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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775474/the-cryptococcus-neoformans-titan-cell-is-an-inducible-and-regulated-morphotype-underlying-pathogenesis
#1
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774991/aggregate-mesenchymal-stem-cell-delivery-ameliorates-the-regenerative-niche-for-muscle-repair
#2
Marissa A Ruehle, Hazel Y Stevens, Aaron M Beedle, Robert E Guldberg, Jarrod A Call
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disease due to the absence of the dystrophin protein from the muscle cell membrane which renders the muscle susceptible to continuous damage. In DMD patients, muscle weakness, together with cycles of degeneration/regeneration and replacement with non-contractile tissue, limit mobility and lifespan. Since the loss of dystrophin result in loss of polarity and a reduction in the number of self-renewing satellite cells, it is postulated that these patients could achieve an improved quality of life if delivered cells could restore satellite cell function...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771991/progenitor-renin-lineage-cells-are-not-involved-in-the-regeneration-of-glomerular-endothelial-cells-during-experimental-renal-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#3
Leo Ruhnke, Jan Sradnick, Moath Al-Mekhlafi, Michael Gerlach, Florian Gembardt, Bernd Hohenstein, Vladimir T Todorov, Christian Hugo
Endothelial cells (EC) frequently undergo primary or secondary injury during kidney disease such as thrombotic microangiopathy or glomerulonephritis. Renin Lineage Cells (RLCs) serve as a progenitor cell niche after glomerular damage in the adult kidney. However, it is not clear whether RLCs also contribute to endothelial replenishment in the glomerulus following endothelial injury. Therefore, we investigated the role of RLCs as a potential progenitor niche for glomerular endothelial regeneration. We used an inducible tet-on triple-transgenic reporter strain mRen-rtTAm2/LC1/LacZ to pulse-label the renin-producing RLCs in adult mice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770047/emerging-infectious-diseases-prediction-and-detection
#4
N H Ogden, P AbdelMalik, Jrc Pulliam
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including West Nile virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Lyme disease, have had a direct effect within Canada, while many more EIDs such as Zika, chikungunya and Ebola are a threat to Canadians while travelling. Over 75% of EIDs affecting humans are, or were originally, zoonoses (infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans). There are two main ways by which infectious diseases can emerge: by changes in their geographical ranges and by adaptive emergence, a genetic change in a microorganism that results in it becoming capable of invading a new niche, often by jumping to a new host species such as humans...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769652/niche-conservatism-of-aedes-albopictus-and-aedes-aegypti-two-mosquito-species-with-different-invasion-histories
#5
Sarah Cunze, Judith Kochmann, Lisa K Koch, Sven Klimpel
Biological invasions have been associated with niche changes; however, their occurrence is still debated. We assess whether climatic niches between native and non-native ranges have changed during the invasion process using two globally spread mosquitoes as model species, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. Considering the different time spans since their invasions (>300 vs. 30-40 years), niche changes were expected to be more likely for Ae. aegypti than for Ae. albopictus. We used temperature and precipitation variables as descriptors for the realized climatic niches and different niche metrics to detect niche dynamics in the native and non-native ranges...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769550/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-increases-the-susceptibility-to-develop-aggressive-prolactinomas-in-the-pituitary-gland
#6
Shaima Jabbar, Kenneth Reuhl, Dipak K Sarkar
Excess alcohol use is known to promote development of aggressive tumors in various tissues in human patients, but the cause of alcohol promotion of tumor aggressiveness is not clearly understood. We used an animals model of fetal alcohol exposure that is known to promote tumor development and determined if alcohol programs the pituitary to acquire aggressive prolactin-secreting tumors. Our results show that pituitaries of fetal alcohol-exposed rats produced increased levels of intra-pituitary aromatase protein and plasma estrogen, enhanced pituitary tissue growth, and upon estrogen challenge developed prolactin-secreting tumors (prolactinomas) that were hemorrhagic and often penetrated into the surrounding tissue...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767474/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-shwachman-diamond-syndrome-patients-fail-to-recreate-a-bone-marrow-niche-in-vivo-and-exhibit-impaired-angiogenesis
#7
Donatella Bardelli, Erica Dander, Cristina Bugarin, Claudia Cappuzzello, Alice Pievani, Grazia Fazio, Paolo Pierani, Paola Corti, Piero Farruggia, Carlo Dufour, Simone Cesaro, Marco Cipolli, Andrea Biondi, Giovanna D'Amico
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare multi-organ recessive disease mainly characterised by pancreatic insufficiency, skeletal defects, short stature and bone marrow failure (BMF). As in many other BMF syndromes, SDS patients are predisposed to develop a number of haematopoietic malignancies, particularly myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia. However, the mechanism of cancer predisposition in SDS patients is only partially understood. In light of the emerging role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the regulation of bone marrow homeostasis, we assessed the ability of MSCs derived from SDS patients (SDS-MSCs) to recreate a functional bone marrow niche, taking advantage of a murine heterotopic MSC transplant model...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766279/current-and-potential-distribution-of-the-ectomycorrhizal-fungus-suillus-lakei-murrill-a-h-sm-thiers-in-its-invasion-range
#8
Marcin Pietras, Monika Litkowiec, Joanna Gołębiewska
Suillus lakei is an ectomycorrhizal fungus native to North America and known in Europe, South America, and New Zealand. This contribution aims to illustrate the worldwide biogeography of S. lakei based on sporocarp records. Species distribution modeling was used to assess the suitable niche distribution of S. lakei, based on the climatic variables as well as distribution of its ectomycorrhizal partner, Douglas fir. In general, distribution of suitable niches of S. lakei greatly overlaps with the distribution of Douglas fir in North America...
May 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764959/a-targeted-rnai-screen-reveals-drosophila-female-sterile-genes-that-control-the-size-of-germline-stem-cell-niche-during-development
#9
Yueh Cho, Chun-Ming Lai, Kun-Yang Lin, Hwei-Jan Hsu
Adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis. This unique capability largely depends on the stem cell niche, a specialized microenvironment, which preserves stem cell identity through physical contacts and secreted factors. In many cancers, latent tumor cell niches are thought to house stem cells and aid tumor initiation. However, in developing tissue and cancer it is unclear how the niche is established. The well-characterized germline stem cells (GSCs) and niches in the Drosophila melanogaster ovary provide an excellent model to address this fundamental issue...
May 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763906/the-therapeutic-effect-of-icam-1-overexpressing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#10
Bo Tang, Xue Li, Yuanlin Liu, Xiuhui Chen, Ximei Li, Yanan Chu, Heng Zhu, Weijiang Liu, Fenfen Xu, Fan Zhou, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) do not readily migrate to appropriate sites, and this creates a major obstacle for their use in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) can guide the homing of various immune cells to the proper anatomical location within secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), which are the major niches for generating immune responses or tolerance. MSCs rarely migrate to SLOs after intravenous infusion, and are constitutively low expression of ICAM-1...
May 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763586/postnatal-testis-development-in-the-collared-peccary-tayassu-tajacu-with-emphasis-on-spermatogonial-stem-cells-markers-and-niche
#11
Nathália de Lima E Martins Lara, Guilherme Mattos Jardim Costa, Gleide Fernandes de Avelar, Diva Anelie Guimarães, Luiz Renato de França
Collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) present a unique testis cytoarchitecture, where Leydig cells (LC) are mainly located in cords around the seminiferous tubules (ST) lobes. This peculiar arrangement is very useful to better investigate and understand the role of LC in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) biology and niche. Recent studies from our laboratory using adult peccaries have shown that the undifferentiated type A spermatogonia (Aund or SSCs) are preferentially located in ST regions adjacent to the intertubular compartment without LC...
May 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759021/alginate-ototoxicity-in-the-mouse-model
#12
Sameer A Alvi, Jennifer Nelson-Brantley, Hinrich Staecker
Objective To determine whether alginate exposure to the round window of the mouse causes any measurable ototoxicity. Study Design Prospective animal study. Setting Basic science laboratory affiliated with a tertiary care university medical center. Subjects and Methods After Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval, 5 adult mice were obtained and underwent bullostomy and round window niche application of alginate. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) tests were completed at baseline prior to the procedure and also 5, 14, and 30 days postprocedure...
May 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758178/lin28a-regulates-neurogliogenesis-in-mammalian-retina-through-the-igf-signaling
#13
Xiaohuan Xia, Pooja Teotia, Iqbal Ahmad
In the developing central nervous system (CNS) the majority of neurons are born before the generation of glia. Emerging evidence implicates heterochronic gene, Lin28 in the temporal switch between two distinct lineages. However, the respective contributions of Lin28a and Lin28b in neurogliogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we have examined the relative involvement of Lin28a and Lin28b in mammalian retina, a simple and accessible CNS model where neurogliogenic decision largely occurs postnatally. Examination of Lin28a/b involvement during late histogenesis by the perturbation of function approaches revealed that while Lin28b did not influence differentiation in general Lin28a facilitated and antagonized the generation of neurons and glia, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756272/harnessing-human-decellularized-blood-vessel-matrices-and-cellular-construct-implants-to-promote-bone-healing-in-an-ex-vivo-organotypic-bone-defect-model
#14
Stefanie Inglis, Karl Heinrich Schneider, Janos M Kanczler, Heinz Redl, Richard O C Oreffo
Decellularized matrices offer a beneficial substitute for biomimetic scaffolds in tissue engineering. The current study examines the potential of decellularized placental vessel sleeves (PVS) as a periosteal protective sleeve to enhance bone regeneration in embryonic day 18 chick femurs contained within the PVS and cultured organotypically over a 10 day period. The femurs are inserted into decellularized biocompatibility-tested PVS and maintained in an organotypic culture for a period of 10 days. In femurs containing decellularized PVS, a significant increase in bone volume (p < 0...
May 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754735/using-stable-isotope-analysis-to-assess-trophic-relationships-between-atlantic-bluefin-tuna-thunnus-thynnus-and-striped-dolphin-stenella-coeruleoalba-in-the-strait-of-gibraltar
#15
José L Varela, Elisa Rojo-Nieto, Joan M Sorell, Antonio Medina
Stable isotope analysis (δ13 C and δ15 N from liver and muscle) was used to assess trophic relationships between Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) (Thunnus thynnus) and striped dolphin (SC) (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Strait of Gibraltar (SoG). δ15 N values from ABFT muscle and liver tissues were significantly different from those of dolphin samples, but no for δ13 C values. Diet estimation by MixSIAR models from muscle and liver revealed that ABFT fed mainly on squids (Todaropsis eblanae and Illex coindetii)...
April 27, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#16
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752716/low-dose-irradiated-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-break-tumor-defensive-properties-in-vivo
#17
Francesca Romana Stefani, Sofia Eberstål, Stefano Vergani, Trine A Kristiansen, Johan Bengzon
Solid tumors, including gliomas, still represent a challenge to clinicians and first line treatments often fail, calling for new paradigms in cancer therapy. Novel strategies to overcome tumor resistance are mainly represented by multi-targeted approaches, and cell vector-based therapy is one of the most promising treatment modalities under development. Here, we show that mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), when primed with low-dose irradiation (irMSCs), undergo changes in their immunogenic and angiogenic capacity and acquire anti-tumoral properties in a mouse model of glioblastoma (GBM)...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752277/the-highly-metastatic-nature-of-uterine-cervical-endometrial-cancer-displaying-tumor-related-leukocytosis-clinical-and-preclinical-investigations
#18
Tomoyuki Sasano, Seiji Mabuchi, Katsumi Kozasa, Hiromasa Kuroda, Mahiru Kawano, Ryoko Takahashi, Naoko Komura, Eriko Yokoi, Yuri Matsumoto, Kae Hashimoto, Kenjiro Sawada, Eiichi Morii, Tadashi Kimura
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the metastatic potential of uterine cervical and endometrial cancer displaying tumor-related leukocytosis (TRL). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Clinical data on uterine cervical (N=732) and endometrial cancer (N=900) were collected, and the metastatic potential of TRL-positive cancer was evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Tumor and blood samples obtained from cervical cancer patients, cervical cancer cell lines, and a mouse model of cervical cancer were employed to examine the mechanisms underlying the highly metastatic nature of TRL-positive cancer, focusing on tumor-derived granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)-mediated premetastatic niche...
May 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750997/the-role-of-spatial-variations-of-abiotic-factors-in-mediating-intratumour-phenotypic-heterogeneity
#19
Tommaso Lorenzi, Chandrasekhar Venkataraman, Alexander Lorz, Mark A J Chaplain
We present here a space- and phenotype-structured model of selection dynamics between cancer cells within a solid tumour. In the framework of this model, we combine formal analyses with numerical simulations to investigate in silico the role played by the spatial distribution of abiotic components of the tumour microenvironment in mediating phenotypic selection of cancer cells. Numerical simulations are performed both on the 3D geometry of an in silico multicellular tumour spheroid and on the 3D geometry of an in vivo human hepatic tumour, which was imaged using computerised tomography...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750558/comparative-evolution-of-an-archetypal-adaptive-radiation-innovation-and-opportunity-in-anolis-lizards
#20
Steven Poe, Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Kevin de Queiroz, Julián A Velasco, Brad Truett, Levi N Gray, Mason J Ryan, Gunther Köhler, Fernando Ayala-Varela, Ian Latella
Adaptive radiation is a widely recognized pattern of evolution wherein substantial phenotypic change accompanies rapid speciation. Adaptive radiation may be triggered by environmental opportunities resulting from dispersal to new areas or via the evolution of traits, called key innovations, that allow for invasion of new niches. Species sampling is a known source of bias in many comparative analyses, yet classic adaptive radiations have not been studied comparatively with comprehensively sampled phylogenies...
June 2018: American Naturalist
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