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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241213/antibiotics-induced-obesity-a-mitochondrial-perspective
#1
Melisa J Andrade, Chinchu Jayaprakash, Smitha Bhat, Nikolaos Evangelatos, Angela Brand, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Antibiotics are the first line of treatment against infections and have contributed immensely to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, extensive use of antibiotics has led to alterations of the gut microbiome, predisposition to various diseases and most importantly, increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which poses a major threat to global public health. Another major issue faced worldwide due to unregulated use of antibiotics in children as well as in adults is the influence of metabolism and body weight homeostasis, leading to obesity...
December 15, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241206/a-multicenter-experience-with-long-acting-somatostatin-analogues-in-patients-with-congenital-hyperinsulinism
#2
Ivo van der Steen, Mirjam E van Albada, Klaus Mohnike, Henrik Thybo Christesen, Susann Empting, Maria Salomon-Estebanez, Amalie Greve Rasmussen, Annemarie Verrijn Stuart, Annelieke A A van der Linde, Indraneel Banerjee, Annemieke M Boot
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare disease characterized by recurrent severe hypoglycemia. In the diffuse form of CHI, pharmacotherapy is the preferred choice of treatment. Long-acting somatostatin analogues have been used in children as off-label medication. However, the efficacy, outcomes, and adverse effect profiles of long-acting somatostatin analogues have not been described in multicentered studies. The aim of this retrospective study is to summarize the experience with long-acting somatostatin analogues in a large group of children with CHI...
December 14, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241191/evaluation-of-behavioral-and-susceptibility-patterns-in-premenopausal-women-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections-a-case-control-study
#3
Saddam Al Demour, Mera A Ababneh
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major source of morbidity and healthcare costs. Risk factors associated with recurrence rates in premenopausal women can be attributed to patient lifestyle behavior. The aim of this study was to assess hygienic risk factors, determine pathogen distribution, and susceptibility patterns in premenopausal women with recurrent UTI. This was case-control study in which a face-to-face interview was conducted to obtain information from premenopausal women with recurrent UTI...
December 14, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241172/neurophysiological-monitoring-and-awake-craniotomy-for-resection-of-intracranial-gliomas
#4
Taiichi Saito, Manabu Tamura, Mikhail F Chernov, Soko Ikuta, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama
Aggressive resection of intracranial gliomas has a positive impact on patients' prognosis, but is associated with a risk of neurological complications. For preservation of brain functions and avoidance of major postoperative morbidity various methods of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring have been introduced into clinical practice. At present, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are used routinely during neurosurgical procedures...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241169/imaging-of-intracranial-gliomas
#5
Yuko Ono, Mikhail F Chernov, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama, Kayoko Abe, Hiroshi Iseki
Combined use of contemporary radiological modalities, particularly integration of structural, metabolic, and functional imaging, provides optimal multifaceted information for detailed characterization of intracranial gliomas. It allows differentiation of the tumor from non-neoplastic pathology, its non-invasive histopathological typing and grading, prediction of patient prognosis and clinical course of the disease, detailed planning of surgical resection or biopsy, critical postoperative assessment of the residual lesion, effective surveillance during follow-up with evaluation of effectiveness of the adjuvant therapy and timely identification of recurrence, and even insights into molecular signatures of the neoplasms...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241165/sc1-promotes-mir124-3p-expression-to-maintain-the-self-renewal-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-by-inhibiting-the-mek-erk-pathway
#6
Qing Wei, Hongliang Liu, Zhiying Ai, Yongyan Wu, Yingxiang Liu, Zhaopeng Shi, Xuexue Ren, Zekun Guo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Self-renewal is one of the most important features of embryonic stem (ES) cells. SC1 is a small molecule modulator that effectively maintains the self-renewal of mouse ES cells in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), serum and feeder cells. However, the mechanism by which SC1 maintains the undifferentiated state of mouse ES cells remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, microarray and small RNA deep-sequencing experiments were performed on mouse ES cells treated with or without SC1 to identify the key genes and microRNAs that contributed to self-renewal...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241143/perceptions-about-supervised-injection-facilities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-philadelphia
#7
Robert E Harris, Jessica Richardson, Rosemary Frasso, Evan D Anderson
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infectious diseases, skin and soft tissue infections, and overdose. However, these harms are all avoidable when sterile injection equipment, hygienic places to inject, and medical care are accessible. Unfortunately, many PWID in the U.S lack these resources. The most vulnerable are forced to inject in public spaces, where individual risks are high and communal harms are sometimes many. Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are an established intervention for reducing these harms...
December 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241098/under-ascertainment-under-reporting-and-timeliness-of-iranian-communicable-disease-surveillance-system-for-zoonotic-diseases
#8
P A Kazerooni, M Fararouei, M Nejat, M Akbarpoor, Z Sedaghat
OBJECTIVES: The important steps in controlling infectious diseases are fast detection, proper treatment and on-time reporting of cases to the appropriate authorities. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of Iranian communicable diseases surveillance system (CDSS) for zoonotic diseases in rural areas of Fars province (Iran's third largest province). STUDY DESIGN: The three most important evaluation indices of CDSS, namely under-ascertainment, under-reporting and timeliness, for the three most common zoonotic diseases were measured using independent data source obtained from door-to-door interviews and patients' medical records...
December 11, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240995/mono-chromophoric-design-strategy-for-tetrazine-based-colorful-bioorthogonal-probes-with-a-single-fluorescent-core-skeleton
#9
Youngjun Lee, Wansang Cho, June Sung, Eunha Kim, Seung Bum Park
Fluorogenic bioorthogonal probe is ideal for fluorescent imaging in live cell condition. By taking advantage of dual functionality of tetrazine (Tz), bioorthogonal reaction unit as well as fluorescence quencher, fluorophore-Tz conjugate (FLTz) has been utilized for fluorescent live cell imaging via inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder (iEDDA) type bioorthogonal reaction. However, most of FLTz strategies rely on donor-acceptor type energy transfer mechanism which limits red-shifting of probes' emission wavelength without deterioration of fluorescent turn-on/off ratio...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240970/rumen-bacteria-at-work-bioaugmentation-strategies-to-enhance-biogas-production-from-cow-manure
#10
E Gozde Ozbayram, Çağrı Akyol, Bahar Ince, Canan Karakoç, Orhan Ince
AIMS: To investigate the effects of different bioaugmentation strategies for enhancing the biogas production from cow manure and evaluate microbial community patterns. METHODS AND RESULTS: Co-inoculation with cow rumen fluid and cow rumen-derived enriched microbial consortia were evaluated in anaerobic batch tests at 36 °C and 41 °C. Singular addition of both rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture had a promising enhancement on methane yields; however, the highest methane yield (311 mL CH4 / g VS at 41 °C) was achieved when the anaerobic seed sludge was co-inoculated together with rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240850/hospitalist-and-internal-medicine-leaders-perspectives-of-early-discharge-challenges-at-academic-medical-centers
#11
Hemali Patel, Margaret C Fang, Michelle Mourad, Adrienne Green, Robert M Wachter, Ryan D Murphy, James D Harrison
Improving early discharges may improve patient flow and increase hospital capacity. We conducted a national survey of academic medical centers addressing the prevalence, importance, and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives. We assembled a list of hospitalist and general internal medicine leaders at 115 US-based academic medical centers. We emailed each institutional representative a 30-item online survey regarding early-discharge initiatives. The survey included questions on discharge prioritization, the prevalence and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives, and barriers to implementation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240836/is-quality-of-life-different-between-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-people-the-importance-of-cardiovascular-risks
#12
L M Peña-Longobardo, B Rodríguez-Sánchez, M Mata-Cases, L Rodríguez-Mañas, M Capel, J Oliva-Moreno
BACKGROUND: To analyse and compare the impact of cardiovascular risk factors and disease on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with and without diabetes living in the community. METHODS: We used data of 1,905 people with diabetes and 19,031 people without diabetes from the last Spanish National Health Survey (years 2011-2012). The HRQoL instrument used was the EuroQol 5D-5L, based on time trade-off scores. Matching methods were used to assess any differences in the HRQoL in people with and without diabetes with the same characteristics (age, gender, education level, and healthy lifestyle), according to cardiovascular risk factors and diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240835/scientific-research-on-animal-biodiversity-is-systematically-biased-towards-vertebrates-and-temperate-regions
#13
Mark A Titley, Jake L Snaddon, Edgar C Turner
Over the last 25 years, research on biodiversity has expanded dramatically, fuelled by increasing threats to the natural world. However, the number of published studies is heavily weighted towards certain taxa, perhaps influencing conservation awareness of and funding for less-popular groups. Few studies have systematically quantified these biases, although information on this topic is important for informing future research and conservation priorities. We investigated: i) which animal taxa are being studied; ii) if any taxonomic biases are the same in temperate and tropical regions; iii) whether the taxon studied is named in the title of papers on biodiversity, perhaps reflecting a perception of what biodiversity is; iv) the geographical distribution of biodiversity research, compared with the distribution of biodiversity and threatened species; and v) the geographical distribution of authors' countries of origin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240810/forest-loss-in-new-england-a-projection-of-recent-trends
#14
Jonathan R Thompson, Joshua S Plisinski, Pontus Olofsson, Christopher E Holden, Matthew J Duveneck
New England has lost more than 350,000 ha of forest cover since 1985, marking a reversal of a two-hundred-year trend of forest expansion. We a cellular land-cover change model to project a continuation of recent trends (1990-2010) in forest loss across six New England states from 2010 to 2060. Recent trends were estimated using a continuous change detection algorithm applied to twenty years of Landsat images. We addressed three questions: (1) What would be the consequences of a continuation of the recent trends in terms of changes to New England's forest cover mosaic? (2) What social and biophysical attributes are most strongly associated with recent trends in forest loss, and how do these vary geographically? (3) How sensitive are projections of forest loss to the reference period-i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240806/the-structure-of-salt-marsh-soil-mesofauna-food-webs-the-prevalence-of-disturbance
#15
Kristin Haynert, Mirijam Kiggen, Bernhard Klarner, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu
Mesofauna taxa fill key trophic positions in soil food webs, even in terrestrial-marine boundary habitats characterized by frequent natural disturbances. Salt marshes represent such boundary habitats, characterized by frequent inundations increasing from the terrestrial upper to the marine pioneer zone. Despite the high abundance of soil mesofauna in salt marshes and their important function by facilitating energy and carbon flows, the structure, trophic ecology and habitat-related diet shifts of mesofauna species in natural salt marsh habitats is virtually unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240789/how-to-quantitatively-evaluate-safety-of-driver-behavior-upon-accident-a-biomechanical-methodology
#16
Wen Zhang, Jieer Cao, Jun Xu
How to evaluate driver spontaneous reactions in various collision patterns in a quantitative way is one of the most important topics in vehicle safety. Firstly, this paper constructs representative numerical crash scenarios described by impact velocity, impact angle and contact position based on finite element (FE) computation platform. Secondly, a driver cabin model is extracted and described in the well validated multi-rigid body (MB) model to compute the value of weighted injury criterion to quantitatively assess drivers' overall injury under certain circumstances...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240782/conservation-and-divergence-of-starch-synthase-iii-genes-of-monocots-and-dicots
#17
Bhavya Priyadarshini Mishra, Rajeev Kumar, Amita Mohan, Kulvinder S Gill
Starch Synthase (SS) plays an important role in extending the α-1,4 glucan chains during starch biosynthesis by catalyzing the transfer of the glucosyl moiety from ADP-glucose to the non-reducing end of a pre-existing glucan chain. SS has five distinct isoforms of which SSIII is involved in the formation of longer glucan chain length. Here we report identification and detailed characterization of 'true' orthologs of the well-characterized maize SSIII (ZmSSIII), among six monocots and two dicot species. ZmSSIII orthologs have nucleotide sequence similarity ranging from 56-81%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240775/ornithine-decarboxylase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-endometrial-cancer
#18
Hong Im Kim, Chad R Schultz, Andrea L Buras, Elizabeth Friedman, Alyssa Fedorko, Leigh Seamon, Gadisetti V R Chandramouli, G Larry Maxwell, André S Bachmann, John I Risinger
Ornithine Decarboxylase (ODC) a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is often overexpressed in cancers and contributes to polyamine-induced cell proliferation. We noted ubiquitous expression of ODC1 in our published endometrial cancer gene array data and confirmed this in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) with highest expression in non-endometrioid, high grade, and copy number high cancers, which have the worst clinical outcomes. ODC1 expression was associated with worse overall survival and increased recurrence in three endometrial cancer gene expression datasets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240762/rethinking-3r-strategies-digging-deeper-into-animaltestinfo-promotes-transparency-in-in-vivo-biomedical-research
#19
Bettina Bert, Antje Dörendahl, Nora Leich, Julia Vietze, Matthias Steinfath, Justyna Chmielewska, Andreas Hensel, Barbara Grune, Gilbert Schönfelder
In the European Union (EU), animal welfare is seen as a matter of great importance. However, with respect to animal experimentation, European citizens feel quite uninformed. The European Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals aims for greater transparency and requires that a comprehensible, nontechnical summary (NTS) of each authorised research project involving animals is published by the respective Member State. However, the NTSs remain sleeping beauties if their contents are not easily and systematically accessible...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240719/pericardial-effusion-as-a-presenting-symptom-of-hashimoto-thyroiditis-a-case-report
#20
Alberto Leonardi, Laura Penta, Marta Cofini, Lucia Lanciotti, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Background: Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most frequent cause of acquired hypothyroidism in paediatrics. HT is usually diagnosed in older children and adolescents, mainly in females and is rare in infants and toddlers with cardiac involvement, including pericardial effusion, that can be found in 10% to 30% of adult HT cases. In this paper, a child with HT and pericardial effusion as the most important sign of HT is described. Case presentation: A four-year-old male child suffering for a few months from recurrent abdominal pain sometimes associated with vomiting underwent an abdominal ultrasound scan outside the hospital...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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