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electron beam melting

Guoyuan Li, Lei Wang, Wei Pan, Fei Yang, Wenbo Jiang, Xianbo Wu, Xiangdong Kong, Kerong Dai, Yongqiang Hao
Metallic implants with a low effective modulus can provide early load-bearing and reduce stress shielding, which is favorable for increasing in vivo life-span. In this research, porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with three pore sizes (300~400, 400~500, and 500~700 μm) were manufactured by Electron Beam Melting, with an elastic modulus range of 3.7 to 1.7 GPa. Cytocompatibility in vitro and osseointegration ability in vivo of scaffolds were assessed. hBMSCs numbers increased on all porous scaffolds over time. The group with intended pore sizes of 300 to 400 μm was significantly higher than that of the other two porous scaffolds at days 5 and 7...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
V J Rico, R Lahoz, F Rey-García, F Yubero, J P Espinós, G F de la Fuente, A R González-Elipe
This paper presents a new method for the fabrication of metal-like decorative layers on glazed ceramic tiles. It consists of the laser treatment of Cu thin films prepared by electron-beam evaporation at glancing angles. A thin film of discontinuous Cu nanoparticles was electron-beam-evaporated in an oblique angle configuration onto ceramic tiles and an ample palette of colors obtained by laser treatment both in air and in vacuum. Scanning electron microscopy along with UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis were used to characterize the differently colored layers...
September 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
A Yánez, A Herrera, O Martel, D Monopoli, H Afonso
Electron beam melting (EBM) was used to fabricate porous titanium alloy structures. The elastic modulus of these porous structures was similar to the elastic modulus of the cancellous human bone. Two types of cellular lattice structures were manufactured and tested: gyroids and diamonds. The design of the gyroid structures was determined by the main angle of the struts with respect to the axial direction. Thus, structures with angles of between 19 and 68.5° were manufactured. The aim of the design was to reduce the amount of material needed to fabricate a structure with the desired angles to increase the range of stiffness of the scaffolds...
November 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Andreas Thor, Anders Palmquist, Jan-Michaél Hirsch, Lars-Erik Rännar, Per Dérand, Omar Omar
There is limited information on the biological status of bone regenerated with microvascular fibula flap combined with biomaterials. This paper describes the clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and molecular picture of bone regenerated with patient-customized plate, used for mandibular reconstruction in combination with microvascular osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. The plate was virtually planned and additively manufactured using electron beam melting. This plate was retrieved from the patient after 33 months...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Ameya Rege, Maria Schestakow, Ilknur Karadagli, Lorenz Ratke, Mikhail Itskov
In this paper, a generalised micro-mechanical model capable of capturing the mechanical behaviour of polysaccharidic aerogels, in particular cellulose aerogels, is proposed. To this end, first the mechanical structure and properties of these highly nanoporous cellulose aerogels prepared from aqueous salt hydrate melts (calcium thiocyanate, Ca(SCN)2·6H2O and zinc chloride, ZnCl2·4H2O) are studied. The cellulose content within these aerogels is found to have a direct relation to the microstructural quantities such as the fibril length and diameter...
September 14, 2016: Soft Matter
Mayu Kawase, Tatsuhide Hayashi, Masaki Asakura, Masafumi Tomino, Akimichi Mieki, Tatsushi Kawai
The physical characteristics and biological compatibility of surfaces produced by electron beam melting (EBM) are not well known. In particular, there are not many reports on biocompatibility qualities. In this study, pure Ti films were manufactured using EBM. While it is reported that moderately hydrophilic biomaterial surfaces display improved cell growth and biocompatibility, contact angle measurements on the EBM-produced pure Ti films showed slight hydrophobicity. Nonetheless, we found the cell count of both fibroblast-like cells (L929) and osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) increased on pure Ti films, especially the MC3T3-E1, which increased more than that of the control...
October 2016: Cell Biology International
Hong Wang, Bingjing Zhao, Changkui Liu, Chao Wang, Xinying Tan, Min Hu
Electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) are two advanced rapid prototyping manufacturing technologies capable of fabricating complex structures and geometric shapes from metallic materials using computer tomography (CT) and Computer-aided Design (CAD) data. Compared to traditional technologies used for metallic products, EBM and SLM alter the mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which are closely related to the biocompatibility of metallic products. In this study, we evaluate and compare the biocompatibility, including cytocompatibility, haemocompatibility, skin irritation and skin sensitivity of Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM...
2016: PloS One
Masayuki Takashiri, Yuki Asai, Kazuki Yamauchi
We investigated the effects of homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing treatments on the structural, optical, and transport properties of bismuth telluride thin films. Bismuth telluride thin films were prepared by an RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. After deposition, the films were treated with homogeneous EB irradiation, thermal annealing, or a combination of both the treatments (two-step treatment). We employed Williamson-Hall analysis for separating the strain contribution from the crystallite domain contribution in the x-ray diffraction data of the films...
August 19, 2016: Nanotechnology
Chenyang Xing, Jingye Li, Chunming Yang, Yongjin Li
Polymer-based nanostructures can be generally created by self-assembly of block copolymers that are commonly synthesized by living radical polymerization. In this study, a new strategy is proposed to fabricate block-like copolymers by using the template of binary phase structure of semicrystalline polymers. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is thermodynamically miscible with an unsaturated ionic liquid (IL) (1-vinyl-3-ethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) in the melt and IL molecules are expelled out from the crystalline parts during the crystallization of PVDF...
July 4, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Nicola Vivienne Yorke Scarlett, Peter Tyson, Darren Fraser, Sheridan Mayo, Anton Maksimenko
Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies...
July 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Nicola Vivienne Yorke Scarlett, Peter Tyson, Darren Fraser, Sheridan Mayo, Anton Maksimenko
Synchrotron X-ray tomography has been applied to the study of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM). The AM method employed here was the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V), as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Samples were chosen to examine the effect of build direction and complexity of design on the surface morphology and final dimensions of the piece...
July 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
A Kumar, K C Nune, R D K Misra
The 3D printed metallic implants are considered bioinert in nature because of the absence of bioactive molecules. Thus, surface modification of bioinert materials is expected to favorably promote osteoblast functions and differentiation. In this context, the objective of this study is to fundamentally elucidate the effect of cell-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) ornamented 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds on biological functions, involving cell adhesion, proliferation, and synthesis of vinculin and actin proteins...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Jiwon Mun, Jaehyung Ju, James Thurman
One of the typical methods to manufacture 3D lattice metals is the direct-metal additive manufacturing (AM) process such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM). In spite of its potential processing capability, the direct AM method has several disadvantages such as high cost, poor surface finish of final products, limitation in material selection, high thermal stress, and anisotropic properties of parts. We propose a cost-effective method to manufacture 3D lattice metals. The objective of this study is to provide a detailed protocol on fabrication of 3D lattice metals having a complex shape and a thin wall thickness; e...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Eun-Kyung Park, Jun-Young Lim, In-Sik Yun, Ju-Seong Kim, Su-Heon Woo, Dong-Seok Kim, Kyu-Won Shim
The authors studied to demonstrate the efficacy of custom-made three-dimensional (3D)-printed titanium implants for reconstructing skull defects. From 2013 to 2015, 21 patients (8-62 years old, mean = 28.6-year old; 11 females and 10 males) with skull defects were treated. Total disease duration ranged from 6 to 168 months (mean = 33.6 months). The size of skull defects ranged from 84 × 104 to 154 × 193 mm. Custom-made implants were manufactured by Medyssey Co, Ltd (Jecheon, South Korea) using 3D computed tomography data, Mimics software, and an electron beam melting machine...
June 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Xipeng Tan, Yihong Kok, Wei Quan Toh, Yu Jun Tan, Marion Descoins, Dominique Mangelinck, Shu Beng Tor, Kah Fai Leong, Chee Kai Chua
As an important metal three-dimensional printing technology, electron beam melting (EBM) is gaining increasing attention due to its huge potential applications in aerospace and biomedical fields. EBM processing of Ti-6Al-4V as well as its microstructure and mechanical properties were extensively investigated. However, it is still lack of quantitative studies regarding its microstructural evolution, indicative of EBM thermal process. Here, we report α' martensitic transformation and α/β interface evolution in varied printing thicknesses of EBM-printed Ti-6Al-4V block samples by means of atom probe tomography...
2016: Scientific Reports
Felicia Suska, Göran Kjeller, Peter Tarnow, Eduard Hryha, Lars Nyborg, Anders Snis, Anders Palmquist
In the field of maxillofacial reconstruction, additive manufacturing technologies, specifically electron beam melting (EBM), offer clinicians the potential for patient-customized design of jaw prostheses, which match both load-bearing and esthetic demands. The technique allows an innovative, functional design, combining integrated porous regions for bone ingrowth and secondary biological fixation with solid load-bearing regions ensuring the biomechanical performance. A patient-specific mandibular prosthesis manufactured using EBM was successfully used to reconstruct a patient's mandibular defect after en bloc resection...
August 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Amandine Resano-Garcia, Yann Battie, Aotmane En Naciri, Nouari Chaoui
We studied the nanosecond laser-induced shape modifications of Ag colloids exposed to a converging laser beam during the ablation of a Ag target in water. To this end, we performed a series of laser ablation experiments in which the laser energy was varied while all other parameters were kept constant. In addition to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the shape distribution of the Ag nanoparticles was determined by modelling the extinction spectra of the final colloidal solutions using theoretical calculations based on shape distributed effective medium theory (SDEMT)...
May 27, 2016: Nanotechnology
Ui-Lyong Lee, Jae-Sung Kwon, Su-Heon Woo, Young-Jun Choi
A woman presented with a long history of mandibular defects posterior to the left lower first premolar caused by inadequate reconstruction after removal of a tumor on the left side of the mandible. In the frontal view, extreme facial asymmetry was apparent. The dental midline of the mandible was deviated 10 mm to the left compared with the dental midline of the maxilla, and all maxillary teeth were inclined to the left owing to dental compensation. There was an 8-mm maxillary occlusal cant relative to the maxillary first molar...
July 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Taichen Lin, Akira Aoki, Norihito Saito, Masaki Yumoto, Sadahiro Nakajima, Keigo Nagasaka, Shizuko Ichinose, Koji Mizutani, Satoshi Wada, Yuichi Izumi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mid-infrared erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) lasers (2.94- and 2.78-μm, respectively) are utilized for effective dental hard tissue treatment because of their high absorption in water, hydroxide ion, or both. Recently, a mid-infrared tunable, nanosecond pulsed, all-solid-state chromium-doped: cadmium-selenide (Cr:CdSe) laser system was developed, which enables laser oscillation in the broad spectral range around 2...
March 29, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Furqan A Shah, Omar Omar, Felicia Suska, Anders Snis, Aleksandar Matic, Lena Emanuelsson, Birgitta Norlindh, Jukka Lausmaa, Peter Thomsen, Anders Palmquist
UNLABELLED: In orthopaedic surgery, cobalt chromium (CoCr) based alloys are used extensively for their high strength and wear properties, but with concerns over stress shielding and bone resorption due to the high stiffness of CoCr. The structural stiffness, principally related to the bulk and the elastic modulus of the material, may be lowered by appropriate design modifications, to reduce the stiffness mismatch between metal/alloy implants and the adjacent bone. Here, 3D printed CoCr and Ti6Al4V implants of similar macro-geometry and interconnected open-pore architecture prepared by electron beam melting (EBM) were evaluated following 26week implantation in adult sheep femora...
May 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
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