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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231637/preen-oil-and-bird-fitness-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#1
Gregorio Moreno-Rueda
The uropygial gland is a holocrine complex exclusive to birds that produces an oleaginous secretion (preen oil) whose function is still debated. Herein, I examine critically the evidence for the many hypotheses of potential functions of this gland. The main conclusion is that our understanding of this gland is still in its infancy. Even for functions that are considered valid by most researchers, real evidence is scarce. Although it seems clear that preen oil contributes to plumage maintenance, we do not know whether this is due to a role in reducing mechanical abrasion or in reducing feather degradation by keratinophilic organisms...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231629/the-evaluation-of-physical-activity-for-community-dwelling-patients-with-hypertension
#2
Chunhua Ma
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to evaluate the proportion of Chinese patients with hypertension who meet the Chinese Hypertension Management Guideline recommendations for weekly physical activity and to determine possible associated factors that impact meeting the weekly physical activity recommendation. BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of physical activity levels for hypertensive patients is important to determine patients' health outcomes and intervention measures...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231627/factors-predicting-recovery-from-suicide-in-attempted-suicide-patients
#3
Fan-Ko Sun, Chu-Yun Lu, Yun Shan Tseng, Chun-Ying Chiang
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. BACKGROUND: The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was adopted...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231624/targets-and-mechanisms-in-prevention-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-immunomodulatory-treatments
#4
REVIEW
Marianne von Euler Chelpin, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, however, there is no cure for it. Current treatments only relieve some of the symptoms, without ceasing the disease, and lose efficacy with prolonged treatment. Considerable evidence shows that persistent inflammatory responses, involving T cell infiltration and glial cell activation, are common characteristics of human patients and play a crucial role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, it is important to develop therapeutic strategies that can impede or halt the disease through the modulation of the peripheral immune system by aiming at controlling the existing neuroinflammation...
February 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231607/position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-with-epidural-anaesthesia
#5
REVIEW
Marion Kibuka, Jim G Thornton
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour prolongs the second stage of labour and results in more instrumental deliveries. It has been suggested that a more upright position of the mother during all or part of the second stage may counteract these adverse effects. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different birthing positions (upright and recumbent) during the second stage of labour, on important maternal and fetal outcomes for women with epidural analgesia...
February 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231569/biomarkers-in-autoimmune-salivary-gland-disorders-a-review
#6
Benedikt Hofauer, Klaus Thuermel, Constanze Gahleitner, Andreas Knopf
Salivary glands are frequent sites of manifestations of autoimmune disorders in the head and neck. Sjögren syndrome, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and IgG4-related sialadenitis represent the most important autoimmune salivary gland disorders. Due to the lack of specific symptoms, diagnosis of these conditions remains a challenge. Diagnosis is usually based on classification criteria involving clinical tests, histopathological evaluation, and serological examinations. Depending on the disease, biomarkers are of different value and have to be interpreted carefully...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231548/spatiotemporal-exposome-dynamics-of-soil-lead-and-children-s-blood-lead-pre-and-ten-years-post-hurricane-katrina-lead-and-other-metals-on-public-and-private-properties-in-the-city-of-new-orleans-louisiana-u-s-a
#7
Howard W Mielke, Christopher R Gonzales, Eric T Powell, Paul W Mielke
BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic re-distribution of lead (Pb) principally through its use in gasoline additives and lead-based paints have transformed the urban exposome. This unique study tracks urban-scale soil Pb (SPb) and blood Pb (BPb) responses of children living in public and private communities in New Orleans before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005). OBJECTIVES: To compare and evaluate associations of pre- and ten years post-Katrina SPb and children's BPb on public and private residential census tracts in the core and outer areas of New Orleans, and to examine correlations between SPb and nine other soil metals...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231503/ecotoxicity-assessment-of-ionic-as-iii-as-v-in-iii-and-ga-iii-species-potentially-released-from-novel-iii-v-semiconductor-materials
#8
Chao Zeng, Adrian Gonzalez-Alvarez, Emily Orenstein, Jim A Field, Farhang Shadman, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez
III-V materials such as indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) are increasingly used in electronic and photovoltaic devices. The extensive application of these materials may lead to release of III-V ionic species during semiconductor manufacturing or disposal of decommissioned devices into the environment. Although arsenic is recognized as an important contaminant due to its high toxicity, there is a lack of information about the toxic effects of indium and gallium ions. In this study, acute toxicity of As(III), As(V), In(III) and Ga(III) species was evaluated using two microbial assays testing for methanogenic activity and O2 uptake, as well as two bioassays targeting aquatic organisms, including the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (bioluminescence inhibition) and the crustacean Daphnia magna (mortality)...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231490/lipid-droplet-growth-regulation-of-a-dynamic-organelle
#9
REVIEW
David Barneda, Mark Christian
Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are remarkably dynamic and complex organelles that enact regulated storage and release of lipids to fulfil their fundamental roles in energy metabolism, membrane synthesis and provision of lipid-derived signaling molecules. Although small LDs are observed in all types of eukaryotic cells, it is adipocytes that present the widest range of sizes up to the massive unilocular droplet of a white adipocyte. Our knowledge of the proteins and associated processes that control LD dynamics is improving...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231421/varying-demographic-impacts-of-different-fisheries-on-three-mediterranean-seabird-species
#10
M Genovart, D Doak, J M Igual, S Sponza, J Kralj, D Oro
Fisheries have an enormous economic importance but reconciling their socio-economic features with the conservation and sustainability of marine ecosystems presents major challenges. Bycatch mortality from fisheries is clearly among the most serious global threats for marine ecosystems, affecting a wide range of top predators. Recent estimates report ca. 200,000 seabirds killed annually by bycatch in European waters. However there is an urgent need to rigorously estimate actual mortality rates and quantify effects of bycatch on populations...
February 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231406/fungal-adaptation-to-contemporary-fungicide-applications-the-case-of-botrytis-cinerea-populations-from-champagne-vineyards-france
#11
A-S Walker, V Ravigne, A Rieux, S Ali, F Carpentier, E Fournier
In addition to being one of the most acute problems impeding chemical control of fungal diseases, the evolution of fungicide resistance is an emblematic case of local adaptation to spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable selection pressures. Here we dissected the adaptation of Botrytis cinerea (the causal agent of grey mould) populations on grapes to several fungicides. We carried out a two-year survey (four collection dates) on three treated/untreated pairs of plots from vineyards in Champagne (France), and monitored the frequency of four resistant phenotypes that are unambiguously associated to four distinct genotypes...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231394/adaptive-divergence-in-wine-yeasts-and-their-wild-relatives-suggests-a-prominent-role-for-introgressions-and-rapid-evolution-at-non-coding-sites
#12
Pedro Almeida, Raquel Barbosa, Douda Bensasson, Paula Gonçalves, José Paulo Sampaio
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main yeast in wine fermentation, the opportunity to examine divergence at the molecular level between a domesticated lineage and its wild counterpart arose recently due to the identification of the closest relatives of wine strains, a wild population associated with Mediterranean oaks. Since genomic data is available for a considerable number of representatives belonging to both groups, we used population genomics to estimate the degree and distribution of nucleotide variation between wine yeasts and their closest wild relatives...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231383/the-pangenome-of-hexaploid-bread-wheat
#13
Juan D Montenegro, Agnieszka A Golicz, Philipp E Bayer, Bhavna Hurgobin, HueyTyng Lee, Chon-Kit Kenneth Chan, Paul Visendi, Kaitao Lai, Jaroslav Doležel, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards
There is an increasing understanding that gene presence absence variation plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits, however there have been relatively few studies on gene presence absence variation in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars...
February 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231375/predictors-of-adverse-events-after-neck-dissection-an-analysis-of-the-2006-2011-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-nsqip-database
#14
Umang Jain, Jessica Somerville, Sujata Saha, Jon P Ver Halen, Anuja K Antony, Sandeep Samant, John Y Kim
While neck dissection is an important primary and adjunctive procedure in the treatment of head and neck cancer, there is a paucity of studies evaluating outcomes. A retrospective review of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was performed to identify factors associated with adverse events (AEs) in patients undergoing neck dissection. A total of 619 patients were identified, using CPT codes specific to neck dissection. Of the 619 patients undergoing neck dissection, 142 (22.9%) experienced an AE within 30 days of the surgical procedure...
February 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231334/prevalence-of-hpv-16-and-18-and-attitudes-toward-hpv-vaccination-trials-in-patients-with-cervical-cancer-in-mali
#15
Ibrahima Téguété, Amadou Dolo, Kotou Sangare, Abdoulaye Sissoko, Mali Rochas, Sarah Beseme, Karamoko Tounkara, Shahla Yekta, Anne S De Groot, Ousmane A Koita
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in West Africa. Even though vaccines that protect against the most common Human papillomavirus (HPV) strains, 16 and 18, are currently in use in developed countries, the implementation of these vaccines in developing countries has been painfully slow, considering the pre-eminence of HPV-associated cervical cancer among women in those countries. AIM: We performed serological and PCR-based assessment of blood and tissue specimens obtained from women undergoing cervical cancer-related surgery at a major urban hospital in Bamako...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231278/interplay-between-fungicides-and-parasites-tebuconazole-but-not-copper-suppresses-infection-in-a-daphnia-metschnikowia-experimental-model
#16
Ana P Cuco, Nelson Abrantes, Fernando Gonçalves, Justyna Wolinska, Bruno B Castro
Natural populations are commonly exposed to complex stress scenarios, including anthropogenic contamination and their biological enemies (e.g., parasites). The study of the pollutant-parasite interplay is especially important, given the need for adequate regulations to promote improved ecosystem protection. In this study, a host-parasite model system (Daphnia spp. and the microparasitic yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata) was used to explore the reciprocal effects of contamination by common agrochemical fungicides (copper sulphate and tebuconazole) and parasite challenge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231241/hydrocephalus-and-arthrogryposis-in-an-immunocompetent-mouse-model-of-zika-teratogeny-a-developmental-study
#17
Jose Xavier-Neto, Murilo Carvalho, Bruno Dos Santos Pascoalino, Alisson Campos Cardoso, Ângela Maria Sousa Costa, Ana Helena Macedo Pereira, Luana Nunes Santos, Ângela Saito, Rafael Elias Marques, Juliana Helena Costa Smetana, Silvio Roberto Consonni, Carla Bandeira, Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Marli Tenorio Cordeiro, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales Gil, Bianca Alves Pauletti, Daniela Campos Granato, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Lucio Freitas-Junior, Carolina Borsoi Moraes Holanda de Freitas, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Estela Bevilacqua, Kleber Franchini
The teratogenic mechanisms triggered by ZIKV are still obscure due to the lack of a suitable animal model. Here we present a mouse model of developmental disruption induced by ZIKV hematogenic infection. The model utilizes immunocompetent animals from wild-type FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J strains, providing a better analogy to the human condition than approaches involving immunodeficient, genetically modified animals, or direct ZIKV injection into the brain. When injected via the jugular vein into the blood of pregnant females harboring conceptuses from early gastrulation to organogenesis stages, akin to the human second and fifth week of pregnancy, ZIKV infects maternal tissues, placentas and embryos/fetuses...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231169/an-evaluation-of-alternatives-to-nitrites-and-sulfites-to-inhibit-the-growth-of-salmonella-enterica-and-listeria-monocytogenes-in-meat-products
#18
Alexandre Lamas, José Manuel Miranda, Beatriz Vázquez, Alberto Cepeda, Carlos Manuel Franco
In recent years, the use of nitrites and sulfites as food preservatives has been a cause for concern due to the health problems that these additives can cause in humans. Natural products have been studied as an alternative, but most of them have hardly been applied in the food industry for technological and economic reasons. In this sense, organic salts such as sodium acetate are a good alternative due to their affordability. Thus, this study evaluated the capacity of sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, a sodium acetate product (TQI C-6000), and chitosan to inhibit two important foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes...
October 31, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231145/recent-advances-in-techniques-for-starch-esters-and-the-applications-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Jing Hong, Xin-An Zeng, Charles S Brennan, Margaret Brennan, Zhong Han
Esterification is one of the most important methods to alter the structure of starch granules and improve its applications. Conventionally, starch esters are prepared by conventional or dual modification techniques, which have the disadvantages of being expensive, have regent overdoses, and are time-consuming. In addition, the degree of substitution (DS) is often considered as the primary factor in view of its contribution to estimate substituted groups of starch esters. In order to improve the detection accuracy and production efficiency, different detection techniques, including titration, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis/infrared spectroscopy (TGA/IR) and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC), have been developed for DS...
July 9, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231141/determination-of-volatiles-by-odor-activity-value-and-phenolics-of-cv-ayvalik-early-harvest-olive-oil
#20
Gamze Guclu, Onur Sevindik, Hasim Kelebek, Serkan Selli
Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil...
June 24, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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