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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744409/functional-effects-of-a-retained-ancestral-polymorphism-in-prestin
#1
Yuan-Yuan Li, Zhen Liu, Fei-Yan Qi, Xin Zhou, Peng Shi
Molecular basis for mammalian echolocation has been receiving much concerns. Recent findings on the parallel evolution of prestin sequences among echolocating bats and toothed whales suggest that adaptations for high-frequency hearing have occurred during the evolution of echolocation. Here, we report that although the species tree for echolocating bats emitting echolocation calls with frequency modulated (FM) sweeps is paraphyletic, prestin exhibits similar functional changes between FM bats. Site-directed mutagenesis shows that the amino acid 308S in FM bats is responsible for the similar functional changes of prestin We strongly support that the occurrence of serine at position 308 is a case of hemiplasy, caused by incomplete lineage sorting of an ancestral polymorphism...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684094/working-with-auditory-hei-oc1-cells
#2
Gilda M Kalinec, Channy Park, Pru Thein, Federico Kalinec
HEI-OC1 is one of the few mouse auditory cell lines available for research purposes. Originally proposed as an in vitro system for screening of ototoxic drugs, these cells have been used to investigate drug-activated apoptotic pathways, autophagy, senescence, mechanism of cell protection, inflammatory responses, cell differentiation, genetic and epigenetic effects of pharmacological drugs, effects of hypoxia, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and expression of molecular channels and receptors. Among other several important markers of cochlear hair cells, HEI-OC1 cells endogenously express prestin, the paradigmatic motor protein of outer hair cells...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636386/outer-hair-cell-molecular-protein-prestin-as-a-serum-biomarker-for-hearing-loss-proof-of-concept
#3
Kourosh Parham, Jonas Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen
HYPOTHESIS: At present there are no serum biomarkers available to monitor cochlear health in those at risk of hearing loss. Outer hair cells (OHCs) play an important role in cochlear function and are one of the cellular elements most vulnerable to damage, such as acoustic trauma. We hypothesized that an OHC-specific protein can serve as a biomarker for OHC damage in circulation. METHODS: After assessing auditory function, rats were exposed to intense octave band noise for 2 to 3 hours...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540300/modulation-of-expression-of-the-nuclear-receptor-nr0b2-small-heterodimer-partner-1-and-its-impact-on-proliferation-of-renal-carcinoma-cells
#4
Katharina Prestin, Maria Olbert, Janine Hussner, Tamara L Isenegger, Daniel G Gliesche, Kerstin Böttcher, Uwe Zimmermann, Henriette E Meyer Zu Schwabedissen
Mammalian nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription factors regulating the expression of target genes that play an important role in drug metabolism, transport, and cellular signaling pathways. The orphan and structurally unique receptor small heterodimer partner 1 (syn NR0B2) is not only known for its modulation of drug response, but has also been reported to be involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Indeed, previous studies show that NR0B2 is downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that NR0B2 acts as a tumor suppressor via inhibition of cellular growth and activation of apoptosis in this tumor entity...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483303/low-iron-diet-increases-susceptibility-to-noise-induced-hearing-loss-in-young-rats
#5
Fei Yu, Shuai Hao, Bo Yang, Yue Zhao, Jun Yang
We evaluated the role of iron deficiency (ID) without anemia on hearing function and cochlear pathophysiology of young rats before and after noise exposure. We used rats at developmental stages as an animal model to induce ID without anemia by dietary iron restriction. We have established this dietary restriction model in the rat that should enable us to study the effects of iron deficiency in the absence of severe anemia on hearing and ribbon synapses. Hearing function was measured on Postnatal Day (PND) 21 after induction of ID using auditory brainstem response (ABR)...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470595/prestin-and-the-good-vibrations
#6
Anna Sofia Birke, Arnaud Javelle
In a recent paper published in the Biochemical Journal, Lolli et al. presented evidence that the C-terminal STAS (sulfate transporter and anti-sigma factor antagonist) domain of the motor protein prestin possesses an anion-binding site. This discovery might shed light on an aspect of the function of this mysterious and fascinating protein that is crucial for the human hearing system.
August 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413360/multimodality-treatment-in-ewing-s-sarcoma-family-tumors-of-the-maxilla-and-maxillary-sinus-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
David Thorn, Christoph Mamot, Fatime Krasniqi, Frank Metternich, Sven Prestin
The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) encompasses a group of highly aggressive, morphologically similar, malignant neoplasms sharing a common spontaneous genetic translocation that affect mostly children and young adults. These predominantly characteristic, small round-cell tumors include Ewing's sarcoma of the bone and soft tissue, as well as primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) involving the bone, soft tissue, and thoracopulmonary region (Askin's tumor). Extraosseous ESFTs are extremely rare, especially in the head and neck region, where literature to date consists of sporadic case reports and very small series...
2016: Sarcoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398982/concentration-response-relationship-of-hearing-impairment-caused-by-quinine-and-salicylate-pharmacological-similarities-but-different-molecular-mechanisms
#8
Gunnar Alvan, Erik Berninger, Lars L Gustafsson, Kjell K Karlsson, Gilles Paintaud, Monique Wakelkamp
This review has the purpose to summarise concentration-effect studies made with quinine and to compare the effects on hearing between quinine and salicylate. Quinine and salicylate have roles in experimental hearing research and may induce pronounced and reversible hearing impairment when administered in sizeable doses. The quinine-induced increase in hearing threshold and its recovery can be analysed according to "the psychophysical power function". The power function is a special case of the Hill equation when the stimulus (e...
July 11, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397870/massive-excretion-of-calcium-oxalate-from-late-prepupal-salivary-glands-of-drosophila-melanogaster-demonstrates-active-nephridial-like-anion-transport
#9
Robert Farkaš, Ludmila Pečeňová, Lucia Mentelová, Milan Beňo, Denisa Beňová-Liszeková, Silvia Mahmoodová, Václav Tejnecký, Otakar Raška, Pavel Juda, Silvie Svidenská, Matúš Hornáček, Bruce A Chase, Ivan Raška
The Drosophila salivary glands (SGs) were well known for the puffing patterns of their polytene chromosomes and so became a tissue of choice to study sequential gene activation by the steroid hormone ecdysone. One well-documented function of these glands is to produce a secretory glue, which is released during pupariation to fix the freshly formed puparia to the substrate. Over the past two decades SGs have been used to address specific aspects of developmentally-regulated programmed cell death (PCD) as it was thought that they are doomed for histolysis and after pupariation are just awaiting their fate...
August 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276272/chloride-anions-regulate-kinetics-but-not-voltage-sensor-qmax-of-the-solute-carrier-slc26a5
#10
Joseph Santos-Sacchi, Lei Song
In general, SLC26 solute carriers serve to transport a variety of anions across biological membranes. However, prestin (SLC26a5) has evolved, now serving as a motor protein in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian inner ear and is required for cochlear amplification, a mechanical feedback mechanism to boost auditory performance. The mechanical activity of the OHC imparted by prestin is driven by voltage and controlled by anions, chiefly intracellular chloride. Current opinion is that chloride anions control the Boltzmann characteristics of the voltage sensor responsible for prestin activity, including Qmax, the total sensor charge moved within the membrane, and Vh, a measure of prestin's operating voltage range...
June 7, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262187/membrane-prestin-expression-correlates-with-the-magnitude-of-prestin-associated-charge-movement
#11
Michelle L Seymour, Lavanya Rajagopalan, Guillaume Duret, Matthew J Volk, Haiying Liu, William E Brownell, Fred A Pereira
Full expression of electromotility, generation of non-linear capacitance (NLC), and high-acuity mammalian hearing require prestin function in the lateral wall of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). Estimates of the number of prestin molecules in the OHC membrane vary, and a consensus has not emerged about the correlation between prestin expression and prestin-associated charge movement in the OHC. Using an inducible prestin-expressing cell line, we demonstrate that the charge density, but not the voltage at peak capacitance, directly correlates with the amount of prestin in the plasma membrane...
September 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259937/nanotechnology-in-auditory-research-membrane-electromechanics-in-hearing
#12
Mussie Araya, William E Brownell
The soft, thin membranes that envelop all living cells are 2D, nanoscale, fluid assemblies of phospholipids, sterols, proteins, and other molecules. Mechanical interactions between these components facilitate membrane function, a key example of which is ion flow mediated by the mechanical opening and closing of channels. Hearing and balance are initiated by the modulation of ion flow through mechanoreceptor channels in stereocilia membranes. Cochlear amplification by the outer hair cell involves modulation of ion movement by the membrane protein prestin...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259928/the-single-molecule-approach-to-membrane-protein-stoichiometry
#13
Michael G Nichols, Richard Hallworth
The advent of techniques for imaging solitary fluorescent molecules has made possible many new kinds of biological experiments. Here, we describe the application of single-molecule imaging to the problem of subunit stoichiometry in membrane proteins. A membrane protein of unknown stoichiometry, prestin, is coupled to the fluorescent enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and synthesized in the human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line. We prepare adherent membrane fragments containing prestin-eGFP by osmotic lysis...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27253829/cyp2d6-function-moderates-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-3-4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine-in-a-controlled-study-in-healthy-individuals
#14
Yasmin Schmid, Patrick Vizeli, Cédric M Hysek, Katharina Prestin, Henriette E Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Matthias E Liechti
The role of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome (CYP) 2D6 involved in the metabolism of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is unclear. Effects of genetic variants in CYP2D6 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of MDMA were characterized in 139 healthy individuals (70 men, 69 women) in a pooled analysis of eight double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies. In CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, the maximum concentrations (Cmax) of MDMA and its active metabolite 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine were +15 and +50% higher, respectively, compared with extensive metabolizers and the Cmax of the inactive metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine was 50-70% lower...
August 2016: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232762/abnormal-mrna-splicing-but-normal-auditory-brainstem-response-abr-in-mice-with-the-prestin-slc26a5-ivs2-2a-g-mutation
#15
Jian Zhang, Ziyi Liu, Aoshuang Chang, Jie Fang, Yuqin Men, Yong Tian, Xiaomei Ouyang, Denise Yan, Aizhen Zhang, Xiaoyang Sun, Jie Tang, Xuezhong Liu, Jian Zuo, Jiangang Gao
Prestin is critical to OHC somatic motility and hearing sensitivity in mammals. Several mutations of the human SLC26A5 gene have been associated with deafness. However, whether the IVS2-2A>G mutation in the human SLC26A5 gene causes deafness remains controversial. In this study, we created a mouse model in which the IVS2-2A>G mutation was introduced into the mouse Slc26a5 gene by gene targeting. The homozygous Slc26a5 mutant mice were viable and fertile and displayed normal hearing sensitivity by ABR threshold analysis...
August 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125215/extracellular-cl-regulates-human-so4-2-anion-exchanger-slc26a1-by-altering-ph-sensitivity-of-anion-transport
#16
Meng Wu, John F Heneghan, David H Vandorpe, Laura I Escobar, Bai-Lin Wu, Seth L Alper
Genetic deficiency of the SLC26A1 anion exchanger in mice is known to be associated with hyposulfatemia and hyperoxaluria with nephrolithiasis, but many aspects of human SLC26A1 function remain to be explored. We report here the functional characterization of human SLC26A1, a 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive, electroneutral sodium-independent anion exchanger transporting sulfate, oxalate, bicarbonate, thiosulfate, and (with divergent properties) chloride. Human SLC26A1-mediated anion exchange differs from that of its rodent orthologs in its stimulation by alkaline pHo and inhibition by acidic pHo but not pHi and in its failure to transport glyoxylate...
August 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088252/structure-of-eukaryotic-purine-h-symporter-uapa-suggests-a-role-for-homodimerization-in-transport-activity
#17
Yilmaz Alguel, Sotiris Amillis, James Leung, George Lambrinidis, Stefano Capaldi, Nicola J Scull, Gregory Craven, So Iwata, Alan Armstrong, Emmanuel Mikros, George Diallinas, Alexander D Cameron, Bernadette Byrne
The uric acid/xanthine H(+) symporter, UapA, is a high-affinity purine transporter from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Here we present the crystal structure of a genetically stabilized version of UapA (UapA-G411VΔ1-11) in complex with xanthine. UapA is formed from two domains, a core domain and a gate domain, similar to the previously solved uracil transporter UraA, which belongs to the same family. The structure shows UapA in an inward-facing conformation with xanthine bound to residues in the core domain...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27041369/the-r130s-mutation-significantly-affects-the-function-of-prestin-the-outer-hair-cell-motor-protein
#18
Satoe Takahashi, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jing Zheng, Kazuaki Homma
UNLABELLED: A missense mutation, R130S, was recently found in the prestin gene, SLC26A5, of patients with moderate to severe hearing loss (DFNB61). In order to define the pathology of hearing loss associated with this missense mutation, a recombinant prestin construct harboring the R130S mutation (R130S-prestin) was generated, and its functional consequences examined in a heterologous expression system. We found that R130S-prestin targets the plasma membrane but less efficiently compared to wild-type...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984375/could-watching-tv-be-good-for-you-examining-how-media-consumption-patterns-relate-to-salivary-cortisol
#19
Robin L Nabi, Abby Prestin, Jiyeon So
This research explores whether media diet influences health, not through its effects on cognition and behavior but rather through its effects on biomarkers of stress, which are implicated in a host of acute and chronic illnesses. Two hundred and forty young adults completed assessments of their media consumption habits followed at least 2 days later by measures of the stress-related hormone cortisol. Results suggest that frequency of consuming different media and genres may decrease cortisol under certain conditions and increase them under others...
November 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913517/mild-maternal-iron-deficiency-anemia-induces-hearing-impairment-associated-with-reduction-of-ribbon-synapse-density-and-dysregulation-of-vglut3-myosin-viia-and-prestin-expression-in-young-guinea-pigs
#20
Fei Yu, Shuai Hao, Bo Yang, Yue Zhao, Wenyue Zhang, Jun Yang
Mild maternal iron deficiency anemia (IDA) adversely affects the development of cochlear hair cells of the young offspring, but the mechanisms underlying the association are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether mild maternal IDA in guinea pigs could interrupt inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapse density and outer hair cell motility of the offspring. Here, we established a dietary restriction model that allows us to study quantitative changes in the number of IHC ribbon synapses and hearing impairment in response to mild maternal IDA in young guinea pig...
May 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
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