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Saranya Satitmanwiwat, Chinarat Changsangfa, Anuson Khanuengthong, Kornkanok Promthep, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Teerakul Arpornsuwan, Kulnasan Saikhun, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis of human oral cancer cells by the scorpion venom peptide BmKn2. METHODS: Human oral squamous carcinoma cells (HSC4), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB), human normal gingival cells (HGC) and dental pulp cells (DPC) were treated with BmKn-2 peptide for 24h. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using phase contrast microscopy, by propidium iodide (PI) staining to assess nuclear morphology and by Annexin V staining...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xinmin Zhao, Xianghua Wu, Wen Yu, Xuwei Cai, Qi Liu, Xiaolong Fu, Zhebin Liu, Dali Hu, Shiyun Pan, Qiling Huang
The present study examined the potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-mannose sensitive hemagglutinin (PA-MSHA) to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in non‑small‑cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. It also investigated its mechanisms of action in different genotypes of human NSCLC. A total of three NSCLC cell lines, PC‑9, A549, and NCI‑H1975, were treated with PA‑MSHA at different concentrations. The anti‑proliferative effect of PA‑MSHA was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xin Hu, Jing Wang, Yu Xia, Mihereguli Simayi, Syed Ikramullah, Yuanbing He, Shihong Cui, Shuang Li, Qimanguli Wushouer
Eosinophils exert a number of inflammatory effects through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, and are considered to be key effector cells in allergic disorders, including asthma. In order to investigate the regulatory effects of the natural polyphenol, resveratrol, on eosinophils derived from asthmatic individuals, the cell counting Kit‑8 assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in these cells, respectively. Cellular apoptosis was detected using annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double‑staining...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yu Chen, Jing-Rong Lin, Ping-Jin Gao
Mitochondrial fission can occur via activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which participates in the mitochondrial membrane scission process. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of angiotensin II (AngII) on mitochondrial fission and fusion in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). And we further inquire into whether Mdivi-1, a newly identified pharmacological inhibitor of Drp1, can prevent endothelial dysfunction induced by AngII. The HUVECs were treated with AngII alone or in combination with Mdivi-1...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Lingegowda S Mangala, Hongyu Wang, Dahai Jiang, Sherry Y Wu, Anoma Somasunderam, David E Volk, Ganesh L R Lokesh, Xin Li, Sunila Pradeep, Xianbin Yang, Monika Haemmerle, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Archana S Nagaraja, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Emine Bayraktar, Recep Bayraktar, Li Li, Takemi Tanaka, Wei Hu, Cristina Ivan, Kshipra M Gharpure, Michael H McGuire, Varatharasa Thiviyanathan, Xinna Zhang, Sourindra N Maiti, Nataliya Bulayeva, Hyun-Jin Choi, Piotr L Dorniak, Laurence J N Cooper, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, David G Gorenstein, Anil K Sood
Current antiangiogenesis therapy relies on inhibiting newly developed immature tumor blood vessels and starving tumor cells. This strategy has shown transient and modest efficacy. Here, we report a better approach to target cancer-associated endothelial cells (ECs), reverse permeability and leakiness of tumor blood vessels, and improve delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor. First, we identified deregulated microRNAs (miRs) from patient-derived cancer-associated ECs. Silencing these miRs led to decreased vascular permeability and increased maturation of blood vessels...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Sgb Furness, D L Hare, A Kourakis, A M Turnley, P J Wookey
We have discovered that the accumulation of an anti-calcitonin receptor (anti-CTR) antibody conjugated to a fluorophore (mAb2C4:AF568) provides a robust signal for cells undergoing apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is an absolute requirement for normal development of metazoan organisms. PCD is a hallmark of common diseases such as cardiovascular disease and tissue rejection in graft versus host pathologies, and chemotherapeutics work by increasing PCD. This robust signal or high fluorescent events were verified by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in several cell lines and a primary culture in which PCD had been induced...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Xiao-Yan He, Xiao-Li Feng, Xin-Pei Song, Huan-Chao Zeng, Zhong-Xu Cao, Wei-Wei Xiao, Bao Zhang, Qing-Hua Wu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of RITA, a small molecule that targets p53, combined with temozolomide (TMZ) on proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis of human glioblastoma U87 cells and explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Cultured U87 cells were treated with RITA (1, 5, 10, 20 µmol/L), TMZ, or RITA+TMZ (half dose) for 24, 48 or 72 h. MTS assay were used to detect the cell proliferation, and the cell proliferation rate and inhibitory rate were calculated...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Akihisa Okamoto, Masahiro Tanaka, Chisato Sumi, Kanako Oku, Munenori Kusunoki, Kenichiro Nishi, Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Keizo Takenaga, Koh Shingu, Kiichi Hirota
BACKGROUND: The local anesthetic lidocaine can affect intra- and extra-cellular signaling pathways in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, resulting in long-term modulation of biological functions, including cell growth and death. Indeed, lidocaine was shown to induce necrosis and apoptosis in vitro. While several studies have suggested that lidocaine-induced apoptosis is mitochondrial pathway-dependent, it remains unclear whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in this process and whether the observed cell death can be prevented by antioxidant treatment...
October 24, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Erin A Henslee, Ruth M Torcal Serrano, Fatima H Labeed, Rita I Jabr, Christopher H Fry, Michael P Hughes, Kai F Hoettges
A loss of ability of cells to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death, whereby the cell ceases to function and destroys itself) is commonly associated with cancer, and many anti-cancer interventions aim to restart the process. Consequently, the accurate quantification of apoptosis is essential in understanding the function and performance of new anti-cancer drugs. Dielectrophoresis has previously been demonstrated to detect apoptosis more rapidly than other methods, and is low-cost, label-free and rapid, but has previously been unable to accurately quantify cells through the apoptotic process because cells in late apoptosis disintegrate, making cell tracking impossible...
October 24, 2016: Analyst
Ceyda Acilan, Zelal Adiguzel, Buse Cevatemre, Didem Karakas, Engin Ulukaya, Nádia Ribeiro, Isabel Correia, João Costa Pessoa
BACKGROUND: To overcome the hurdles of cisplatin, majorly its toxicity and resistance, there has been extensive search for alternative anti-cancer metal-based compounds. Here, three Cu(II)-complexes, Cu(Sal-Gly)(phen), Cu(Sal-Gly)(pheamine), Cu(Sal-Gly)(phepoxy) are characterized for their interaction with DNA, cytotoxicity and mechanism of action. METHODS: The binding ability of the complexes to Calf-Thymus DNA was evaluated by competition fluorescence studies with thiazole-orange, UV-Vis and circular-dichroism spectroscopic titrations...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Marie Garraud, Kahina Khacef, Anne-Clémence Vion, Claire Leconte, Min Yin, Jean-Marie Renard, Catherine Marchand-Leroux, Chantal M Boulanger, Isabelle Margaill, Virginie Beray-Berthat
Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is currently the only approved pharmacological strategy for acute ischemic stroke. However, rt-PA exhibits vascular toxicity mainly due to endothelial damage. To investigate the mechanisms underlying rt-PA-induced endothelial alterations, we assessed the role of rt-PA in the generation of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), emerging biological markers and effectors of endothelial dysfunction. The mouse brain-derived endothelial cell line bEnd...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jian Tang, Yingbin Ge, Lei Yang, Xinyu Xu, Tao Sui, Dawei Ge, Jun Que, Xiaojian Cao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypertrophic scars (HS) formation results from reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation of fibroblasts. Therefore, apoptosis of fibroblasts is a key target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for HS. Previous reports demonstrated that FK506 could attenuate scar formation in vivo and FK506 could also induce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). However, the effects of FK506 on ER stress-mediated apoptosis in fibroblasts remain unclear. METHODS: Rat skin fibroblasts were used in the study...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mauro C Wesseling, Lisa Wagner-Britz, Duc Bach Nguyen, Salome Asanidze, Judy Mutua, Nagla Mohamed, Benjamin Hanf, Mehrdad Ghashghaeinia, Lars Kaestner, Ingolf Bernhardt
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In previous publications we were able to demonstrate the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) in the outer membrane leaflet after activation of red blood cells (RBCs) by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), phorbol-12 myristate-13acetate (PMA), or 4-bromo-A23187 (A23187). It has been concluded that three different mechanisms are responsible for the PS exposure in human RBCs: (i) Ca2+-stimulated scramblase activation (and flippase inhibition) by A23187, LPA, and PMA; (ii) PKCα activation by LPA and PMA; and (iii) enhanced lipid flip flop caused by LPA...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jens Zierle, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Teriflunomide, an inhibitor of pyrimidine synthesis and thus proliferation of activated T and B lymphocytes, is successfully used for treatment of inflammatory disease. Teriflunomide has further been shown to trigger apoptosis of tumor cells and has thus been considered for the treatment of malignancy. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Danielle Oliveira Dos Anjos, Eliomara Sousa Sobral Alves, Vinicius Tomaz Gonçalves, Sheila Suarez Fontes, Mateus Lima Nogueira, Ana Márcia Suarez-Fontes, João Batista Neves da Costa, Fabricio Rios-Santos, Marcos André Vannier-Santos
Natural products comprise valuable sources for new antiparasitic drugs. Here we tested the effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi parasite survival and proliferation and used microscopy and cytometry techniques to approach the mechanism(s) underlying parasite death. The selectivity index determination indicate that the compound trypanocidal activity was over ten-fold more cytotoxic to epimastigotes than to macrophages or splenocytes. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the R72 β-lapachone derivative affected the T...
October 12, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Duthika M Mallawaaratchy, Susannah Hallal, Ben Russell, Linda Ly, Saeideh Ebrahimkhani, Heng Wei, Richard I Christopherson, Michael E Buckland, Kimberley L Kaufman
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play key roles in glioblastoma (GBM) biology and represent novel sources of biomarkers that are detectable in the peripheral circulation. Despite this notionally non-invasive approach to assess GBM tumours in situ, a comprehensive GBM EV protein signature has not been described. Here, EVs secreted by six GBM cell lines were isolated and analysed by quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry. Overall, 844 proteins were identified in the GBM EV proteome, of which 145 proteins were common to EVs secreted by all cell lines examined; included in the curated EV compendium (Vesiclepedia_559; http://microvesicles...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
V Lakshma Nayak, Narayana Nagesh, A Ravikumar, Chandrakant Bagul, M V P S Vishnuvardhan, Vunnam Srinivasulu, Ahmed Kamal
Apoptosis is a representative form of programmed cell death, which has been assumed to be critical for cancer prevention. Thus, any agent that can induce apoptosis may be useful for cancer treatment and apoptosis induction is arguably the most potent defense against cancer promotion. In our previous studies, 2-aryl benzimidazole conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity and one of the new molecule (2f) was considered as a potential lead. This lead molecule showed significant antiproliferative activity against human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7...
October 21, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Yanyan Zheng, Li Zhu, Lulu Fan, Wenna Zhao, Jianlong Wang, Xianxiao Hao, Yunhui Zhu, Xiufang Hu, Yaofeng Yuan, Jingwei Shao, Wenfeng Wang
Emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum L., has been demonstrated to exhibit good anti-cancer effect. In this study, a series of novel quaternary ammonium salts of emodin, anthraquinone and anthrone were synthesized and their anticancer activities were tested in vitro. The effects of emodin quaternary ammonium salts on cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential were investigated in A375, BGC-823, HepG2 and HELF cells. The results demonstrated that compound 4a induced morphological changes and decreased cell viability...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Chihua Wu, Jing Luo
BACKGROUND Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) UCA1 is an oncogene in breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of UCA1 in tamoxifen resistance of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tamoxifen sensitive MCF-7 cells were transfected for UCA1 overexpression, while tamoxifen resistant LCC2 and LCC9 cells were transfected with UCA siRNA for UCA1 knockdown. qRT-PCR was performed to analyze UCA1 expression. CCK-8 assay, immunofluorescence staining of cleaved caspase-9, and flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V/PI staining were used to assess tamoxifen sensitivity...
October 21, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Zhi-Yong Xu, Ming-Xue Zheng, Yan Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Cui, Sha-Sha Yang, Rui-Li Liu, Shan Li, Rou Xi, Xin Gong, Rui Bai
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dynamic changes in the main regulatory genes of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in E. tenella host cells. Primary chick embryo cecum epithelial cell culture techniques, spectrophotometer technology, Hoechst-Annexin V-PI apoptosis staining and ELISA were used to detect the apoptosis rate and dynamic changes of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax, Bak, Bid, Bad, HK-II, and ATP content in E. tenella host cells at 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. The rates of early apoptosis, late apoptosis, and necrosis of group T0 were significantly lower (P < 0...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
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