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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458189/impact-of-time-of-day-on-diffusivity-measures-of-brain-tissue-derived-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#1
Cibu Thomas, Neda Sadeghi, Amrita Nayak, Aaron Trefler, Joelle Sarlls, Chris Baker, Carlo Pierpaoli
Diurnal fluctuations in MRI measures of structural and functional properties of the brain have been reported recently. These fluctuations may have a physiological origin, since they have been detected using different MRI modalities, and cannot be explained by factors that are typically known to confound MRI measures. While preliminary evidence suggests that measures of structural properties of the brain based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fluctuate as a function of time-of-day (TOD), the underlying mechanism has not been investigated...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458126/structural-and-mechanistic-analysis-of-the-choline-sulfatase-from-sinorhizobium-melliloti-a-class-i-sulfatase-specific-for-an-alkyl-sulfate-ester
#2
Bert van Loo, Markus Schober, Eugene Valkov, Magdalena Heberlein, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Kurt Faber, Marko Hyvönen, Florian Hollfelder
Hydrolysis of organic sulfate esters proceeds by two distinct mechanisms, water attacking at either sulfur (S-O bond cleavage) or carbon (C-O bond cleavage). In primary and secondary alkyl sulfates attack at carbon is favored, whereas in aromatic sulfates and sulfated sugars attack at sulfur is preferred. This mechanistic distinction is mirrored in the classification of enzymes that catalyze sulfate ester hydrolysis: arylsulfatases catalyze S-O cleavage in sulfate sugars and arylsulfates and alkyl sulfatases break the C-O bond of alkyl sulfates...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458121/the-paradox-of-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-anorexia-nervosa
#3
Pouneh K Fazeli, Anne Klibanski
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by inappropriate nutrient intake resulting in low body weight. Multiple hormonal adaptations facilitate decreased energy expenditure in this state of caloric deprivation including non-thyroidal illness syndrome, growth hormone resistance, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Although these hormonal adaptations confer a survival advantage during periods of negative energy balance, they contribute to the long-term medical complications associated with AN, the most common of which is significant bone loss and an increased risk of fracture...
February 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458085/the-effect-of-surface-charge-and-ph-on-the-physiological-behaviour-of-cobalt-copper-manganese-antimony-zinc-and-titanium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-vitro
#4
Tiina Titma
The precise knowledge on various interactions of metal nanoparticles (NP) in a living organism is scarce. It is expected that metals can bind to nucleic acids, peptides and proteins (e.g. enzymes), and modify the functioning of vital cellular compartments after entering the organism. The predictive factors for quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) analysis could enhance efficient and harmless usage of nanoparticles (NPs) in the industry as well in the medicine. The studies value the composition of the NP corona determined by time, temperature and source of protein which has been found to implicate the physiological behaviour of NPs...
February 16, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458079/autofluorescence-a-potential-pitfall-in-immunofluorescence-based-inflammation-grading
#5
Jonas Wizenty, Muhammad Imtiaz Ashraf, Nadine Rohwer, Martin Stockmann, Sascha Weiss, Matthias Biebl, Johann Pratschke, Felix Aigner, Tilo Wuensch
Immunofluorescence (IF) staining of paraffin-embedded tissues is a frequently used method to answer research questions or even detect the abundance of a certain protein for diagnostic use. However, the signal originating from specific antibody-staining might be distorted by autofluorescence (AF) of the assessed tissue. Although the AF phenomenon is well known, its presence is often neglected by insufficient staining controls. In this study, we describe the existence of cellular AF in paraffin-embedded healthy and inflamed human and murine colonic tissues and present ways to reduce AF...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458070/the-epigenetic-alterations-of-endogenous-retroelements-in-aging
#6
REVIEW
Maurizio Cardelli
Endogenous retroelements, transposons that mobilize through RNA intermediates, include some of the most abundant repetitive sequences of the human genome, such as Alu and LINE-1 sequences, and human endogenous retroviruses. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these mobile genetic elements not only act as intragenomic parasites, but also exert regulatory roles in living cells. The risk of genomic instability represented by endogenous retroelements is normally counteracted by a series of epigenetic control mechanisms which include, among the most important, CpG DNA methylation...
February 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458066/volitional-voiding-of-the-bladder-following-spinal-cord-injury-validation-of-bilateral-lower-extremity-motor-function-as-a-key-predictor
#7
Christopher S Elliott, Kai B Dallas, Dimitar Zlatev, Craig V Comiter, James Crew, Kazuko Shem
INTRODUCTION: For many with spinal cord injury (SCI), a return of volitional bladder voiding is considered more important than regaining motor function. Recently a predictive model using only composite bilateral lower extremity motor (LEM) scores for levels L2-S1 (range 0-50) was put forth by the European Multicenter Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI) study group that showed exceptional predictive power with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.912. We sought to further validate the EMSCI model using a national SCI cohort...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458045/aldose-reductase-inhibitor-fidarestat-prevents-doxorubicin-induced-endothelial-cell-death-and-dysfunction
#8
Himangshu Sonowal, Pabitra Pal, Kirtikar Shukla, Ashish Saxena, Satish K Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
Despite doxorubicin (Dox) being one of the most widely used chemotherapy agents for breast, blood and lung cancers, its use in colon cancer is limited due to increased drug resistance and severe cardiotoxic side effects that increase mortality associated with its use at high doses. Therefore, better adjuvant therapies are warranted to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy and to decrease cardiotoxicity. We have recently shown that aldose reductase inhibitor, fidarestat, increases the Dox-induced colon cancer cell death and reduces cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458028/are-portable-stereophotogrammetric-devices-reliable-in-facial-imaging-a-validation-study-of-vectra-h1-device
#9
Daniele Gibelli, Valentina Pucciarelli, Annalisa Cappella, Claudia Dolci, Chiarella Sforza
PURPOSE: Modern 3-dimensional (3D) image acquisition systems represent a crucial technologic development in facial anatomy because of their accuracy and precision. The recently introduced portable devices can improve facial databases by increasing the number of applications. In the present study, the VECTRA H1 portable stereophotogrammetric device was validated to verify its applicability to 3D facial analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty volunteers underwent 4 facial scans using portable VECTRA H1 and static VECTRA M3 devices (2 for each instrument)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458011/inflammatory-cytokines-induce-podoplanin-expression-at-the-tumor-invasive-front
#10
Akiko Kunita, Vanessa Baeriswyl, Claudia Meda, Erik Cabuy, Kimiko Takeshita, Enrico Giraudo, Andreas Wicki, Masashi Fukayama, Gerhard Christofori
Tumor invasion is a critical first step in the organismic dissemination of cancer cells and the formation of metastasis in distant organs, the most important prognostic factor and the actual cause of death in most of the cancer patients. We report here that the cell surface protein podoplanin (PDPN), a potent inducer of cancer cell invasion, is conspicuously expressed by the invasive front of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the cervix in patients and in the transgenic HPV/E2 mouse model of cervical cancer...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457992/ground-ultra-low-volume-ulv-space-spray-applications-for-the-control-of-wild-sand-fly-populations-psychodidae-phlebotominae-in-europe
#11
Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Michael Miaoulis, Javid Kashefi
The Phlebotomus sand flies are considered an important vector of both canine and human leishmaniasis. Current measures for sand fly control include mostly indoor interventions, such as residual spraying of dwellings (IRS) to target endophilic sand fly species with very limited number of vector control tools for outdoor interventions against exophilic sand flies. In this study we investigated the efficacy of ground ultra low volume (ULV) space spray applications of a deltamethrin based product against field populations of P...
February 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457960/phylogenetic-relationships-and-acaricidal-effects-of-beauveria-bassiana-obtained-from-cattle-farm-soils-against-rhipicephalus-microplus
#12
Agustin Fernández-Salas, Miguel Angel Alonso Díaz, Rogelio Alejandro Alonso Morales, Roberto Lezama-Gutierrez, José Antonio Cervantes-Chávez
The objectives of the present study were to isolate Beauveria bassiana strains from cattle farms soils, to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the isolated fungi strains, and to determine the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana isolates on Rhipicephalus microplus engorged ticks, resistant or susceptible to chemical acaricides. Six strains of Beauveria bassiana were obtained and isolated from cattle farms soils by Galleria bait method in Mexican tropics and the acaricidal effect was assessed against 2 populations of R...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457878/genetic-determinants-of-heart-failure-facts-and-numbers
#13
EDITORIAL
Frauke S Czepluch, Bernd Wollnik, Gerd Hasenfuß
The relevance of gene mutations leading to heart diseases and hence heart failure has become evident. The risk for and the course of heart failure depends on genomic variants and mutations underlying the so-called genetic predisposition. Genetic contribution to heart failure is highly heterogenous and complex. For any patient with a likely inherited heart failure syndrome, genetic counselling is recommended and important. In the last few years, novel sequencing technologies (named next-generation sequencing - NGS) have dramatically improved the availability of molecular testing, the efficiency of genetic analyses, and moreover reduced the cost for genetic testing...
February 19, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457830/mirna-124-3p-neuropilin-1-nrp-1-axis-plays-an-important-role-in-mediating-glioblastoma-growth-and-angiogenesis
#14
Guilong Zhang, Lukui Chen, Ahsan Ali Khan, Bingqian Li, Bin Gu, Fan Lin, Xinhui Su, Jianghua Yan
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal brain malignancy which involves multi-gene abnormality. Unfortunately, effective therapy against GBM is still lacking. Previously, we found that NRP-1 and its downstream NRP-1/GIPC1 pathway played an important role in GBM. In this study, we further investigated the upstream signaling of NRP-1 to understand how it is regulated. Firstly, we identified that hsa-miR-124-3p was miRNA differentially expressed in GBM and in normal brain tissues by high-throughput sequencing...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457721/reconstructing-dynamic-promoter-activity-profiles-from-reporter-gene-data
#15
Soumya Kannan, Thomas Sams, Jérôme Maury, Christopher T Workman
Accurate characterization of promoter activity is important when designing expression systems for systems biology and metabolic engineering applications. Promoters that respond to changes in the environment enable the dynamic control of gene expression without the necessity of inducer compounds, for example. However, the dynamic nature of these processes poses challenges for estimating promoter activity. Most experimental approaches utilize reporter gene expression to estimate promoter activity. Typically the reporter gene encodes a fluorescent protein that is used to infer a constant promoter activity despite the fact that the observed output may be dynamic and is a number of steps away from the transcription process...
February 19, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457710/investigation-of-%C3%AE-mno-2-tunneled-structures-as-model-cation-hosts-for-energy-storage
#16
Lisa M Housel, Lei Wang, Alyson Abraham, Jianping Huang, Genesis D Renderos, Calvin D Quilty, Alexander B Brady, Amy C Marschilok, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Esther S Takeuchi
Future advances in energy storage systems rely on identification of appropriate target materials and deliberate synthesis of the target materials with control of their physiochemical properties in order to disentangle the contributions of distinct properties to the functional electrochemistry. This goal demands systematic inquiry using model materials that provide the opportunity for significant synthetic versatility and control. Ideally, a material family that enables direct manipulation of characteristics including composition, defects, and crystallite size while remaining within the defined structural framework would be necessary...
February 19, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457677/the-contribution-of-a-negative-colorectal-screening-test-result-to-symptom-appraisal-and-help-seeking-behaviour-among-patients-subsequently-diagnosed-with-an-interval-colorectal-cancer
#17
Karen N Barnett, David Weller, Steve Smith, Robert Jc Steele, Peter Vedsted, Sheina Orbell, Sue M Moss, Jane W Melia, Julietta Patnick, Christine Campbell
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using a guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt) reduce CRC mortality. Interval cancers are diagnosed between screening rounds: reassurance from a negative gFOBt has the potential to influence the pathway to diagnosis of an interval colorectal cancer. METHODS: Twenty-six semi-structured face-to-face interviews were carried out in Scotland and England, with individuals diagnosed with an interval colorectal cancer following a negative gFOBt result...
February 19, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457672/gambling-related-cognitive-distortions-predict-level-of-function-among-us-veterans-seeking-treatment-for-gambling-disorders
#18
Steven D Shirk, Megan M Kelly, Shane W Kraus, Marc N Potenza, Kendra Pugh, Christopher Waltrous, Edward Federman, Christopher Krebs, Charles E Drebing
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by recurrent gambling behavior that is associated with significant impairment and distress, high psychiatric comorbidities, and high functional disability. The military veteran population appears particularly susceptible to developing the disorder, but relatively little has been studied among this population. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the clinical psychopathologies and comorbidities of veterans seeking treatment for problem gambling and how problem gambling may impact functioning...
February 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457653/how-to-create-shared-symbols
#19
Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Nik Swoboda, Simon Garrod
Human cognition and behavior are dominated by symbol use. This paper examines the social learning strategies that give rise to symbolic communication. Experiment 1 contrasts an individual-level account, based on observational learning and cognitive bias, with an inter-individual account, based on social coordinative learning. Participants played a referential communication game in which they tried to communicate a range of recurring meanings to a partner by drawing, but without using their conventional language...
February 19, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457624/-coordinated-heart-failure-care-in-poland-towards-optimal-organisation-of-the-health-care-system
#20
Jadwiga Nessler, Adam Kozierkiewicz, Andrzej Gackowski, Piotr Ponikowski, Ewa Straburzynska-Migaj, Izabella Uchmanowicz, Piotr Hoffman, Krzysztof Chlebus, Grzegorz Gielerak, Mariusz Gąsior, Tomasz Grodzicki, Jakub Gierczyński, Piotr Jankowski, Jarosław Kaźmierczak, Jacek Legutko, Przemysław Leszek, Maciej Miłkowski, Grzegorz Opolski, Piotr Rozentryt, Adam Windak, Adam Witkowski, Mirosław J Wysocki, Andrzej Zapaśnik, Tomasz Zdrojewski
Heart failure has becoming an increasing medical, economic, and social problem globally. The prevalence of this syndrome is rising, and despite unequivocal positive effects of modern therapy, reduction of mortality has been achieved at the cost of more frequent hospitalisations. Unlike in many European countries, in Poland heart failure is usually recognised later, at a more advanced stage of the disease, leaving less time for ambulatory treatment and resulting in a high number of hospitalisations. The current paper presents the most important data regarding morbidity and mortality due to heart failure in Poland...
2018: Kardiologia Polska
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