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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917273/mechanisms-and-risk-factors-of-thrombosis-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Anna Falanga, Laura Russo, Viola Milesi, Alfonso Vignoli
The close relationship between cancer and thrombosis is known since more than a century. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be the first manifestation of an occult malignancy in an otherwise healthy individual. Cancer patients commonly present with abnormalities of laboratory coagulation tests, indicating an ongoing subclinical hypercoagulable condition. The results of laboratory tests demonstrate that a process of fibrin formation and removal parallels the development of malignancy, which is of particular interest since fibrin and other clotting products are important for both thrombogenesis and tumor progression...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916705/the-effects-of-the-exopolysaccharide-and-growth-rate-on-the-morphogenesis-of-the-terrestrial-filamentous-cyanobacterium-nostoc-flagelliforme
#2
Lijuan Cui, Haiyan Xu, Zhaoxia Zhu, Xiang Gao
The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme, which contributes to carbon and nitrogen supplies in arid and semi-arid regions, adopts a filamentous colony form. Owing to its herbal and dietary values, this species has been overexploited. Largely due to the lack of understanding on its morphogenesis, artificial cultivation has not been achieved. Additionally, it may serve as a useful model for recognizing the morphological adaptation of colonial cyanobacteria in terrestrial niches. However, it shows very slow growth in native habitats and is easily disintegrated under laboratory conditions...
September 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916148/chemokine-receptor-directed-imaging-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Andreas K Buck, Antje Stolzenburg, Heribert Hänscheid, Andreas Schirbel, Katharina Lückerath, Margret Schottelius, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Constantin Lapa
The C - X - C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its natural ligand CXCL12 are key factors in the process of cell migration, homing of hematopoietic stem cells to the bone marrow, and represent important mediators of angiogenesis and cell proliferation. The CXCR4/CXCL12 interplay can be disrupted by CXCR4 antagonists such as Plerixafor which are already in daily clinical use, i.e. for mobilization and subsequent harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells and stem cell transplantation. In a pathological condition, involvement in the process of metastasis and homing of cancer cells to a protective niche has been described, making CXCR4 an attractive target for imaging and treatment of malignant diseases...
September 12, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912584/niche-harmony-search-algorithm-for-detecting-complex-disease-associated-high-order-snp-combinations
#4
Shouheng Tuo, Junying Zhang, Xiguo Yuan, Zongzhen He, Yajun Liu, Zhaowen Liu
Genome-wide association study is especially challenging in detecting high-order disease-causing models due to model diversity, possible low or even no marginal effect of the model, and extraordinary search and computations. In this paper, we propose a niche harmony search algorithm where joint entropy is utilized as a heuristic factor to guide the search for low or no marginal effect model, and two computationally lightweight scores are selected to evaluate and adapt to diverse of disease models. In order to obtain all possible suspected pathogenic models, niche technique merges with HS, which serves as a taboo region to avoid HS trapping into local search...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912141/macropinocytosis-of-bevacizumab-by%C3%A2-glioblastoma-cells-in-the-perivascular-niche-affects-their-survival
#5
Gaëlle M Müller-Greven, Cathleen Carlin, Monica E Burgett, Manmeet Singh Ahluwalia, Adam Lauko, Amy S Nowacki, Cameron J Herting, Maha A Qadan, Markus Bredel, Steven A Toms, Justin D Lathia, Dolores Hambardzumyan, Jann N Sarkaria, Petra Hamerlik, Candece L Gladson
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF, is used routinely in the treatment of patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). However, very little is known regarding the effects of bevacizumab on the cells in the perivascular space in tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Established orthotopic xenograft and syngeneic models of GBM were used to determine entry of monoclonal anti-VEGF-A into, and uptake by cells in, the perivascular space. Based on the results, we examined CD133+ cells derived from GBM tumors in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911087/an-antisense-oligonucleotide-targeting-tgf-%C3%AE-2-inhibits-lung-metastasis-and-induces-cd86-expression-in-tumor-associated-macrophages
#6
I Huber-Ruano, C Raventós, I Cuartas, C Sánchez-Jaro, A Arias, J L Parra, K Wosikowski, M Janicot, J Seoane
Background: The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway is a well-described inducer of immunosuppression and can act as an oncogenic factor in advanced tumors. Several preclinical and clinical studies show that the TGF-β pathway can be considered a promising molecular target for cancer therapy. The human genome has three TGF-β isoforms and not much is known about the oncogenic response to each of the isoforms. Here, we studied the antitumor response to ISTH0047, a recently developed locked nucleic acid-modified antisense oligonucleotide targeting TGF-β2...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904773/a-spatial-theory-for-emergent-multiple-predator-prey-interactions-in-food-webs
#7
Tobin D Northfield, Brandon T Barton, Oswald J Schmitz
Predator-prey interaction is inherently spatial because animals move through landscapes to search for and consume food resources and to avoid being consumed by other species. The spatial nature of species interactions necessitates integrating spatial processes into food web theory and evaluating how predators combine to impact their prey. Here, we present a spatial modeling approach that examines emergent multiple predator effects on prey within landscapes. The modeling is inspired by the habitat domain concept derived from empirical synthesis of spatial movement and interactions studies...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904751/the-thermal-niche-of-neotropical-nectar-feeding-bats-its-evolution-and-application-to-predict-responses-to-global-warming
#8
Stephanie Ortega-García, Lázaro Guevara, Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales, Roberto Lindig-Cisneros, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Ernesto Vega, Jorge E Schondube
The thermal niche of a species is one of the main determinants of its ecology and biogeography. In this study, we determined the thermal niche of 23 species of Neotropical nectar-feeding bats of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae). We calculated their thermal niches using temperature data obtained from collection records, by generating a distribution curve of the maximum and minimum temperatures per locality, and using the inflection points of the temperature distributions to estimate the species optimal (STZ) and suboptimal (SRZ) zones of the thermal niche...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904069/disturbed-placental-imprinting-in-preeclampsia-leads-to-altered-expression-of-dlx5-a-human-specific-early-trophoblast-marker
#9
Julianna Zadora, Manvendra Singh, Florian Herse, Lukasz Przybyl, Nadine Haase, Michaela Golic, Hong Wa Yung, Berthold Huppertz, Judith E Cartwright, Guy S Whitley, Guro M Johnsen, Giovanni Levi, Annette Isbruch, Herbert Schulz, Friedrich C Luft, Dominik N Müller, Anne C Staff, Laurence D Hurst, Ralf Dechend, Zsuzsanna Izsvák
Background -Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human-specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in PE. Our study aims at investigating whether disturbed imprinting contributes to PE...
September 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901955/hepg2-and-human-healthy-hepatocyte-in-vitro-culture-and-co-culture-in-pcl-electrospun-platforms
#10
Ines Fasolino, Vincenzo Guarino, Marica Marrese, Valentina Cirillo, Marianna Vallifuoco, Maria Luisa Tamma, Valentina Vassallo, Adele Bracco, Fulvio Calise, Luigi Ambrosio
The discovery of new drugs to treat pathological cells in the case of aggressive liver primary cancer is imposing the identification of high-throughput screening systems to predict the in vivo response of new therapeutic molecules, in order to reduce current use of animals and drug testing costs. Recently, micro/nanostructured scaffolds have been adopted to reproduce the hepatic microenvironment due to their higher similarity to the biological niche with respect to the traditional two-dimensional culture plate, so providing novel in vitro models for reliably understanding molecular mechanisms related to cancer cells activity...
September 13, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898262/climate-and-air-pollution-impacts-on-habitat-suitability-of-austrian-forest-ecosystems
#11
Thomas Dirnböck, Ika Djukic, Barbara Kitzler, Johannes Kobler, Janet P Mol-Dijkstra, Max Posch, Gert Jan Reinds, Angela Schlutow, Franz Starlinger, Wieger G W Wamelink
Climate change and excess deposition of airborne nitrogen (N) are among the main stressors to floristic biodiversity. One particular concern is the deterioration of valuable habitats such as those protected under the European Habitat Directive. In future, climate-driven shifts (and losses) in the species potential distribution, but also N driven nutrient enrichment may threaten these habitats. We applied a dynamic geochemical soil model (VSD+) together with a novel niche-based plant response model (PROPS) to 5 forest habitat types (18 forest sites) protected under the EU Directive in Austria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894932/genomic-insights-into-temperature-dependent-transcriptional-responses-of-kosmotoga-olearia-a-deep-biosphere-bacterium-that-can-grow-from-20-to-79%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c
#12
Stephen M J Pollo, Abigail A Adebusuyi, Timothy J Straub, Julia M Foght, Olga Zhaxybayeva, Camilla L Nesbø
Temperature is one of the defining parameters of an ecological niche. Most organisms thrive within a temperature range that rarely exceeds ~30 °C, but the deep subsurface bacterium Kosmotoga olearia can grow over a temperature range of 59 °C (20-79 °C). To identify genes correlated with this flexible phenotype, we compared transcriptomes of K. olearia cultures grown at its optimal 65 °C to those at 30, 40, and 77 °C. The temperature treatments affected expression of 573 of 2224 K. olearia genes. Notably, this transcriptional response elicits re-modeling of the cellular membrane and changes in metabolism, with increased expression of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism at high temperatures and up-regulation of amino acid metabolism at lower temperatures...
September 11, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893374/cell-differentiation-defines-acute-and-chronic-infection-cell-types-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
Juan-Carlos García-Betancur, Angel Goñi-Moreno, Thomas Horger, Melanie Schott, Malvika Sharan, Julian Eikmeier, Barbara Wohlmuth, Alma Zernecke, Knut Ohlsen, Christina Kuttler, Daniel Lopez
A central question to biology is how pathogenic bacteria initiate acute or chronic infections. Here we describe a genetic program for cell-fate decision in the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which generates the phenotypic bifurcation of the cells into two genetically identical but different cell types during the course of an infection. Whereas one cell type promotes the formation of biofilms that contribute to chronic infections, the second type is planktonic and produces the toxins that contribute to acute bacteremia...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892780/natural-diversity-facilitates-the-discovery-of-conserved-chemotherapeutic-response-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Stefan Zdraljevic, Erik C Andersen
Organismal fitness depends on adaptation to complex niches where chemical compounds and pathogens are omnipresent. These stresses can lead to the fixation of alleles in both xenobiotic responses and proliferative signaling pathways that promote survival in these niches. However, both xenobiotic responses and proliferative pathways vary within and among species. For example, genetic differences can accumulate within populations because xenobiotic exposures are not constant and selection is variable. Additionally, neutral genetic variation can accumulate in conserved proliferative pathway genes because these systems are robust to genetic perturbations given their essential roles in normal cell-fate specification...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891214/non-redundant-functions-of-the-dimeric-aba-receptor-bdpyl1-in-the-grass-brachypodium
#15
Oded Pri-Tal, Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Gil Wiseglass, Zvi Peleg, Assaf Mosquna
Abiotic stresses have severe detrimental effects on agricultural productivity worldwide. ABA levels rise in response to abiotic stresses, and play a role in coordinating physiological responses. ABA elicits its effects by binding a family of soluble receptors, increasing affinity of the receptors to type 2C phosphatases (PP2Cs) leading to phosphatase inhibition. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the ABA signaling pathway in the cereal model grass Brachypodium distachyon. The Brachypodium genome encodes a family of ten functionally conserved ABA receptors...
September 11, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888790/evolution-in-australia-s-mesic-biome-under-past-and-future-climates-insights-from-a-phylogenetic-study-of-the-australian-rock-orchids-dendrobium-speciosum-complex-orchidaceae
#16
Lalita Simpson, Mark A Clements, Darren M Crayn, Katharina Schulte
The Australian mesic biome spans c. 33 degrees of latitude along Australia's east coast and ranges but is dissected by historical and contemporary biogeographical barriers. To investigate the impact of these barriers on evolutionary diversification and to predict the impact of future climate change on the distribution of species and genetic diversity within this biome, we inferred phylogenetic relationships within the Dendrobium speciosum complex (Orchidaceae) across its distribution and undertook environmental niche modelling (ENM) under past, contemporary and projected future climates...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887895/impact-of-climate-change-on-vector-transmission-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-chagas-1909-in-north-america
#17
O Carmona-Castro, D A Moo-Llanes, J M Ramsey
Climate change can influence the geographical range of the ecological niche of pathogens by altering biotic interactions with vectors and reservoirs. The distributions of 20 epidemiologically important triatomine species in North America were modelled, comparing the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt), with or without topographical variables. Potential shifts in transmission niche for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) (Chagas, 1909) were analysed for 2050 and 2070 in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4...
September 9, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887440/a-global-staphylococcus-aureus-proteome-resource-applied-to-the-in-vivo-characterization-of-host-pathogen-interactions
#18
Stephan Michalik, Maren Depke, Annette Murr, Manuela Gesell Salazar, Ulrike Kusebauch, Zhi Sun, Tanja C Meyer, Kristin Surmann, Henrike Pförtner, Petra Hildebrandt, Stefan Weiss, Laura Marcela Palma Medina, Melanie Gutjahr, Elke Hammer, Dörte Becher, Thomas Pribyl, Sven Hammerschmidt, Eric W Deutsch, Samuel L Bader, Michael Hecker, Robert L Moritz, Ulrike Mäder, Uwe Völker, Frank Schmidt
Data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry promises higher performance in terms of quantification and reproducibility compared to data-dependent acquisition mass spectrometry methods. To enable high-accuracy quantification of Staphylococcus aureus proteins, we have developed a global ion library for data-independent acquisition approaches employing high-resolution time of flight or Orbitrap instruments for this human pathogen. We applied this ion library resource to investigate the time-resolved adaptation of S...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887176/ecoacoustic-codes-and-ecological-complexity
#19
Almo Farina
Multi-layer communication and sensing network assures the exchange of relevant information between animals and their umwelten, imparting complexity to the ecological systems. Individual soniferous species, the acoustic community, and soundscape are the three main operational levels that comprise this multi-layer network. Acoustic adaptation and acoustic niche are two more important mechanisms that regulate the acoustic performances at the first level while the acoustic community model explains the complexity of the interspecific acoustic network at the second level...
September 5, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887150/geography-and-past-climate-changes-have-shaped-the-evolution-of-a-widespread-lizard-from-the-chilean-hotspot
#20
Carla Muñoz-Mendoza, Guillermo D'Elía, Alejandra Panzera, Marco A Méndez T, Amado Villalobos-Leiva, Jack W Sites, Pedro F Victoriano
The complex orogenic history and structure of Southern South America, coupled with Pleistocene glacial cycles, have generated paleoclimatic and environmental changes that influenced the spatial distribution and genetic composition of natural populations. Despite the increased number of phylogeographic studies in this region and given the frequent idiosyncratic phylogeographic patterns, there is still the need to focus research especially on species that are currently distributed within a wide range of bioclimatic regimes, and that historically have been subject to contrasting scenarios...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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