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Paolo Manzoni, Alberto Dall'Agnola, Daniel Tomé, David A Kaufman, Elena Tavella, Marta Pieretto, Alessandro Messina, Daniele De Luca, Marc Bellaiche, Alexis Mosca, Hugues Piloquet, Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Charles Picaud, Antonio Del Vecchio
Lactoferrin is one of the most represented and important bioactive proteins in human and mammal milk. In humans, lactoferrin is responsible for several actions targeting anti-infective, immunological, and gastrointestinal domains in neonates, infants, and young children. Evidence-based data vouch for the ability of supplemented lactoferrin to prevent sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and to reduce the burden of morbidity related to gastrointestinal and respiratory pathogens in young children...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Firoze Manji, Gunnar Dahlen, Ole Fejerskov
We review the literature on the oral microbiome and the role of the microbiota in the development of dental caries and periodontitis. While most research has been focused on identifying one or more specific determinants of these diseases, the results have provided limited predictive value and have not been able to explain the variation in the distribution of these diseases observed in epidemiological or clinical studies. Drawing on existing knowledge about the nature of the oral microbiota, we suggest that a stochastic model based on the Weiner process provides simple and parsimonious explanations for the pathogenesis of both caries and periodontitis, making few assumptions, and providing explanations for phenomena that have hitherto proved difficult, or have required complex arguments, to explain...
April 25, 2018: Caries Research
Huicong Zhou, Shixian Lv, Dawei Zhang, Mingxiao Deng, Xuefei Zhang, Zhaohui Tang, Xuesi Chen
Podophyllotoxin (PPT) is a chemotherapeutic agent which has shown significant activity against P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated multi drug resistant cancer cells. However, because of the poor aqueous solubility and high toxicity, PPT cannot be used in clinical cancer therapy. In order to enhance the efficiency and reduce side effect of PPT, a polypeptide based PPT conjugate PLG-g-mPEG-PPT was developed and used for the treatment of multi drug resistant breast cancer. The PLG-g-mPEG-PPT was prepared by conjugating PPT to poly(L-glutamic acid)-g-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PLG-g-mPEG) via ester bonds...
April 22, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Zhe Ju, Shi-Yun Wang
As one of the most important and common protein post-translational modifications, citrullination plays a key role in regulating various biological processes and is associated with several human diseases. The accurate identification of citrullination sites is crucial for elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms of citrullination and designing drugs for related human diseases. In this study, a novel bioinformatics tool named CKSAAP_CitrSite is developed for the prediction of citrullination sites. With the assistance of support vector machine algorithm, the highlight of CKSAAP_CitrSite is to adopt the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs surrounding a query site as input...
April 22, 2018: Gene
Phillip M Shelton, Angeles Duran, Yuki Nakanishi, Miguel Reina-Campos, Hiroaki Kasashima, Victoria Llado, Li Ma, Alex Campos, Damián García-Olmo, Mariano García-Arranz, Dolores C García-Olmo, Susana Olmedillas-López, Javier F Caceres, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Jorge Moscat
Most colorectal cancer (CRC)-related deaths are due to liver metastases. PKCζ is a tumor suppressor in CRC with reduced expression in metastasis. Given the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating cellular plasticity, we performed an unbiased screening and identified the miR-200 family as the most relevant miRNAs downregulated by PKCζ deficiency. The regulation of the intracellular levels of miR-200 by PKCζ is post-transcriptional and involves their secretion in extracellular vesicles. Here, we identified ADAR2 as a direct substrate of PKCζ in CRC cells...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
Yasmine Ould Amer, Etienne Hebert-Chatelain
Mitochondria are key organelles for cellular homeostasis. They generate the most part of ATP that is used by cells through oxidative phosphorylation. They also produce reactive oxygen species, neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules. They are important for calcium homeostasis and apoptosis. Considering the role of this organelle, it is not surprising that most mitochondrial dysfunctions are linked to the development of pathologies. Various mechanisms adjust mitochondrial activity according to physiological needs...
April 22, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yan Zhao
Sequence-selective recognition of peptides in water has been one of the most important and yet unsolved problems in bioorganic and supramolecular chemistry. The motivation comes from not only the importance of these molecules in biology but also the fundamental challenges involved in the research. Molecular imprinting in doubly cross-linked surfactant micelles offers a unique solution to this problem by creating a "supramolecular code" on the micelle surface that matches the structural features of the peptide chain...
April 25, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Fatma Ben Mbarka, Khouloud Ben Jeddou, Mehdi Khalfallah, Dorra Jarraya, Hichem Jarraya, Zeineb Ouahchi, Ramzi Nouira, Chadli Dziri
BACKGROUND: the aim of thisstudywas to investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients at the Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis, measure the risk of their occurrence, analyzepreventive and curative measuresundertaken and evaluatefactorspredisposing to pressure ulcers. METHODS: A one-day survey was performed in all hospitalized patients. Emergency services, neonatology and pediatrics were excluded. The Braden scale was used to measure the patient's risk for the development of pressure ulcers...
July 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Mayra Delalibera, António Barbosa, Isabel Leal
Family caregivers play an important role in advanced disease patient care. The goal of this study was to characterize the family caregiver in palliative care, evaluating the circumstances and consequences of care and preparation for the loss of the loved one. This is a quantitative, prospective and longitudinal study. The sample consisted of 60 family caregivers, mostly women, married with an average age of 44.53 years. Most caregivers cohabit with the patient, and they spend the greater part of their day caring for the patient and a significant part quit their jobs or reduce working hours to be with the patient...
April 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Grazielle Dias da Silva, Eli Iola Gurgel Andrade, Mariângela Leal Cherchiglia, Alessandra Maciel Almeida, Augusto Afonso Guerra Júnior, Francisco de Assis Acurcio
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic condition that affects about 1% of the adult population. In a historical cohort of Minas Gerais State, 11,573 RA patients registered in the Outpatient Information System (SIA) between 2008 and 2013 were identified. For this study we adopted the public funding body's perspective and the values were adjusted by the national inflation index (IPCA) of December 2015. Etanercept was the most expensive treatment. The mean cohort age was 52 years old and most of the patients were women...
April 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Daniela de Assumpção, Flávia Silva Arbex Borim, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco, Anita Liberalesso Neri
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of being underweight among the elderly according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviors, diseases and health status. This was a cross-sectional multi-center study with 3,478 community-dwelling elders (≥ 65 years). The dependent variable was the prevalence of being underweight, classified by Body Mass Index < 22kg/m2. Adjusted prevalence rate ratios were estimated using multivariable Poisson regression. The mean age was 72...
April 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
I D S L Pio, A L Lavor, C M D Damasceno, P M N Menezes, F S Silva, G L A Maia
This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by inhabitants of the Rodeadouro Island, Jatoba Island and Massangano Island, located in The Submedium São Francisco River Valley. Also phytochemicals and preliminary pharmacological tests were performed to species most cited by the community. Ethnobotanical data were collected through observation visits and semi-structured interviews with 12 key informants. We calculated the relative importance (RI), the percentage of agreement related to the main uses (cAMU) and use value (UV)...
April 19, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Harold Alderman, Derek Headey
BACKGROUND: Growth faltering largely occurs in the first 23 months after birth and is thought to be largely determined by various harmful or protective socioeconomic conditions. Children 23 months or younger, however, have only been partially exposed to these conditions, implying that statistical associations between these conditions and child growth may be substantially smaller in samples that include younger children. OBJECTIVES: To test the prediction that associations between child anthropometric outcomes and various socioeconomic conditions are systematically different for older and younger children...
2018: PloS One
Anne-Sophie Garnier, Agnès Duveau, Julien Demiselle, Anne Croué, Jean-François Subra, Johnny Sayegh, Jean-François Augusto
IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most frequent primary glomerulonephritis, affects young patients and is associated with a high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. Consequently, patients with IgAN constitute an important proportion of candidates for kidney transplantation. Several studies showed a significant risk of IgAN recurrence on kidney graft, but the risks factors for recurrence remain to be accurately evaluated. Indeed, early identification of at risk patients may allow the optimization of treatment and the reduction of recurrence rate on the graft...
2018: PloS One
Yerali Gandica, Marco Valerio Geraci, Sophie Béreau, Jean-Yves Gnabo
Drawing on recent contributions inferring financial interconnectedness from market data, our paper provides new insights on the evolution of the US financial industry over a long period of time by using several tools coming from network science. Relying on a Time-Varying Parameter Vector AutoRegressive (TVP-VAR) approach on stock market returns to retrieve unobserved directed links among financial institutions, we reconstruct a fully dynamic network in the sense that connections are let to evolve through time...
2018: PloS One
Marian Berihuete-Azorín, Josep Girbal, Raquel Piqué, Antoni Palomo, Xavier Terradas
This paper presents the study of the fungi remains preserved in the waterlogged deposits of the Neolithic site of La Draga. These resources had the potential of being used as food and medicine, but also as tinder. Fire was without a doubt one of the most important resources for past people. It was used for lighting, heating, processing food and other materials, cooking and protection, and also possessed social and ritual significance. Hearths are one of the most common features at archaeological sites, but very often little attention is paid to the question of how these fires were lit, and they are seldom reflected in the archaeological record...
2018: PloS One
Hikaru Yokoyama, Koji Sato, Tetsuya Ogawa, Shin-Ichiro Yamamoto, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Noritaka Kawashima
The adaptability of human bipedal locomotion has been studied using split-belt treadmill walking. Most of previous studies utilized experimental protocol under remarkably different split ratios (e.g. 1:2, 1:3, or 1:4). While, there is limited research with regard to adaptive process under the small speed ratios. It is important to know the nature of adaptive process under ratio smaller than 1:2, because systematic evaluation of the gait adaptation under small to moderate split ratios would enable us to examine relative contribution of two forms of adaptation (reactive feedback and predictive feedforward control) on gait adaptation...
2018: PloS One
Zhigang Li, Dan Chen, Shize Cai, Shengquan Che
Mitigating extreme heat in urban areas is beneficial and sometimes critical to human health. Thriving plant communities in community parks play an important role in mitigating extreme heat through providing cooling effect, while inevitably affecting how people perceive the benefits of using community parks for recreation. Thus, the impacts of plant communities on the thermal environment should be quantified to determine the optimal structure of the plant community. The goal would be to harmonize the functions of improving the thermal environment with the preferences people have related to the recreational benefits of plant communities with various levels of vegetation density...
2018: PloS One
Gwendolyn K Kirschner, Yvonne Stahl, Jafargholi Imani, Maria von Korff, Rüdiger Simon
The phytohormones auxin and cytokinin control development and maintenance of plant meristems and stem cell systems. Fluorescent protein reporter lines that monitor phytohormone controlled gene expression programmes have been widely used to study development and differentiation in the model species Arabidopsis, but equivalent tools are still missing for the majority of crop species. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most abundant cereal crop plant, but knowledge on these important phytohormones in regard to the barley root and shoot stem cell niches is still negligible...
2018: PloS One
Ying-Ming Chiu, Mei-Shu Lai, K Arnold Chan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Potential hepatoxicity is an important clinical concern when administering immunosuppressive therapies to patients infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV). Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (anti-TNF) increase the likelihood of hepatitis consequent to HBV reactivation, but reported risks and outcomes vary. We determined the risks of liver enzyme elevation in anti-rheumatic drug users from an HBV-endemic region with differing HBV serostatus. METHODS: We established retrospective cohorts with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis who: 1) received anti-TNF agents from 1 January 2004 to 30 June 2013; 2) received care from 1 June 2011 to 30 June 2013 but only ever used conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)...
2018: PloS One
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