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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433243/cocr-f75-scaffolds-produced-by-additive-manufacturing-influence-of-chemical-etching-on-powder-removal-and-mechanical-performance
#1
Brecht Van Hooreweder, Karel Lietaert, Bram Neirinck, Nicholas Lippiatt, Martine Wevers
Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient's health at risk...
June 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433241/mechanics-of-additively-manufactured-biomaterials
#2
EDITORIAL
Amir A Zadpoor
Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties...
June 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432963/health-hazards-of-child-labor-in-the-leather-products-and-surgical-instrument-manufacturing-industries-of-sialkot-pakistan
#3
Muhammad Junaid, Riffat Naseem Malik, De-Sheng Pei
Child labor is a major challenge in the developing countries and comprehensive health hazard identification studies on this issue are still lacking. Therefore, the current study is an effort to highlight the health concerns of child labor exposed in the key small scale industries of Sialkot, Pakistan. Our findings revealed jolting levels of heavy metals in the urine, blood, serum, saliva, and hair samples collected from the exposed children. For example, in the urine samples, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were measured at the respective concentrations of 39...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432429/enhanced-production-of-recombinant-proteins-by-a-small-molecule-protein-synthesis-enhancer-in-combination-with-an-antioxidant-in-recombinant-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#4
Joseph Camire, Dongjoo Kim, Soonjo Kwon
The improvement in the production of recombinant proteins has been linked in a number of small molecules such as carboxylic acids to the inhibition of histone deacetylase, leading to increased transcription of genes. However, carboxylic acids such as pentanoic acid and butanoic acid have been shown to promote an apoptotic response in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture. Supplementation of cultures with antioxidants has shown the ability to reduce the apoptotic response of carboxylic acid supplementation, leading to increased therapeutic protein production...
April 21, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432019/feasibility-of-mini-tablets-as-a-flexible-drug-delivery-tool
#5
Biplob Mitra, Jessica Chang, Sy-Juen Wu, Chad N Wolfe, Robert L Ternik, Thomas Z Gunter, Michael C Victor
Mini-tablets have potential applications as a flexible drug delivery tool in addition to their generally perceived use as multi-particulates. That is, mini-tablets could provide flexibility in dose finding studies and/or allow for combination therapies in the clinic. Moreover, mini-tablets with well controlled quality attributes could be a prudent choice for administering solid dosage forms as a single unit or composite of multiple mini-tablets in patient populations with swallowing difficulties (e.g., pediatric and geriatric populations)...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431361/uncertainty-quantification-and-validation-of-3d-lattice-scaffolds-for-computer-aided-biomedical-applications
#6
Recep M Gorguluarslan, Seung-Kyum Choi, Christopher J Saldana
A methodology is proposed for uncertainty quantification and validation to accurately predict the mechanical response of lattice structures used in the design of scaffolds. Effective structural properties of the scaffolds are characterized using a developed multi-level stochastic upscaling process that propagates the quantified uncertainties at strut level to the lattice structure level. To obtain realistic simulation models for the stochastic upscaling process and minimize the experimental cost, high-resolution finite element models of individual struts were reconstructed from the micro-CT scan images of lattice structures which are fabricated by selective laser melting...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431198/serum-amylase-and-lipase-and-urinary-trypsinogen-and-amylase-for-diagnosis-of-acute-pancreatitis
#7
REVIEW
Gianluca Rompianesi, Angus Hann, Oluyemi Komolafe, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: The treatment of people with acute abdominal pain differs if they have acute pancreatitis. It is important to know the diagnostic accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, so that an informed decision can be made as to whether the person with abdominal pain has acute pancreatitis. There is currently no Cochrane review of the diagnostic test accuracy of serum amylase, serum lipase, urinary trypsinogen-2, and urinary amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431005/occupational-asthma-caused-by-acrylic-compounds-from-shield-surveillance-1989-2014
#8
G I Walters, A S Robertson, V C Moore, P S Burge
Background: Acrylic monomers (acrylates), methacrylates and cyanoacrylates all cause asthma by respiratory sensitization. Occupational inhalation exposures occur across a variety of industries including health care and dental work, beauty, laboratory science, assembly and plastic moulding. Aims: To examine notifications of occupational asthma caused by acrylic compounds from a UK-based regional surveillance scheme, in order to highlight prevalent exposures and trends in presentation...
April 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430558/lower-esophageal-sphincter-augmentation-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-the-safety-of-a-modern-implant
#9
C Daniel Smith, Robert A Ganz, John C Lipham, Reginald C Bell, David W Rattner
INTRODUCTION: Use of the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing. As this innovative treatment for GERD gains widespread use and adoption, an assessment of its safety since U.S. market introduction is presented. METHODS: Events were collected from the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database, which reports events submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of suspected device-associated deaths, serious injuries, and malfunctions...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429827/a-descriptive-and-broadly-applicable-model-of-therapeutic-and-stray-absorbed-dose-from-6-mv-to-25-mv-photon-beams
#10
Christopher W Schneider, Wayne D Newhauser, Lydia J Wilson, Uwe Schneider, Robert Kaderka, Saveta Miljanić, Željka Knežević, Liliana Stolarcyzk, Marco Durante, Roger M Harrison
PURPOSE: To develop a simple model of therapeutic and stray absorbed dose for a variety of treatment machines and techniques without relying on proprietary machine-specific parameters. METHODS: Dosimetry measurements conducted in this study and from the literature were used to develop an analytical model of absorbed dose from a variety of treatment machines and techniques in the 6 MV to 25 MV interval. A modified one-dimensional gamma-index analysis was performed to evaluate dosimetric accuracy of the model on an independent dataset consisting of measured dose profiles from seven treatment units spanning four manufacturers...
April 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429796/spatial-control-of-functional-response-in-4d-printed-active-metallic-structures
#11
Ji Ma, Brian Franco, Gustavo Tapia, Kubra Karayagiz, Luke Johnson, Jun Liu, Raymundo Arroyave, Ibrahim Karaman, Alaa Elwany
We demonstrate a method to achieve local control of 3-dimensional thermal history in a metallic alloy, which resulted in designed spatial variations in its functional response. A nickel-titanium shape memory alloy part was created with multiple shape-recovery stages activated at different temperatures using the selective laser melting technique. The multi-stage transformation originates from differences in thermal history, and thus the precipitate structure, at various locations created from controlled variations in the hatch distance within the same part...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428474/evaluation-of-absorbed-dose-for-cbct-in-image-guided-radiation-therapy-comparison-of-each-devices-and-facilities
#12
Yumiko Kitazato, Noriyuki Kuga, Katsutoshi Shirieda, Masahiro Enzaki, Yuji Nakaguchi, Yoshinobu Shimohigashi, Toshihisa Kawasaki, Masahiko Toyoda, Daisuke Kawahara, Fujio Araki, Shinji Kawamura
Recently, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used worldwide, highly accurate verification of the location using image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become critical. However, the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to ascertain the location each time raises concerns about its influence on radiotherapy dosage and increased radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to measure the absorbed dose using nine kilovoltage (kV) devices and two megavoltage (MV) devices (total 11 devices) at eight facilities, compare the absorbed dose among the devices, and assess the characteristics of the respective devices to ensure optimal clinical operation...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427840/aav-id-a-rapid-and-robust-assay-for-batch-to-batch-consistency-evaluation-of-aav-preparations
#13
Simon Pacouret, Mohammed Bouzelha, Rajani Shelke, Eva Andres-Mateos, Ru Xiao, Anna Maurer, Mathieu Mevel, Heikki Turunen, Trisha Barungi, Magalie Penaud-Budloo, Frédéric Broucque, Véronique Blouin, Philippe Moullier, Eduard Ayuso, Luk H Vandenberghe
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising clinical candidates for therapeutic gene transfer, and a number of AAV-based drugs may emerge on the market over the coming years. To insure the consistency in efficacy and safety of any drug vial that reaches the patient, regulatory agencies require extensive characterization of the final product. Identity is a key characteristic of a therapeutic product, as it ensures its proper labeling and batch-to-batch consistency. Currently, there is no facile, fast, and robust characterization assay enabling to probe the identity of AAV products at the protein level...
April 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427677/ultrasonic-hot-powder-compaction-of-ti-6al-4v
#14
Rezvan Abedini, Amir Abdullah, Yunes Alizadeh
Power ultrasonic has been recently employed in a wide variety of manufacturing processes among which ultrasonic assisted powder compaction is a promising powder materials processing technique with significant industrial applications. The products manufactured by the powder metallurgy commonly consist of residual porosities, material impurities, structural non-homogeneities and residual stress. In this paper, it is aimed to apply power ultrasonic to the hot consolidation process of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy powder in order to improve mechanical properties...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424777/influence-of-cellular-composition-and-exogenous-activation-on-growth-factor-and-cytokine-concentrations-in-canine-platelet-rich-plasmas
#15
Samuel P Franklin, Kate E Birdwhistell, Alena Strelchik, Bridget C Garner, Benjamin M Brainard
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate correlations among platelet, leukocyte, growth factor, and cytokine concentrations in canine platelet-rich plasmas (PRPs) produced from five different canine PRP-concentrating systems and (2) compare the effects of different activation protocols on platelet activation and growth factor release from one of these PRPs. METHODS: PRP was made using blood from 15 dogs and each of 5 different PRP systems in a cross-over design...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424770/recent-advances-in-bioink-design-for-3d-bioprinting-of-tissues-and-organs
#16
REVIEW
Shen Ji, Murat Guvendiren
There is a growing demand for alternative fabrication approaches to develop tissues and organs as conventional techniques are not capable of fabricating constructs with required structural, mechanical, and biological complexity. 3D bioprinting offers great potential to fabricate highly complex constructs with precise control of structure, mechanics, and biological matter [i.e., cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components]. 3D bioprinting is an additive manufacturing approach that utilizes a "bioink" to fabricate devices and scaffolds in a layer-by-layer manner...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423093/short-and-long-term-evaluation-of-the-efficiency-of-permanet%C3%A2-2-0-bed-net-against-environmental-factors-and-washing-using-bioassay-tests
#17
Mohammad Hassan Kayedi, Kiumars Khamisabadi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Zohreh Kayedi, Shirzad Fallahi, Nargess Abdali
The aim of the present study was to examine the resistance of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets against repeated washing and environmental factors by using bioassay tests. After 5, 15 and 21 washings with detergents and by using bioassay tests, the resistance of 40 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets was compared with that of 40 bed nets conventionally treated with one K-O tablet. To examine the long-term resistance, 31 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets were also distributed among villagers, and were re-collected to perform bioassay tests after 1, 2 and 5 years...
April 13, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422968/the-impact-of-a-point-of-care-testing-device-on-cvd-risk-assessment-completion-in-new-zealand-primary-care-practice-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-and-qualitative-investigation
#18
Sue Wells, Natasha Rafter, Timothy Kenealy, Geoff Herd, Kyle Eggleton, Rose Lightfoot, Kim Arcus, Angela Wadham, Yannan Jiang, Chris Bullen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of a point of care (POC) device for testing lipids and HbA1c in addition to testing by community laboratory facilities (usual practice) on the completion of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessments in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 20 New Zealand general practices stratified by size and rurality and randomised to POC device plus usual practice or usual practice alone (controls)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421875/three-dimensional-printing-and-its-applications-in-otorhinolaryngology-head-and-neck-surgery
#19
Trevor D Crafts, Susan E Ellsperman, Todd J Wannemuehler, Travis D Bellicchi, Taha Z Shipchandler, Avinash V Mantravadi
Objective Three-dimensional (3D)-printing technology is being employed in a variety of medical and surgical specialties to improve patient care and advance resident physician training. As the costs of implementing 3D printing have declined, the use of this technology has expanded, especially within surgical specialties. This article explores the types of 3D printing available, highlights the benefits and drawbacks of each methodology, provides examples of how 3D printing has been applied within the field of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, discusses future innovations, and explores the financial impact of these advances...
November 1, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419946/water-immiscible-bioinert-coatings-and-film-formation-from-aqueous-dispersions-of-poly-2-methoxyethyl-acrylate-microspheres
#20
Takuma Kureha, Seina Hiroshige, Shusuke Matsui, Daisuke Suzuki
Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (pMEA) microspheres are prepared through facile free-radical polymerization in water without additives and impurities, such as surfactants, other polymers, and organic solvents, which are usually used to synthesize pMEA chains. Clean and pure (non-factionalized and non-cross-linking) pMEA microspheres exhibit plasma-protein adsorption resistances on their surface regardless of their charged state. They are characterized in terms of the adsorbed amounts of proteins at pH 7. In addition, these soft and deformable pMEA microspheres are suitable for forming substrates coated with pMEA microspheres and free-standing films by injecting pMEA dispersion and evaporating the aqueous medium through fusion between the pMEA chains at the surface without the precoating agent and cross-linker...
April 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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