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Scientific communication

Bernard J Moxham, Odile Plaisant, Baptiste Lignier, Feisal Brahim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Admission procedures for recruiting students to medical school vary considerably across the world. Notwithstanding such variability, it is important to know what skills and attributes are required of the students by their teachers on entering medical school. PROCEDURES: Anatomists are often the teachers who first meet the students as they enter medical school and this report analyses, by means of a questionnaire, the putative skills required of their medical students by anatomists from the U...
February 11, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Masaharu Kamada, Hiroaki Inui, Tomohiro Kagawa, Ayuka Mineda, Takao Tamura, Tomohito Fujioka, Takahiro Motoki, Hiroki Hirai, Eiichi Ishii, Minoru Irahara
AIM: We conducted a self-administered survey on the perception of teachers toward human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to determine the ways to increase their willingness to encourage its use. METHODS: Answers were obtained both prior to and after having the teachers read five brief information articles: (i) cervical cancer knowledge, (ii) vaccine knowledge, (iii) result of a survey in Nagoya, (iv) news report of the World Health Organization statement and (v) articles written by Dr Muranaka, a journalist...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Kristin Long, Vicky Lehmann, Cynthia Gerhardt, Aubrey Carpenter, Anna Marsland, Melissa Alderfer
OBJECTIVES: Siblings' psychosocial adjustment to childhood cancer is poorly understood. This systematic review summarizes findings and limitations of the sibling literature since 2008, provides clinical recommendations, and offers future research directions. METHOD: MEDLINE/Pubmed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched for articles related to siblings, psychosocial functioning, and pediatric cancer. After systematic screening, studies meeting inclusion criteria were rated for scientific merit, and findings were extracted and synthesized...
February 13, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Natasha Szuber, Ayalew Tefferi
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a distinct myeloproliferative neoplasm defined by persistent, predominantly mature neutrophil proliferation, marrow granulocyte hyperplasia, and frequent splenomegaly. The seminal discovery of oncogenic driver mutations in CSF3R in the majority of patients with CNL in 2013 generated a new scientific framework for this disease as it deepened our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, provided a biomarker for diagnosis, and rationalized management using novel targeted therapies...
February 13, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
Savita Chaudhary, Ahmad Umar, K K Bhasin, Sotirios Baskoutas
Recent advancement in nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed numerous triumphs of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials due to their various exotic and multifunctional properties and wide applications. As a remarkable and functional material, ZnO has attracted extensive scientific and technological attention, as it combines different properties such as high specific surface area, biocompatibility, electrochemical activities, chemical and photochemical stability, high-electron communicating features, non-toxicity, ease of syntheses, and so on...
February 12, 2018: Materials
Simon Capewell, Ffion Lloyd-Williams
Introduction: In this review, we highlight poor diet as the biggest risk factor for non-communicable diseases. We examine the denial tactics used by the food industry, how they reflect the tactics previously used by the tobacco industry, and how campaigners can use this knowledge to achieve future public health successes. Sources of data: Data sources are wide ranging, notably publications relating to public health, obesity and processed food, the effectiveness hierarchy and food industry denialism tactics...
February 9, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Elisa Langiano, Maria Ferrara, Elisabetta De Vito
Vaccinations in Italy show a downward trend since 2013 due to an evergrowing mistrust of the population with regard to vaccination that has resulted in lesser adherence to vaccination programs. The main cause of the reduction is due to a tendency observed in recent years, even at the international level, known as 'vaccine hesitancy'. A growing number of studies on vaccine hesitancy show that causes vary by country, population, vaccine, and context influences, but in all cases emerges the importance of health care professionals in patients decision about vaccine...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Chiara De Waure, Leuconoe Grazia Sisti, Andrea Poscia, Walter Ricciardi
Italy is witnessing relevant challenges in the field of prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. The worrying and growing phenomenon of "vaccine-hesitancy" has contributed to the reduction of vaccination coverage, undermining goals reached thanks to vaccines introduction. The new Italian National Immunization Plan (NIP) 2017-2019 and the update of the list of Essential Care Levels (LEA), approved in the current year, extend the vaccination offer based on the latest scientific evidence with the introduction of new vaccines and the enlargement of target population...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Alison Ritter, Kari Lancaster, Rosalyn Diprose
Policies concerned with illicit drugs vex governments. While the 'evidence-based policy' paradigm argues that governments should be informed by 'what works', in practice policy makers rarely operate this way. Moreover the evidence-based policy paradigm fails to account for democratic participatory processes, particularly how community members and people who use drugs might be included. The aim of this paper is to explore the political science thinking about democratic participation and the potential afforded in 'deliberative democracy' approaches, such as Citizens Juries and other mini-publics for improved drug policy processes...
February 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Patrizio Pezzotti, Stefania Bellino, Francesca Prestinaci, Simone Iacchini, Francesca Lucaroni, Laura Camoni, Maria Maddalena Barbieri, Walter Ricciardi, Paola Stefanelli, Giovanni Rezza
BACKGROUND: Vaccination has determined a dramatic decline in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases over the last century. However, low perceived risk of the infectious threat and increased concern about vaccines' safety led to a reduction in vaccine coverage, with increased risk of disease outbreaks. METHODS: Annual surveillance data of nationally communicable infectious diseases in Italy between 1900 and 2015 were used to derive trends in morbidity and mortality rates before and after vaccine introduction, focusing particularly on the effect of vaccination programs...
February 7, 2018: Vaccine
Simone Kühn, Dimitrij Kugler, Katharina Schmalen, Markus Weichenberger, Charlotte Witt, Jürgen Gallinat
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is a common concern in the research field and the community that habitual violent video gaming reduces empathy for pain in its players. However, previous fMRI studies have only compared habitual game players against control participants cross-sectionally. However the observed pattern of results may be due to a priori differences in people who become gamers and who not. In order to derive the causal conclusion that violent video game play causes desensitisation, longitudinal studies are needed...
January 31, 2018: Neuro-Signals
Barbara Ribeiro, Sarah Hartley, Brigitte Nerlich, Rusi Jaspal
Between 2015 and 2016, Zika became an epidemic of global concern and the focus of intense media coverage. Using a hybrid model of frame and social representations theory, we examine how the Zika outbreak was reported in two major newspapers in Brazil: O Globo and Folha de São Paulo. The analysis of 186 articles published between December 2015 and May 2016 reveals a dominant 'war' frame supported by two sub-frames: one focused on eradicating the vector (mosquito) and another on controlling microcephaly, placing the burden of prevention on women...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Jonathan Stadler, Hayley MacGregor, Eirik Saethre, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
During a five-day workshop, former clinical trial participants and local musicians wrote the lyrics and recorded a song about an HIV prevention trial. Born of concerns about misconceptions regarding experimental drug trials, the aim was to engender engagement with medical researchers and open dialogue about the risks and benefits of trial participation. Composing lyrics that highlighted their credibility as communicators of medical scientific knowledge and their selfless sacrifice to stem the transmission of HIV, women performed their social positioning and cultural authority in contrast to men as well as other women not part of the trial...
February 8, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Joseph D Martin
Argument Why do similar scientific enterprises garner unequal public approbation? High energy physics attracted considerable attention in the late-twentieth-century United States, whereas condensed matter physics - which occupied the greater proportion of US physicists - remained little known to the public, despite its relevance to ubiquitous consumer technologies. This paper supplements existing accounts of this much remarked-upon prestige asymmetry by showing that popular emphasis on the mundane technological offshoots of condensed matter physics and its focus on human-scale phenomena have rendered it more recondite than its better-known sibling field...
December 2017: Science in Context
Luciana O Bruno, Ricardo Santos Simoes, Manuel de Jesus Simoes, Manoel João Batista Castello Girão, Oliver Grundmann
The indiscriminate use of herbal medicines to prevent or to heal diseases or even the use for questionable purposes such as weight loss has received both interest and scrutiny from the scientific community and general public alike. An increasing number of women put their own and the unborn child's health at risk due to a lack of knowledge about the phytochemical properties and adequate use of herbal medicine (phytomedicines or herbal supplements) and lack of communication with their healthcare provider. The purpose of this narrative review was to summarize the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and their potential toxic effects to highlight the importance of caution when prescribing herbal medicines or supplements for women, because, in addition to suffering interactions and a great amount of information obtained in preclinical predictive studies, assessment of nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and teratogenicity of traditional medicinal herbs still remains scarce in the clinical setting...
February 8, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Robert G W Kirk, Edmund Ramsden
Seeking a scientific basis for understanding and treating mental illness, and inspired by the work of Ivan Pavlov, American physiologists, psychiatrists and psychologists in the 1920s turned to nonhuman animals. This paper examines how new constructs such as "experimental neurosis" emerged as tools to enable psychiatric comparison across species. From 1923 to 1962, the Cornell "Behavior Farm" was a leading interdisciplinary research center pioneering novel techniques to experimentally study nonhuman psychopathology...
February 7, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Juan Pablo Rey-López, Thiago Herick de Sá, Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende
Precision medicine has been announced as a new health revolution. The term precision implies more accuracy in healthcare and prevention of diseases, which could yield substantial cost savings. However, scientific debate about precision medicine is needed to avoid wasting economic resources and hype. In this commentary, we express the reasons why precision medicine cannot be a health revolution for population health. Advocates of precision medicine neglect the limitations of individual-centred, high-risk strategies (reduced population health impact) and the current crisis of evidence-based medicine...
February 5, 2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
J J Laguna, J Archilla, I Doña, M Corominas, G Gastaminza, C Mayorga, P Berjes-Gimeno, P Tornero, S Martin, A Planas, E Moreno, M J Torres
Perioperative hypersensitivity reactions constitute a first-line problem for anesthesiologists and allergists, so it is advisable that hospitals have a consensus protocol for the diagnosis and management of these reactions. However, this kind of protocols is not present in many hospitals, leading to problems in treatment, the communication of incidents and subsequent etiological diagnosis. In this document we present a systematic review of the available scientific evidence and provide general guidelines for the management of acute episodes and for referral of patients with perioperative hypersensitivity reactions to Allergy Units...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Jesús Molinari, S Andrea Moreno
Proper application of the principles of biological nomenclature is fundamental for scientific and technical communication about organisms. As other scientific disciplines, taxonomy inherently is open to change, thus species names cannot be final and immutable. Nevertheless, altering the names of organisms of high economical, medical, or veterinary importance can become a complex challenge between the scientific need to have correct classifications, and the practical ideal of having fixed classifications. Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885), T...
February 6, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Lixing You, Jia Quan, Yong Wang, Yuexue Ma, Xiaoyan Yang, Yanjie Liu, Hao Li, Jianguo Li, Juan Wang, Jingtao Liang, Zhen Wang, Xiaoming Xie
Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) have advanced various frontier scientific and technological fields such as quantum key distribution and deep space communications. However, limited by available cooling technology, all past experimental demonstrations have had ground-based applications. In this work, we demonstrate a SNSPD system using a hybrid cryocooler that could ultimately be compatible with space applications. With a minimum operational temperature of 2.8 K, this SNSPD system presents a maximum system detection efficiency of over 50% and a timing jitter of 48 ps, which paves the way for various space applications...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
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