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Scientific communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821538/reflecting-on-graphs-attributes-of-graph-choice-and-construction-practices-in-biology
#1
Aakanksha Angra, Stephanie M Gardner
Undergraduate biology education reform aims to engage students in scientific practices such as experimental design, experimentation, and data analysis and communication. Graphs are ubiquitous in the biological sciences, and creating effective graphical representations involves quantitative and disciplinary concepts and skills. Past studies document student difficulties with graphing within the contexts of classroom or national assessments without evaluating student reasoning. Operating under the metarepresentational competence framework, we conducted think-aloud interviews to reveal differences in reasoning and graph quality between undergraduate biology students, graduate students, and professors in a pen-and-paper graphing task...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819068/rural-emergency-care-360%C3%A2-mobilising-healthcare-professionals-decision-makers-patients-and-citizens-to-improve-rural-emergency-care-in-the-province-of-quebec-canada-a-qualitative-study-protocol
#2
Richard Fleet, Gilles Dupuis, Jean-Paul Fortin, Jocelyn Gravel, Mathieu Ouimet, Julien Poitras, France Légaré
INTRODUCTION: Emergency departments (EDs) are an important safety net for rural populations. Results of our earlier studies suggest that rural Canadian hospitals have limited access to advanced imaging services and intensive care units and that patients are transferred over large distances. They also revealed significant geographical variations in rural services. In the absence of national standards, our studies raise questions about inequities in rural access to emergency services and the risks for citizens...
August 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817676/psychological-determinants-of-physical-activity-across-the-life-course-a-determinants-of-diet-and-physical-activity-dedipac-umbrella-systematic-literature-review
#3
Cristina Cortis, Anna Puggina, Caterina Pesce, Katina Aleksovska, Christoph Buck, Con Burns, Greet Cardon, Angela Carlin, Chantal Simon, Donatella Ciarapica, Giancarlo Condello, Tara Coppinger, Sara D'Haese, Marieke De Craemer, Andrea Di Blasio, Sylvia Hansen, Licia Iacoviello, Johann Issartel, Pascal Izzicupo, Lina Jaeschke, Martina Kanning, Aileen Kennedy, Fiona Chun Man Ling, Agnes Luzak, Giorgio Napolitano, Julie-Anne Nazare, Grainne O'Donoghue, Camille Perchoux, Tobias Pischon, Angela Polito, Alessandra Sannella, Holger Schulz, Rhoda Sohun, Astrid Steinbrecher, Wolfgang Schlicht, Walter Ricciardi, Loriana Castellani, Ciaran MacDonncha, Laura Capranica, Stefania Boccia
Low levels of physical activity (PA) are reported to contribute to the occurrence of non-communicable diseases over the life course. Although psychological factors have been identified as an important category concerning PA behavior, knowledge on psychological determinants of PA is still inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this umbrella systematic literature review (SLR) was to summarize and synthesize the scientific evidence on psychological determinants of PA behavior across the life course. A systematic online search was conducted on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814532/developmental-process-and-early-phases-of-implementation-for-the-us-interagency-committee-on-human-nutrition-research-national-nutrition-research-roadmap-2016-2021
#4
Sheila E Fleischhacker, Rachel M Ballard, Pamela E Starke-Reed, Deborah A Galuska, Marian L Neuhouser
The Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and communication among federal agencies engaged in nutrition research and with facilitating the development and updating of plans for federal research programs to meet current and future domestic and international needs for nutrition. The ICHNR is co-chaired by the USDA Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics and Chief Scientist and the US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Health and is made up of >10 departments and agencies...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809799/update-on-monoterpenes-as-antimicrobial-agents-a-particular-focus-on-p-cymene
#5
REVIEW
Anna Marchese, Carla Renata Arciola, Ramona Barbieri, Ana Sanches Silva, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Arold Jorel Tsetegho Sokeng, Morteza Izadi, Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari, Ipek Suntar, Maria Daglia, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
p-Cymene [1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene] is a monoterpene found in over 100 plant species used for medicine and food purposes. It shows a range of biological activity including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, anticancer and antimicrobial effects. This last property has been widely investigated due to the urgent need for new substances with antimicrobial properties, to be used to treat communicable diseases whose diffusion in developed countries has been facilitated by globalization and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance...
August 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809652/effectiveness-of-interventions-for-caregivers-of-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-major-neurocognitive-disorders-a-systematic-review
#6
Catherine Verrier Piersol, Kerry Canton, Susan E Connor, Ilana Giller, Stacy Lipman, Suzanne Sager
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the evidence review was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders that facilitate the ability to maintain participation in the caregiver role. METHOD: Scientific literature published in English between January 2006 and April 2014 was reviewed. Databases included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808584/international-spinal-cord-injury-male-sexual-function-and-female-sexual-and-reproductive-function-basic-data-sets-version-2-0
#7
Marcalee S Alexander, Peter W New, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Frederique Courtois, Giulio Del Popolo, Stacy Elliott, Carlotte Kiekens, Lawrence Vogel, Jean G Previnaire
STUDY DESIGN: Data set review and modification. OBJECTIVE: To describe modifications in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Male Sexual Function Basic Data Set Version 2.0 and the International SCI Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set Version 2.0. SETTING: International expert work group using on line communication. METHODS: An international team of experts was compiled to review and revise the International SCI Male Sexual Function and Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Sets Version 1...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808298/standards-for-arsenic-in-drinking-water-implications-for-policy-in-mexico
#8
Andrew T Fisher, Lizbeth López-Carrillo, Brenda Gamboa-Loira, Mariano E Cebrián
Global concern about arsenic in drinking water and its link to numerous diseases make translation of evidence-based research into national policy a priority. Delays in establishing a maximum contaminant level (MCL) to preserve health have increased the burden of disease and caused substantial and avoidable loss of life. The current Mexican MCL for arsenic in drinking water is 25 μg/l (2.5 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation from 1993). Mexico's struggles to set its arsenic MCL offer a compelling example of shortcomings in environmental health policy...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803050/the-arest-cf-experience-in-biobanking-more-than-just-tissues-tubes-and-time
#9
Luke W Garratt, Anthony Kicic, Colin Robertson, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter D Sly, Stephen M Stick
Research to further improve outcomes for people with CF is dependent upon well characterised, archived and accessible clinical specimens. The recent article by Beekman et al. published in Journal of Cystic Fibrosis summarised a scientific meeting at the 13th ECFS Basic Science Conference. This meeting discussed how well-annotated, clinical biobanks for CF could be established in Europe to meet the needs of therapeutic development. The Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST CF) has conducted biobanking of CF research and clinical specimens since the late 1990s and is custodian of the most comprehensive paediatric CF biobank in the world that focuses on the first years of life...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799849/public-health-activist-skills-pyramid-a-model-for-implementing-health-in-all-policies
#10
Behzad Damari, Elham Ehsani Chimeh
Affecting public health for society requires various competencies. In fact, the prerequisite for the implementation of health in all policies should be effectiveness of public health activists (PHAs) in these competencies. This study aims to determine the competencies of the activists in public health. The present qualitative study reviewed the literature and adopted qualitative methods like content analysis, stakeholder interviews, and conducted focus group discussions with related experts. In each stage, the required competencies were extracted through drawing the main action processes of a PHA...
August 11, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799311/creating-posters-for-effective-scientific-communication
#11
Sandeep B Bavdekar, Shruti Vyas, Varun Anand
A scientific poster is a summary of one's research that is presented in a visually engaging manner. Posters are presented as a means of short and quick scientific communications at conferences and scientific meetings. Presenting posters has advantages for the presenters and for conference attendees and organizers. It also plays a part in dissemination of research findings and furthering science. An effective poster is the one that focuses on a single message and conveys it through a concise and artistically attractive manner...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795767/communicating-low-probability-high-consequence-risk-uncertainty-and-expert-confidence-induced-seismicity-of-deep-geothermal-energy-and-shale-gas
#12
Theresa A K Knoblauch, Michael Stauffacher, Evelina Trutnevyte
Subsurface energy activities entail the risk of induced seismicity including low-probability high-consequence (LPHC) events. For designing respective risk communication, the scientific literature lacks empirical evidence of how the public reacts to different written risk communication formats about such LPHC events and to related uncertainty or expert confidence. This study presents findings from an online experiment (N = 590) that empirically tested the public's responses to risk communication about induced seismicity and to different technology frames, namely deep geothermal energy (DGE) and shale gas (between-subject design)...
August 10, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793125/clinical-simulation-with-dramatization-gains-perceived-by-students-and-health-professionals
#13
Elaine Cristina Negri, Alessandra Mazzo, José Carlos Amado Martins, Gerson Alves Pereira, Rodrigo Guimarães Dos Santos Almeida, César Eduardo Pedersoli
Objective: to identify in the literature the gains health students and professionals perceive when using clinical simulation with dramatization resources. Method: integrative literature review, using the method proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). A search was undertaken in the following databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Web of Science, National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online...
August 3, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792945/automatic-jargon-identifier-for-scientists-engaging-with-the-public-and-science-communication-educators
#14
Tzipora Rakedzon, Elad Segev, Noam Chapnik, Roy Yosef, Ayelet Baram-Tsabari
Scientists are required to communicate science and research not only to other experts in the field, but also to scientists and experts from other fields, as well as to the public and policymakers. One fundamental suggestion when communicating with non-experts is to avoid professional jargon. However, because they are trained to speak with highly specialized language, avoiding jargon is difficult for scientists, and there is no standard to guide scientists in adjusting their messages. In this research project, we present the development and validation of the data produced by an up-to-date, scientist-friendly program for identifying jargon in popular written texts, based on a corpus of over 90 million words published in the BBC site during the years 2012-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791242/an-online-academic-writing-and-publishing-skills-course-help-syrians-find-their-voice
#15
Ammar Sabouni, Abdelkader Chaar, Yamama Bdaiwi, Abdulrahman Masrani, Heba Abolaban, Fares Alahdab, Belal Firwana, Ahmad Al-Moujahed
PURPOSE: A group of Arab-American physicians and researchers in the United States organized a blended online course in academic writing and publishing in medicine targeting medical students and physicians in war-torn Syria. This was an effort to address one of the reasons behind the poor quantity and quality of scientific research papers in Syria and the Arab region. In this paper, we report on the design, conduct, and outcome of this course and attempt to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: The educational intervention was a 2-month blended online course...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783099/is-living-near-healthier-food-stores-associated-with-better-food-intake-in-regional-australia
#16
Hamid Moayyed, Bridget Kelly, Xiaoqi Feng, Victoria Flood
High prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases is a global public health problem, in which the quality of food environments is thought to play an important role. Current scientific evidence is not consistent regarding the impact of food environments on diet. The relationship between local food environments and diet quality was assessed across 10 Australian suburbs, using Australian-based indices devised to measure the two parameters. Data of dietary habits from the participants was gathered using a short questionnaire...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778142/understanding-the-public-the-visitors-and-the-participants-in-science-communication-activities
#17
Naoko Kato-Nitta, Tadahiko Maeda, Kensuke Iwahashi, Masashi Tachikawa
Despite the promotion of public engagement in science, there has been little empirical research on the sociocultural and attitudinal characteristics of participants in science communication activities and the extent to which such individuals are representative of the general population. We statistically investigated the distinctiveness of visitors to a scientific research institution by contrasting samples from visitor surveys and nationally representative surveys. The visitors had more cultural capital (science and technology/art and literature) and believed more in the value of science than the general public, but there was no difference regarding assessment of the levels of national science or of the national economy...
August 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772714/corrosion-prediction-with-parallel-finite-element-modeling-for-coupled-hygro-chemo-transport-into-concrete-under-chloride-rich-environment
#18
Okpin Na, Xiao-Chuan Cai, Yunping Xi
The prediction of the chloride-induced corrosion is very important because of the durable life of concrete structure. To simulate more realistic durability performance of concrete structures, complex scientific methods and more accurate material models are needed. In order to predict the robust results of corrosion initiation time and to describe the thin layer from concrete surface to reinforcement, a large number of fine meshes are also used. The purpose of this study is to suggest more realistic physical model regarding coupled hygro-chemo transport and to implement the model with parallel finite element algorithm...
March 28, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772297/use-of-adult-patient-focus-groups-to-develop-the-initial-item-bank-for-a-cochlear-implant-quality-of-life-instrument
#19
Theodore R McRackan, Craig A Velozo, Meredith A Holcomb, Elizabeth L Camposeo, Jonathan L Hatch, Ted A Meyer, Paul R Lambert, Cathy L Melvin, Judy R Dubno
Importance: No instrument exists to assess quality of life (QOL) in adult cochlear implant (CI) users that has been developed and validated using accepted scientific standards. Objective: To develop a CI-specific QOL instrument for adults in accordance with the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) guidelines. Design, Setting, and Participants: As required in the PROMIS guidelines, patient focus groups participated in creation of the initial item bank...
August 3, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771495/social-and-content-aware-one-class-recommendation-of-papers-in-scientific-social-networks
#20
Gang Wang, XiRan He, Carolyne Isigi Ishuga
With the rapid development of information technology, scientific social networks (SSNs) have become the fastest and most convenient way for researchers to communicate with each other. Many published papers are shared via SSNs every day, resulting in the problem of information overload. How to appropriately recommend personalized and highly valuable papers for researchers is becoming more urgent. However, when recommending papers in SSNs, only a small amount of positive instances are available, leaving a vast amount of unlabelled data, in which negative instances and potential unseen positive instances are mixed together, which naturally belongs to One-Class Collaborative Filtering (OCCF) problem...
2017: PloS One
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