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Bernadette U Ukah, Ogbonnaya Igwe, Peter Ameh
In Ajao Estate, it is believed that poor quality of its groundwater is unconnected to the dislodging of wastewater into the environment by food- and wine-producing industries operating in the area. To ascertain this claim, the impact of this wastewater on microbiological and physicochemical quality of the groundwater was evaluated. Microbiological result of water samples revealed decrease in Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, etc. count from the industrial wastewater dislodging point...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Keunsub Lee, Kan Wang
During the last decade, small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as essential post-transcriptional regulators in bacteria. Nearly all important physiological and stress responses are modulated by ncRNA regulators, such as riboswitches, trans-acting small RNAs (sRNAs), and cis-antisense RNAs. Recently, three RNA-seq studies identified a total of 1534 candidate ncRNAs from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a pathogen and biotechnology tool for plants. Only a few ncRNAs have been functionally characterized in A. tumefaciens, and some of them appear to be involved in virulence...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Ram Chandra, Vineet Kumar, Sonam Tripathi
The extracted sugarcane molasses-melanoidins showed the presence of Mn (8.20), Cr (2.97), Zn (16.61), Cu (2.55), Fe (373.95), Pb (2.59), and Ni (4.18 mg L-1 ) along with mixture of other organic compounds which have endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) properties. A consortium of aerobic bacteria comprising Klebsiella pneumoniae (KU321273), Salmonella enteric (KU726954), Enterobacter aerogenes (KU726955), and Enterobacter cloacae (KU726957) showed the optimum decolourisation of molasses-melanoidins up to 81% through co-metabolism in the presence of glucose (1...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
DanRong Hu, LiJuan Chen, Ying Qu, JinRong Peng, BingYang Chu, Kun Shi, Ying Hao, Lin Zhong, MengYao Wang, ZhiYong Qian
The combination of chemotherapy with photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted broad attention as it can overcome limitations of conventional chemo-treatment by using different modes of action. However, the efficacy of PDT to treat solid tumors is severely affected by hypoxia in tumors. Methods : In this study, we developed oxygen-generating theranostic nanoparticles (CDM NPs) by hierarchically assembling doxorubicin (DOX), chlorin e6 (Ce6) and colloidal manganese dioxide (MnO2 ) with poly (ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) for treating breast cancer...
2018: Theranostics
Ledys S Copete-Pertuz, Jersson Plácido, Efraím A Serna-Galvis, Ricardo A Torres-Palma, Amanda Mora
In this work, Leptosphaerulina sp. (a Colombian native fungus) significantly removed three Isoxazolyl-Penicillin antibiotics (IP): oxacillin (OXA, 16000 μg L-1 ), cloxacillin (CLX, 17500 μg L-1 ) and dicloxacillin (DCX, 19000 μg L-1 ) from water. The biological treatment was performed at pH 5.6, 28 °C, and 160 rpm for 15 days. The biotransformation process and lack of toxicity of the final solutions (antibacterial activity (AA) and cytotoxicity) were tested. The role of enzymes in IP removal was analysed through in vitro studies with enzymatic extracts (crude and pre-purified) from Leptosphaerulina sp...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nneka Alozie, Natalie Heaney, Chuxia Lin
A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of biochar on the behaviour of soil-borne arsenic and metals that were mobilized by three low-molecular-weight organic acids. In the presence of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid at a molar concentration of 0.01M, the surface of biochar was protonated, which disfavours adsorption of the cationic metals released from the soil by organic acid-driven mobilization. In contrast, the oxyanionic As species were re-immobilized by the protonated biochar effectively...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Martin Davi, Markus Mann, Zili Ma, Felix Schrader, Andreas Drichel, Serhiy Budnyk, Anna Rokicinska, Piotr Kustrowski, Richard Dronskowski, Adam Slabon
CuWO4 is a photoanode candidate in neutral pH, and manganese-based oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalysts are of high interest due to their low price and low toxicity. Considering the unexplored chemistry of transition-metal carbodiimides/cyanamides for the PEC water oxidation, we investigated MnNCN as an electrocatalyst for CuWO4 under AM 1.5G illumination in potassium phosphate electrolyte (pH 7). Surface functionalization of CuWO4 photoanodes with MnNCN increased the photocurrent from 22 to 30 μA cm-2 at 1...
March 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tomasz Krzywkowski, Malte Kühnemund, Di Wu, Mats Nilsson
Phi29 (Φ29) DNA polymerase is an enzyme commonly used in DNA amplification methods such as rolling circle amplification (RCA) and multiple strand displacement amplification (MDA), as well as in DNA sequencing methods such as single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing. Here, we report the ability of phi29 DNA polymerase to amplify RNA-containing circular substrates during RCA. We found that circular substrates with single RNA substitutions are amplified at a similar amplification rate as non-chimeric DNA substrates, and that consecutive RNA pyrimidines were generally preferred over purines...
March 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Xiong Li, Boqun Li, Yongping Yang
We administered foliar applications of 50, 100, and 200 mg L-1 selenium (Se, selenite) on turnip ( Brassica rapa var. rapa Linn.) and detected the changes in the main nutrient components in fleshy roots. Results showed that the foliar application of Se (IV) significantly increased the Se content in turnip, and Se (IV) positively affected the uptake of several mineral elements, including magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper. Se (IV) treatments also improved the synthesis of protein and multiple amino acids instead of crude fat and total carbohydrate in turnip, indicating that the foliar application of Se (IV) could enhance Se biofortification in turnip and promote its nutritional value...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Rui Zuo, Shuhe Jin, Minhua Chen, Xin Guan, Jinsheng Wang, Yuanzheng Zhai, Yanguo Teng, Xueru Guo
The objective of this study was to explore the controlling factors on the migration and transformation of nitrogenous wastes in groundwater using long-term observations from a contaminated site on the southwestern edge of the Tengger Desert in northwestern China. Contamination was caused by wastewater discharge rich in ammonia. Two long-term groundwater monitoring wells (Wells 1# and 2#) were constructed, and 24 water samples were collected. Five key indicators were tested: ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, dissolved oxygen, and manganese...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Adi Pinkas, Mahfuzur R Miah, Rebecca L Weitz, Michael J A Lawes, Ayodele J Akinyemi, Omamuyovwi M Ijomone, Michael Aschner
Due to many advantages Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has become a preferred model of choice in many fields, including neurodevelopmental toxicity studies. This review discusses the benefits of using C. elegans as an alternative to mammalian systems and gives examples of the uses of the nematode in evaluating the effects of major known neurodevelopmental toxins, including manganese, mercury, lead, fluoride, arsenic and organophosphorus pesticides. Reviewed data indicates numerous similarities with mammals in response to these toxins...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Sandrine Girerd, Lucie Tosca, Olivier Herault, Christine Vignon, Denis Biard, Djamel Aggoune, Fatima Dkhissi, Marie Laure Bonnet, Nathalie Sorel, Christophe Desterke, Annelise Bennaceur-Griscelli, Gerard Tachdjian, François Guilhot, Joelle Guilhot, Jean-Claude Chomel, Ali G Turhan
Manganese Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) plays a crucial role in antioxidant defense but there are no data suggesting its role in genetic instability in CML. We evaluated the effects of SOD2 silencing in human UT7 cell line expressing either non-mutated or T315I-mutated BCR-ABL. Array-CGH experiments detected in BCR-ABL-expressing cells silenced for SOD2 a major genetic instability within several chromosomal loci, especially in regions carrying the glypican family (duplicated) and β-defensin genes (deleted)...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
E Kula, E Wildová, P Hrdlička
In a specific area of the Krušné Hory Mts. (Ore Mountains), Czech Republic, branches and leaves of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) were collected during the growing seasons in 2010-2016 on the low-pH soil (2.77-3.62) with a high total content of manganese (490-6277 mg kg-1 dwt.). Mn content in leaves occurred in a wide range (274-11,159 mg kg-1 ) and was markedly increased during the growing season with the exception of year 2015, when the leaves dried out early due to the precipitation deficit. New leaves exhibited the Mn content corresponding to the beginning of the growing season...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Tommaso Filippini, Silvia Cilloni, Marcella Malavolti, Federica Violi, Carlotta Malagoli, Marina Tesauro, Ilaria Bottecchi, Angela Ferrari, Luciano Vescovi, Marco Vinceti
This study provides the dietary intakes of six trace elements (cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc), generally characterized by both nutritional and toxicological features depending on their exposure. Being diet the most relevant source of exposure to trace elements in non-professionally exposed subjects, we measured content of these trace elements in foods composing the typical Italian diet using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and assessing dietary habits using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire we eventually estimated dietary daily intake of trace elements in a Northern Italian community...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Mustafa Türkmen, Derya Budur
The present study examined heavy metal contamination in six edible wild mushroom species obtained from twenty-one stations in Turkey's Black Sea region. Heavy metals were analyzed ICP-MS. Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were measured in the ranges of 0.08-3.37, 0.01-2.50, 0.36-6.26, 17.5-122, 97.2-3919, 4.61-102, 12.7-24.2, 0.15-1.80 and 34.4-225 mg/kg, respectively. The highest metal was iron in all of the examined species from the stations; and differences among metal levels across all of stations were found to be statistically significant (p < 0...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ya Cheng, Ye Li, Tinglin Huang, Yuankui Sun, Xinxin Shi, Yuezong Shao
As an efficient method for ammonium (NH4 + ) removal, contact catalytic oxidation technology has drawn much attention recently, due to its good low temperature resistance and short start-up period. Two identical filters were employed to compare the process for ammonium removal during the start-up period for ammonium removal in groundwater (Filter-N) and surface water (Filter-S) treatment. Two types of source water (groundwater and surface water) were used as the feed waters for the filtration trials. Although the same initiating method was used, Filter-N exhibited much better ammonium removal performance than Filter-S...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ji-Eun Kang, Hyun-Do Kim, Soo-Young Park, Jae-Gu Pan, Jeong Hyun Kim, Do-Young Yum
Background and Aims: Commercial superoxide dismutase (SOD) is derived from melon extract and has a potential as a dietary supplement due to its beneficial anti-oxidative effects. We aimed to improve the productivity of SOD compared with plant SOD by using a generally-regarded-as-safe (GRAS) microorganism, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and assess its anti-oxidative effect using γ-radiation- and dextransulfate sodium (DSS)-induced oxidative models in mice. Methods: We identified the sodA gene encoding manganese-containing SODs (Mn-SOD) in B...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Guillaume Dubeaux, Julie Neveu, Enric Zelazny, Grégory Vert
Plant roots forage the soil for iron, the concentration of which can be dramatically lower than those needed for growth. Soil iron uptake uses the broad metal spectrum IRT1 transporter that also transports zinc, manganese, cobalt, and cadmium. Sophisticated iron-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanisms allow plants to tightly control the abundance of IRT1, ensuring optimal absorption of iron. Here, we uncover that IRT1 acts as a transporter and receptor (transceptor), directly sensing excess of its non-iron metal substrates in the cytoplasm, to regulate its own degradation...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
S J Hartman, O N Genther-Schroeder, S L Hansen
To compare trace mineral (TM) repletion in feedlot steers after depletion by S and Mo, 72 Red Angus steers blocked by BW (253 ± 14 kg) were assigned (6 steers per pen, fed via GrowSafe bunks) to corn silage depletion diets (DEP) supplemented with NRC (1996) recommended concentrations of Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn (CON) or supplemented with 0.3% S (CaSO4), 2 mg of Mo/kg DM, and no added Cu, Mn, Zn, or Se (ANT). Three 62 d TM repletion strategies (REP) were applied within DEP diets on d 89: 1) Multimin90 injection (contains Cu, Mn, Se, Zn) and 100% of recommended Cu, Mn, Zn, and Se from inorganic sources (ITM), 2) saline injection and 150% of recommended TM from inorganic sources (ING), or 3) saline injection and 150% of recommended TM provided as 25% organic and 75% inorganic sources (BLEND)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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