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electron beam melting

J Ha, A Gallogly, J Cui, R Jennelle
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to show that Field's metal can be used as a viable alternative material to lead-based low-melting temperature alloys (e.g., Cerrobend) for electron beam inserts and blocks. The goal is to eliminate exposure risks associated with lead and cadmium. METHODS: Field's metal (51% Indium, 32.5% Bismuth, 16.5% Tin) is a low-melting point eutectic alloy, and is proposed as a lead-free replacement for Cadmium-free alloy (52.5% Bismuth, 32% Lead, 15...
June 2016: Medical Physics
B J Zhao, H Wang, R Z Yan, C Wang, R X Li, M Hu
Objective: To evaluate the surface characteristics and cytocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated using select laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) technique. Methods: Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens were fabricated with SLM and EBM. A wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was used as a control. Its properties were evaluated using component analysis, contact angle test, surface roughness, surface topography, cell ultrastructure, cell attachment and proliferation observation, metal ion precipitation examination...
December 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Anders Palmquist, Furqan A Shah, Lena Emanuelsson, Omar Omar, Felicia Suska
This paper investigates the application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to accurately evaluate bone formation within 3D printed, porous Ti6Al4V implants manufactured using Electron Beam Melting (EBM), retrieved after six months of healing in sheep femur and tibia. All samples were scanned twice (i.e., before and after resin embedding), using fast, low-resolution scans (Skyscan 1172; Bruker micro-CT, Kontich, Belgium), and were analysed by 2D and 3D morphometry. The main questions posed were: (i) Can low resolution, fast scans provide morphometric data of bone formed inside (and around) metal implants with a complex, open-pore architecture?, (ii) Can micro-CT be used to accurately quantify both the bone area (BA) and bone-implant contact (BIC)?, (iii) What degree of error is introduced in the quantitative data by varying the threshold values?, and (iv) Does resin embedding influence the accuracy of the analysis? To validate the accuracy of micro-CT measurements, each data set was correlated with a corresponding centrally cut histological section...
November 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
K C Nune, A Kumar, R D K Misra, S J Li, Y L Hao, R Yang
We elucidate here the osteoblasts functions and cellular activity in 3D printed interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient Ti-6Al-4V alloy mesh structures in terms of cell proliferation and growth, distribution of cell nuclei, synthesis of proteins (actin, vinculin, and fibronectin), and calcium deposition. Cell culture studies with pre-osteoblasts indicated that the interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient mesh arrays was conducive to osteoblast functions. However, there were statistically significant differences in the cellular response depending on the pore size in the functionally gradient structure...
November 18, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
K C Nune, R D K Misra, S J Li, Y L Hao, R Yang
Titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb) are widely used for implants, which are characterized by high elastic modulus (∼110 GPa) with (α + β) structure and that may induce undesirable stress shielding effect and immune responses associated with the presence of toxic elements. In this regard, we have combined the attributes of a new alloy design and the concept of additive manufacturing to fabricate 3D scaffolds with an interconnected porous structure. The new alloy is a β-type Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy with significantly reduced modulus...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
M Kuhn, M Renzler, J Postler, S Ralser, S Spieler, M Simpson, H Linnartz, A G G M Tielens, J Cami, A Mauracher, Y Wang, M Alcamí, F Martín, M K Beyer, R Wester, A Lindinger, P Scheier
Helium has a unique phase diagram and below 25 bar it does not form a solid even at the lowest temperatures. Electrostriction leads to the formation of a solid layer of helium around charged impurities at much lower pressures in liquid and superfluid helium. These so-called 'Atkins snowballs' have been investigated for several simple ions. Here we form HenC60(+) complexes with n exceeding 100 via electron ionization of helium nanodroplets doped with C60. Photofragmentation of these complexes is measured by merging a tunable narrow-bandwidth laser beam with the ions...
November 22, 2016: Nature Communications
H Wang, B J Zhao, R Z Yan, C Wang, C C Luo, M Hu
Objective: To investigate the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by electron beam melting(EBM). Methods: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSC) co-cultured with Ti-6Al-4V specimens fabricated with EBM was prepared as experimental group and the regular cells culture was employed as control. The biocompatibility was detected using CCK-8 and cytoskeleton staining. The osteogenic differentiation ability was assessed using mineralization nodule formation. A 24 mm defect was created on the right mandibular body in 12 beagles...
November 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
R Z Yan, Y F Li, C Wang, R X Li, Z W Liu, M Hu
Objective: To examine the biomechanical properties of three-dimensional(3D) printed electron beam melting(EBM) Ti-6Al-4V mesh as scaffold for mandibular repairment. Methods: We fabricated Ti-6Al-4V samples of different structures with strut, sheet and 3D mesh scaffolds(a controllable diameter 0.35, 0.50, 0.70 mm, distribution density: intensive sparse) by EBM process. The mechanical properties of these structures were examined by X-ray energy dispersive spectrum(EDS), uniaxial tensile test, three-point bending test, under compression load and compared with their different microstructure and mechanical properties...
November 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Hao Liu, Wei Li, Can Liu, Jie Tan, Hong Wang, Bao Hai, Hong Cai, Hui-Jie Leng, Zhong-Jun Liu, Chun-Li Song
Three-dimensional porous titanium alloys printed via electron beam melting have low stiffness similar to that of cortical bone and are promising scaffolds for orthopedic applications. However, the bio-inert nature of titanium alloy is poorly compatible with bone ingrowth. We previously observed that simvastatin/poloxamer 407 thermosensitive hydrogel induces endogenous angiogenic/osteogenic growth factors and promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis, but the mechanical properties of this hydrogel are poor. The purpose of this study was to construct 3D-printed porous titanium scaffolds (pTi scaffolds) filled with simvastatin/hydrogel and evaluate the effects of this composite on osseointegration, bone ingrowth and neovascularization using a tibial defect rabbit model...
October 27, 2016: Biofabrication
Dmitry Serebrennikov, Evgeny Clementyev, Alexander Semenov, Anatoly Snigirev
A quantitative analysis of the crucial characteristics of currently used and promising materials for X-ray refractive optics is performed in the extended energy range 8-100 keV. According to the examined parameters, beryllium is the material of choice for X-ray compound refractive lenses (CRLs) in the energy range 8-25 keV. At higher energies the use of CRLs made of diamond and the cubic phase of boron nitride (c-BN) is beneficial. It was demonstrated that the presence of the elements of the fourth (or higher) period has a fatal effect on the functional X-ray properties even if low-Z elements dominate in the compound, like in YB66...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Bingjing Zhao, Hong Wang, Ning Qiao, Chao Wang, Min Hu
The purpose of this study is to determine the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated with electron beam melting and selective laser melting for implantation in vivo. Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens were fabricated with electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM). A wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was used as a control. Surface morphology observation, component analysis, corrosion resistance experimental results, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, crevice corrosion resistance experimental results, immersion test and metal ions precipitation analysis were processed, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Guoyuan Li, Lei Wang, Wei Pan, Fei Yang, Wenbo Jiang, Xianbo Wu, Xiangdong Kong, Kerong Dai, Yongqiang Hao
Metallic implants with a low effective modulus can provide early load-bearing and reduce stress shielding, which is favorable for increasing in vivo life-span. In this research, porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds with three pore sizes (300~400, 400~500, and 500~700 μm) were manufactured by Electron Beam Melting, with an elastic modulus range of 3.7 to 1.7 GPa. Cytocompatibility in vitro and osseointegration ability in vivo of scaffolds were assessed. hBMSCs numbers increased on all porous scaffolds over time. The group with intended pore sizes of 300 to 400 μm was significantly higher than that of the other two porous scaffolds at days 5 and 7...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
V J Rico, R Lahoz, F Rey-García, F Yubero, J P Espinós, G F de la Fuente, A R González-Elipe
This paper presents a new method for the fabrication of metal-like decorative layers on glazed ceramic tiles. It consists of the laser treatment of Cu thin films prepared by electron-beam evaporation at glancing angles. A thin film of discontinuous Cu nanoparticles was electron-beam-evaporated in an oblique angle configuration onto ceramic tiles and an ample palette of colors obtained by laser treatment both in air and in vacuum. Scanning electron microscopy along with UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis were used to characterize the differently colored layers...
September 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
A Yánez, A Herrera, O Martel, D Monopoli, H Afonso
Electron beam melting (EBM) was used to fabricate porous titanium alloy structures. The elastic modulus of these porous structures was similar to the elastic modulus of the cancellous human bone. Two types of cellular lattice structures were manufactured and tested: gyroids and diamonds. The design of the gyroid structures was determined by the main angle of the struts with respect to the axial direction. Thus, structures with angles of between 19 and 68.5° were manufactured. The aim of the design was to reduce the amount of material needed to fabricate a structure with the desired angles to increase the range of stiffness of the scaffolds...
November 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Andreas Thor, Anders Palmquist, Jan-Michaél Hirsch, Lars-Erik Rännar, Per Dérand, Omar Omar
There is limited information on the biological status of bone regenerated with microvascular fibula flap combined with biomaterials. This paper describes the clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and molecular picture of bone regenerated with patient-customized plate, used for mandibular reconstruction in combination with microvascular osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. The plate was virtually planned and additively manufactured using electron beam melting. This plate was retrieved from the patient after 33 months...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Ameya Rege, Maria Schestakow, Ilknur Karadagli, Lorenz Ratke, Mikhail Itskov
In this paper, a generalised micro-mechanical model capable of capturing the mechanical behaviour of polysaccharidic aerogels, in particular cellulose aerogels, is proposed. To this end, first the mechanical structure and properties of these highly nanoporous cellulose aerogels prepared from aqueous salt hydrate melts (calcium thiocyanate, Ca(SCN)2·6H2O and zinc chloride, ZnCl2·4H2O) are studied. The cellulose content within these aerogels is found to have a direct relation to the microstructural quantities such as the fibril length and diameter...
September 14, 2016: Soft Matter
Mayu Kawase, Tatsuhide Hayashi, Masaki Asakura, Masafumi Tomino, Akimichi Mieki, Tatsushi Kawai
The physical characteristics and biological compatibility of surfaces produced by electron beam melting (EBM) are not well known. In particular, there are not many reports on biocompatibility qualities. In this study, pure Ti films were manufactured using EBM. While it is reported that moderately hydrophilic biomaterial surfaces display improved cell growth and biocompatibility, contact angle measurements on the EBM-produced pure Ti films showed slight hydrophobicity. Nonetheless, we found the cell count of both fibroblast-like cells (L929) and osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) increased on pure Ti films, especially the MC3T3-E1, which increased more than that of the control...
October 2016: Cell Biology International
Hong Wang, Bingjing Zhao, Changkui Liu, Chao Wang, Xinying Tan, Min Hu
Electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) are two advanced rapid prototyping manufacturing technologies capable of fabricating complex structures and geometric shapes from metallic materials using computer tomography (CT) and Computer-aided Design (CAD) data. Compared to traditional technologies used for metallic products, EBM and SLM alter the mechanical, physical and chemical properties, which are closely related to the biocompatibility of metallic products. In this study, we evaluate and compare the biocompatibility, including cytocompatibility, haemocompatibility, skin irritation and skin sensitivity of Ti6Al4V fabricated by EBM and SLM...
2016: PloS One
Masayuki Takashiri, Yuki Asai, Kazuki Yamauchi
We investigated the effects of homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing treatments on the structural, optical, and transport properties of bismuth telluride thin films. Bismuth telluride thin films were prepared by an RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. After deposition, the films were treated with homogeneous EB irradiation, thermal annealing, or a combination of both the treatments (two-step treatment). We employed Williamson-Hall analysis for separating the strain contribution from the crystallite domain contribution in the x-ray diffraction data of the films...
August 19, 2016: Nanotechnology
Chenyang Xing, Jingye Li, Chunming Yang, Yongjin Li
Polymer-based nanostructures can be generally created by self-assembly of block copolymers that are commonly synthesized by living radical polymerization. In this study, a new strategy is proposed to fabricate block-like copolymers by using the template of binary phase structure of semicrystalline polymers. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is thermodynamically miscible with an unsaturated ionic liquid (IL) (1-vinyl-3-ethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) in the melt and IL molecules are expelled out from the crystalline parts during the crystallization of PVDF...
October 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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