizing ex vivo lung tissue scaffolds (d3D-LTCs) derived from diseased and healthy mouse lungs, which widely mimics the native (patho)physiological in vivo microenvironment. We successfully repopulated all d3D-LTCs with primary human and murine fibroblasts...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344897/modeling-of-interactions-between-cancer-stem-cells-and-their-microenvironment-predicting-clinical-response
#3
Mary E Sehl, Max S Wicha
Mathematical models of cancer stem cells are useful in translational cancer research for facilitating the understanding of tumor growth dynamics and for predicting treatment response and resistance to combined targeted therapies. In this chapter, we describe appealing aspects of different methods used in mathematical oncology and discuss compelling questions in oncology that can be addressed with these modeling techniques. We describe a simplified version of a model of the breast cancer stem cell niche, illustrate the visualization of the model, and apply stochastic simulation to generate full distributions and average trajectories of cell type populations over time...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344733/linking-intraspecific-trait-variability-and-spatial-patterns-of-subtropical-trees
#4
En-Rong Yan, Liu-Li Zhou, Han Y H Chen, Xi-Hua Wang, Xiang-Yu Liu
The importance of intraspecific trait variability (ITV) to the spatial distribution of individual species is unclear. We hypothesized that intraspecific trait dispersions underlying niche processes deviate more from null model expectations, by reducing their spread (range and variance), kurtosis, and standard deviation of near-neighbor distance, for species with aggregated than those with random distributions. The link between species' spatial distributions and ITV patterns was examined using an individual tree-based trait data set, in which specific leaf area, mean leaf area, leaf dry matter content, and diameter at breast height were measured for 18,773 stems of 45 species in a 4...
January 17, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343630/emergence-and-dynamics-of-self-producing-information-niches-as-a-step-towards-pre-evolutionary-organization
#5
Richard J Carter, Karoline Wiesner, Stephen Mann
As a step towards understanding pre-evolutionary organization in non-genetic systems, we develop a model to investigate the emergence and dynamics of proto-autopoietic networks in an interacting population of simple information processing entities (automata). Our simulations indicate that dynamically stable strongly connected networks of mutually producing communication channels emerge under specific environmental conditions. We refer to these distinct organizational steady states as information niches In each case, we measure the information content by the Shannon entropy, and determine the fitness landscape, robustness and transition pathways for information niches subjected to intermittent environmental perturbations under non-evolutionary conditions...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342184/species-delimitation-in-the-stenocereus-griseus-cactaceae-species-complex-reveals-a-new-species-s-huastecorum
#6
Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo, Alejandro Casas, Fabiola Parra, Hilda Julieta Arreola-Nava, Teresa Terrazas, Cristian Sánchez
The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341125/gut-microbiota-and-probiotics-novel-immune-system-modulators-in-myasthenia-gravis
#7
REVIEW
Elena Rinaldi, Alessandra Consonni, Elena Guidesi, Marina Elli, Renato Mantegazza, Fulvio Baggi
Gut microorganisms (microbiota) live in symbiosis with the host and influence human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immune development and function. The microbiota prevents pathogen infection to the host, and in turn the host provides a niche for survival. The alteration of gut bacteria composition (dysbiosis) could contribute to the development of immune-mediated diseases by influencing the immune system activation and driving the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in order to promote or counteract immune reactions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340063/a-molecular-signature-of-dormancy-in-cd34-cd38-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-cells
#8
Mazin Gh Al-Asadi, Grace Brindle, Marcos Castellanos, Sean T May, Ken I Mills, Nigel H Russell, Claire H Seedhouse, Monica Pallis
Dormant leukaemia initiating cells in the bone marrow niche are a crucial therapeutic target for total eradication of acute myeloid leukaemia. To study this cellular subset we created and validated an in vitro model employing the cell line TF-1a, treated with Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) and a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. The treated cells showed decreases in total RNA, Ki-67 and CD71, increased aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, forkhead box 03A (FOX03A) nuclear translocation and growth inhibition, with no evidence of apoptosis or differentiation...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338010/gypsophila-bermejoi-g-l%C3%A3-pez-a-possible-case-of-speciation-repressed-by-bioclimatic-factors
#9
Miguel de Luis, Carmen Bartolomé, Óscar García Cardo, Julio Álvarez-Jiménez
Gypsophila bermejoi G. López is an allopolyploid species derived from the parental G. struthium L. subsp. struthium and G. tomentosa L. All these plants are gypsophytes endemic to the Iberian Peninsula of particular ecological, evolutionary and biochemical interest. In this study, we present evidence of a possible repression on the process of G. bermejoi speciation by climatic factors. We modelled the ecological niches of the three taxa considered here using a maximum entropy approach and employing a series of bioclimatic variables...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337983/wor1-establishes-opaque-cell-fate-through-inhibition-of-the-general-co-repressor-tup1-in-candida-albicans
#10
Selma S Alkafeef, Clinton Yu, Lan Huang, Haoping Liu
The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans can undergo phenotypic switching between two heritable states: white and opaque. This phenotypic plasticity facilitates its colonization in distinct host niches. The master regulator WOR1 is exclusively expressed in opaque phase cells. Positive feedback regulation by Wor1 on the WOR1 promoter is essential for opaque formation, however the underlying mechanism of how Wor1 functions is not clear. Here, we use tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry to identify Wor1-interacting proteins...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337274/species-delimitation-of-the-north-american-orchard-spider-leucauge-venusta-walckenaer-1841-araneae-tetragnathidae
#11
Jesús A Ballesteros, Gustavo Hormiga
The orchard spider, Leucauge venusta (Walckenaer, 1841) is one of the most common and abundant orb-weavers in North America. This species has a broad geographic distribution extending across tropical and temperate regions of the Americas from Canada to Brazil. Guided by a preliminary observation of the barcode gap between sequences from specimens of L. venusta collected in Florida and other North American localities, we collected across a transect through southeastern states of the USA to investigate the observed genetic divide...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337115/purification-of-gfr%C3%AE-1-and-gfr%C3%AE-1-spermatogonial-stem-cells-reveals-a%C3%A2-niche-dependent-mechanism-for-fate-determination
#12
Alina Garbuzov, Matthew F Pech, Kazuteru Hasegawa, Meena Sukhwani, Ruixuan J Zhang, Kyle E Orwig, Steven E Artandi
Undifferentiated spermatogonia comprise a pool of stem cells and progenitor cells that show heterogeneous expression of markers, including the cell surface receptor GFRα1. Technical challenges in isolation of GFRα1+ versus GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia have precluded the comparative molecular characterization of these subpopulations and their functional evaluation as stem cells. Here, we develop a method to purify these subpopulations by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and show that GFRα1+ and GFRα1- undifferentiated spermatogonia both demonstrate elevated transplantation activity, while differing principally in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell cycle...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330353/afadin-and-rhoa-control-pancreatic-endocrine-mass-via-lumen-morphogenesis
#13
D Berfin Azizoglu, Caitlin Braitsch, Denise K Marciano, Ondine Cleaver
Proper lumen morphogenesis during pancreas development is critical to endocrine and exocrine cell fate. Recent studies showed that a central network of lumens (termed core), but not the surrounding terminal branches (termed periphery), produces most islet endocrine cells. To date, it remains unclear how pancreatic lumens form and remodel and which aspects of lumen morphogenesis influence cell fate. Importantly, models testing the function of the central lumen network as an endocrine niche are lacking. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying lumen formation and remodeling and show that central lumen network morphogenesis impacts pancreatic endocrine mass...
January 12, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323701/positive-diversity-functioning-relationships-in-model-communities-of-methanotrophic-bacteria
#14
Elvira Schnyder, Paul L E Bodelier, Martin Hartmann, Ruth Henneberger, Pascal A Niklaus
Biodiversity enhances ecosystem functions such as biomass production and nutrient cycling. Although the majority of the terrestrial biodiversity is hidden in soils, very little is known about the importance of the diversity of microbial communities for soil functioning. Here, we tested effects of biodiversity on the functioning of methanotrophs, a specialized group of soil bacteria that plays a key role in mediating greenhouse gas emissions from soils. Using pure strains of methanotrophic bacteria, we assembled artificial communities of different diversity levels, with which we inoculated sterile soil microcosms...
January 11, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321887/habitat-formation-prevails-over-predation-in-influencing-fouling-communities
#15
Jean-Charles Leclerc, Frédérique Viard
Coastal human-made structures, such as marinas and harbors, are expanding worldwide. Species assemblages described from these artificial habitats are novel relative to natural reefs, particularly in terms of the abundance of nonindigenous species (NIS). Although these fouling assemblages are clearly distinctive, the ecosystem functioning and species interactions taking place there are little understood. For instance, large predators may influence the fouling community development either directly (feeding on sessile fauna) or indirectly (feeding on small predators associated with these assemblages)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321057/influenza-a-virus-infection-impacts-systemic-microbiota-dynamics-and-causes-quantitative-enteric-dysbiosis
#16
Soner Yildiz, Béryl Mazel-Sanchez, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Balaji Manicassamy, Mirco Schmolke
BACKGROUND: Microbiota integrity is essential for a growing number of physiological processes. Consequently, disruption of microbiota homeostasis correlates with a variety of pathological states. Importantly, commensal microbiota provide a shield against invading bacterial pathogens, probably by direct competition. The impact of viral infections on host microbiota composition and dynamics is poorly understood. Influenza A viruses (IAV) are common respiratory pathogens causing acute infections...
January 10, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321007/staging-laparoscopy-for-locally-advanced-gastric-cancer-in-chinese-patients-a-multicenter-prospective-registry-study
#17
Ziyu Li, Zhemin Li, Lianhai Zhang, Qian Liu, Zhenjun Wang, Zhongtao Zhang, Gang Xiao, Wei Fu, Xin Wang, Yingjiang Ye, Jianchun Yu, Fei Li, Lin Chen, Shibin Wang, Jiafu Ji
BACKGROUND: Staging laparoscopy(SL) is a recommended technique for the staging of Gastric Cancer(GC) and provides the indication for a radical surgery. Considering the medical practice in China, the standardized and regular usage of SL is yet to be spread. However, existing guidelines vary and make an ambiguity of indication for SL. Besides, the specific indication for Chinese patients remains a niche. This study aims to the essential, missing information of Chinese patients and tries to normalize the indication of LS in medical practice in China...
January 10, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318841/-predictive-distribution-and-planting-gap-of-cyathula-officinalis-in-china-based-on-3s-technology-and-maxent-modelling
#18
Ming-Yan Wu, Lan He, Jia-Li Chen, Guang Dong, Wu-Xue Cheng
Research on predictive distribution and planting GAP of Cyathula officinalis in China is helpful to provide scientific basis for its protection and planting popularization. According to the data in 63 distribution sites and 49 ecological variables, using MaxEnt ecological niche model and 3S technology, we performed a quantitative analysis of suitable distribution and planting GAP of C. officinalis in China. Our results show that: ① the area of suitable distribution of C. officinalis is about 634 385.80 km² in total, and mainly in Northeastern and Southeastern Sichuan, Northern and Southeastern Yunnan, Western and Southwestern Guizhou, Southwestern and Northeastern Chongqing, Southwestern Shaanxi, Southeastern Gansu, Western Guangxi, Southeastern Tibet...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317122/directly-injected-native-bone-marrow-stem-cells-cannot-incorporate-into-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#19
Azadeh Babaei, Azam Katoonizadeh, Azam Ranjbar, Mahmood Naderi, Naser Ahmadbeigi
The paucity of liver donation highlights the use of cell-based strategies for end-stage liver failure. We recently showed that bone marrow-derived aggregates (BMDAs) can completely restore the hematopoietic system in gamma-irradiated mice. These aggregates are stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow (BM), composed of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, reports showed that resident BM cells migrate to the liver and integrate themselves into the tissue in small numbers. Hence, we hypothesized that direct delivery of BMDAs to the damaged liver might enhance the integration of BM cells in the liver because of its stemness property, intact BM architecture, the physical proximity of these niche-like structures to the damaged sites and the existence of liver paracrine factors...
January 6, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316479/response-of-cell-lines-to-actual-and-simulated-inoculation-with-cryptosporidium-proliferans
#20
Janka Melicherová, Lada Hofmannová, Andrea Valigurová
The need for an effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis has triggered studies in the search for a working in vitro model. The peculiar niche of cryptosporidia at the brush border of host epithelial cells has been the subject of extensive debates. Despite extensive research on the invasion process, it remains enigmatic whether cryptosporidian host-parasite interactions result from an active invasion process or through encapsulation. We used HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines for in vitro cultivation of the gastric parasite Cryptosporidium proliferans strain TS03...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
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