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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542383/performance-in-eyeblink-conditioning-is-age-and-sex-dependent
#1
Karolina Löwgren, Rasmus Bååth, Anders Rasmussen, Henk-Jan Boele, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Chris I De Zeeuw, Germund Hesslow
A growing body of evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in both cognition and language. Abnormal cerebellar development may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, fetal alcohol syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. Performance in eyeblink conditioning, which depends on the cerebellum, can potentially be used to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the cerebellar dysfunction in disorders like these. However, we must first understand how the performance develops in children who do not have a disorder...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542256/maternal-depression-and-anxiety-disorders-mdad-and-child-development-a-manitoba-population-based-study
#2
Brenda Comaskey, Noralou P Roos, Marni Brownell, Murray W Enns, Dan Chateau, Chelsea A Ruth, Okechukwu Ekuma
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD) and child development assessed during the kindergarten year. METHODS: Administrative data from several health and social databases in Manitoba, Canada, were used to study 18,331 mother-child pairs. MDAD over the period from one year prior to the child's birth to the kindergarten year was defined using physician diagnoses and filled prescriptions. Child development was assessed during the kindergarten year using the Early Development Instrument (EDI) which measures vulnerability across five domains of development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541236/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-symptoms-and-cognitive-skills-of-preschool-children
#3
L Thomaidis, A Choleva, M Janikian, G Bertou, A Tsitsika, G Giannakopoulos, D C Anagnostopoulos
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) constitutes a neurobehavioral disorder which may potentially adversely affect children's wellbeing and academic achievement. The onset of symptoms is present prior to 12 years of age, and often the symptoms are evident in the preschool years. In fact, it has been suggested that screening for ADHD symptoms may be initiated as early as four years of age. Preschool children with ADHD have been shown to present with poor pre-academic skills and might be at increased risk for numerous school-related problems, including functional impairment during elementary school years and persistent poor academic performance thereafter...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538824/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-percentage-of-consonants-correct-revised-in-the-identification-of-speech-sound-disorder
#4
Tatiane Faria Barrozo, Luciana de Oliveira Pagan-Neves, Joyce Pinheiro da Silva, Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity, and to establish cutoff points for the severity index Percentage of Consonants Correct - Revised (PCC-R) in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children with and without speech sound disorders. Methods: 72 children between 5:00 and 7:11 years old - 36 children without speech and language complaints and 36 children with speech sound disorders. The PCC-R was applied to the figure naming and word imitation tasks that are part of the ABFW Child Language Test...
May 22, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534656/early-development-in-rett-syndrome-the-benefits-and-difficulties-of-a-birth-cohort-approach
#5
Peter B Marschik, Sanne Lemcke, Christa Einspieler, Dajie Zhang, Sven Bölte, Gillian S Townend, Marlene B Lauritsen
PURPOSES: Typically, early (pre-diagnostic) development in individuals later diagnosed with Rett syndrome (RTT) has been investigated retrospectively using parent reports, medical records and analysis of home videos. In recent years, prospective research designs have been increasingly applied to the investigation of early development in individuals with late phenotypical onset disorders, for example, autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: In this study, data collected by the Danish National Birth Cohort lent itself to prospective exploration of the early development of RTT, in particular early motor-, speech-language, and socio-communicative behaviors, mood, and sleep...
May 23, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527315/longitudinal-decline-in-speech-production-in-parkinson-s-disease-spectrum-disorders
#6
Sharon Ash, Charles Jester, Collin York, Olga L Kofman, Rachel Langey, Amy Halpin, Kim Firn, Sophia Dominguez Perez, Lama Chahine, Meredith Spindler, Nabila Dahodwala, David J Irwin, Corey McMillan, Daniel Weintraub, Murray Grossman
We examined narrative speech production longitudinally in non-demented (n=15) and mildly demented (n=8) patients with Parkinson's disease spectrum disorder (PDSD), and we related increasing impairment to structural brain changes in specific language and motor regions. Patients provided semi-structured speech samples, describing a standardized picture at two time points (mean±SD interval=38±24months). The recorded speech samples were analyzed for fluency, grammar, and informativeness. PDSD patients with dementia exhibited significant decline in their speech, unrelated to changes in overall cognitive or motor functioning...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508598/for-debate-should-we-worry-about-hematospermia-in-adolescents-and-young-men-a-report-of-six-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
EDITORIAL
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Javaad Zargooshi, Alberto Marsciani, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsedfy, Nada A Soliman, Salvatore Di Maio
Hematospermia or hemospermia is defined as the presence of blood in ejaculate. The true prevalence of the condition is unknown because many cases escape the patient's notice, and remain unrecognized and unreported. There are two main aims in the patient evaluation: first, to ensure that there is no specific condition that is treatable; second, to reassure the patient's parents that no causative factor is present. Many physicians are unfamiliar with this disorder and this forms the basis for our current review...
March 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506544/development-of-the-vanderbilt-assessment-for-delirium-in-infants-and-children-to-standardize-pediatric-delirium-assessment-by-psychiatrists
#8
REVIEW
Maalobeeka Gangopadhyay, Heidi Smith, Maryland Pao, Gabrielle Silver, Deepmala Deepmala, Claire De Souza, Georgina Garcia, Lisa Giles, Danica Denton, Natalie Jacobowski, Pratik Pandharipande, Catherine Fuchs
BACKGROUND: Pediatric delirium assessment is complicated by variations in baseline language and cognitive skills, impairment during illness, and absence of pediatric-specific modifiers within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders delirium criterion. OBJECTIVE: To develop a standardized approach to pediatric delirium assessment by psychiatrists. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of clinicians used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criterion as the foundation for the Vanderbilt Assessment for Delirium in Infants and Children (VADIC)...
March 15, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504353/cmip-haploinsufficiency-in-two-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-co-occurring-gastrointestinal-issues
#9
Minjie Luo, Jinbo Fan, Tara L Wenger, Margaret H Harr, Melissa Racobaldo, Surabhi Mulchandani, Holly Dubbs, Elaine H Zackai, Nancy B Spinner, Laura K Conlin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impairments in social communication and restricted interests. Though some patients with ASD have an identifiable genetic cause, the cause of most ASD remains elusive. Many ASD susceptibility loci have been identified through clinical studies. We report two patients with syndromic ASD and persistent gastrointestinal issues who carry de novo deletions involving the CMIP gene detected by genome-wide SNP microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500672/telomere-length-and-fetal-programming-a-review-of-recent-scientific-advances
#10
Valerie E Whiteman, Anjali Goswami, Hamisu M Salihu
We sought to synthesize a comprehensive literature review comprising recent research linking fetal programming to fetal telomere length. We also explored the potential effects fetal telomere length shortening has on fetal phenotypes. Utilizing the PubMed database as our primary search engine, we retrieved and reviewed 165 articles of published research. The inclusion criteria limited the articles to those that appeared within the last ten years, were pertinent to humans, and without restriction to language of publication...
May 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498576/a-critique-of-the-ultra-high-risk-and-transition-paradigm
#11
Jim van Os, Sinan Guloksuz
The transdiagnostic expression of psychotic experiences in common mental disorder (anxiety/depression/substance use disorder) is associated with a poorer prognosis, and a small minority of people may indeed develop a clinical picture that meets criteria for schizophrenia. However, it appears neither useful nor valid to observe early states of multidimensional psychopathology in young people through the "schizo"-prism, and apply misleadingly simple, unnecessary and inefficient binary concepts of "risk" and "transition"...
June 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494804/validity-of-the-posttraumatic-stress-disorders-ptsd-checklist-in-pregnant-women
#12
Bizu Gelaye, Yinnan Zheng, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Marta B Rondon, Sixto E Sánchez, Michelle A Williams
BACKGROUND: The PTSD Checklist-civilian (PCL-C) is one of the most commonly used self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, however, little is known about its validity when used in pregnancy. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PCL-C as a screen for detecting PTSD symptoms among pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 3372 pregnant women who attended their first prenatal care visit in Lima, Peru participated in the study. We assessed the reliability of the PCL-C items using Cronbach's alpha...
May 12, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487267/embodied-conversational-agents-in-clinical-psychology-a-scoping-review
#13
Simon Provoost, Ho Ming Lau, Jeroen Ruwaard, Heleen Riper
BACKGROUND: Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are computer-generated characters that simulate key properties of human face-to-face conversation, such as verbal and nonverbal behavior. In Internet-based eHealth interventions, ECAs may be used for the delivery of automated human support factors. OBJECTIVE: We aim to provide an overview of the technological and clinical possibilities, as well as the evidence base for ECA applications in clinical psychology, to inform health professionals about the activity in this field of research...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486125/can-you-spell-dyslexia-without-sli-comparing-the-cognitive-profiles-of-dyslexia-and-specific-language-impairment-and-their-roles-in-learning
#14
Tracy Packiam Alloway, Furtuna Tewolde, Dakota Skipper, David Hijar
The aim of the present study is to explore whether those with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia display distinct or overlapping cognitive profiles with respect to learning outcomes. In particular, we were interested in two key cognitive skills associated with academic performance - working memory and IQ. We recruited three groups of children - those with SLI, those with dyslexia, and a control group. All children were given standardized tests of working memory, IQ (vocabulary and matrix), spelling, and math...
May 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471576/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-israeli-version-of-the-chronic-urticaria-quality-of-life-questionnaire-cu-q2ol
#15
Aharon Kessel, Yael Graif, Zahava Vadasz, Vered Schichter-Konfino, Meital Almog, Shai Cohen, Valery Teplitski, Nili Stein, Ilaria Baiardini, Marcus Maurer, Elias Toubi
BACKGROUND: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a common disabling disorder. The CU-Q2oL (Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire) is a specific questionnaire for evaluating quality of life in CU patients. It consists of 23 items divided into six quality-of-life dimensions. It was initially developed in Italy and later validated in other countries. OBJECTIVES: To validate and adapt the CU-Q2oL to the Hebrew language in order to make it suitable for use in Israel. METHODS: The CU-Q2oL questionnaire was translated to Hebrew...
August 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470886/theory-of-mind-in-sli-revisited-links-with-syntax-comparisons-with-asd
#16
Stephanie Durrleman, Morgane Burnel, Anne Reboul
BACKGROUND: According to the linguistic determinism approach, knowledge of sentential complements such as: John says that the earth is flat plays a crucial role in theory of mind (ToM) development by providing a means to represent explicitly people's mental attitudes and beliefs. This approach predicts that mastery of complements determines successful belief reasoning across explicit ToM tasks, even low-verbal ones, and across populations. AIMS: (1) To investigate the link between a low-verbal ToM-task and complements in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), (2) To determine whether this population shows similar ToM performance to that of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or those with Typical Development (TD) once these groups are matched on competency for complements, (3) To explore whether complements conveying a falsehood without jeopardizing the veracity of the entire sentence, such as complements of verbs of communication, are more crucial for belief attribution than complements which do not have this property, namely complements of verbs of perception, (?John sees that the earth is flat)...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464350/development-and-validation-of-an-item-response-theory-based-social-responsiveness-scale-short-form
#17
Alexandra Sturm, Megan Kuhfeld, Connie Kasari, James T McCracken
BACKGROUND: Research and practice in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely on quantitative measures, such as the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), for characterization and diagnosis. Like many ASD diagnostic measures, SRS scores are influenced by factors unrelated to ASD core features. This study further interrogates the psychometric properties of the SRS using item response theory (IRT), and demonstrates a strategy to create a psychometrically sound short form by applying IRT results...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464253/statistical-word-learning-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-specific-language-impairment
#18
Eileen Haebig, Jenny R Saffran, Susan Ellis Weismer
BACKGROUND: Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463847/schizophrenia-and-human-self-domestication-an-evolutionary-linguistics-approach
#19
Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Lorena Di Pietro, Marta Barba, Wanda Lattanzi
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder that entails social and cognitive deficits, including marked language problems. Its complex multifactorial etiopathogenesis, including genetic and environmental factors, is still widely uncertain. SZ incidence has always been high and quite stable in human populations, across time and regardless of cultural implications, for unclear reasons. It has been hypothesized that SZ pathophysiology may involve the biological components that changed during the recent human evolutionary history, and led to our distinctive mode of cognition, which includes language skills...
May 3, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461057/age-related-functional-brain-changes-in-young-children
#20
Xiangyu Long, Alina Benischek, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Brain function and structure change significantly during the toddler and preschool years. However, most studies focus on older or younger children, so the specific nature of these changes is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed 77 functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 44 children aged 2-6 years. We extracted measures of both local (amplitude of low frequency fluctuation and regional homogeneity) and global (eigenvector centrality mapping) activity and connectivity, and examined their relationships with age using robust linear correlation analysis and strict control for head motion...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
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