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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494040/micro-to-macroroughness-of-additively-manufactured-titanium-implants-in-terms-of-coagulation-and-contact-activation
#1
Rebecca Klingvall Ek, Jaan Hong, Andreas Thor, Mikael Bäckström, Lars-Erik Rännar
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate how as-built electron beam melting (EBM) surface properties affect the onset of blood coagulation. The properties of EBM-manufactured implant surfaces for placement have, until now, remained largely unexplored in literature. Implants with conventional designs and custom-made implants have been manufactured using EBM technology and later placed into the human body. Many of the conventional implants used today, such as dental implants, display modified surfaces to optimize bone ingrowth, whereas custom-made implants, by and large, have machined surfaces...
May 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490947/preliminary-fabrication-and-characterization-of-electron-beam-melted-ti-6al-4v-customized-dental-implant
#2
Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Kheraif, Ashfaq Mohammad, Darshan Devang Divakar, Sunil Babu Kotha, Sree Lalita Celur, Mohamed I Hashem, Pekka K Vallittu, Ihtesham Ur Rehman
The current study was aimed to fabricate customized root form dental implant using additive manufacturing technique for the replacement of missing teeth. The root form dental implant was designed using Geomagic™ and Magics™, the designed implant was directly manufactured by layering technique using ARCAM A2™ electron beam melting system by employing medical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder. Furthermore, the fabricated implant was characterized in terms of certain clinically important parameters such as surface microstructure, surface topography, chemical purity and internal porosity...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482501/metallic-powder-bed-based-3d-printing-of-cellular-scaffolds-for-orthopaedic-implants-a-state-of-the-art-review-on-manufacturing-topological-design-mechanical-properties-and-biocompatibility
#3
REVIEW
X P Tan, Y J Tan, C S L Chow, S B Tor, W Y Yeong
Metallic cellular scaffold is one of the best choices for orthopaedic implants as a replacement of human body parts, which could improve life quality and increase longevity for the people needed. Unlike conventional methods of making cellular scaffolds, three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing opens up new possibilities to fabricate those customisable intricate designs with highly interconnected pores. In the past decade, metallic powder-bed based 3D printing methods emerged and the techniques are becoming increasingly mature recently, where selective laser melting (SLM) and selective electron beam melting (SEBM) are the two representatives...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409334/investigation-of-x-ray-focal-spot-alignment-using-a-jig-of-novel-design
#4
Lockie Yuen, Cameron McLucas
The X-ray focal spot and the centre of the flattening filter should be placed as close as possible to the central axis (CAX) on a linear accelerator (linac) to produce a radially symmetric beam. The aim of this study is to devise a method to easily optimise the focal spot position of Varian linac photon beams generated with a flattening filter. A simple and robust jig was designed and built to be inserted into the largest electron applicator. Accessory and jaw position interlocks were overridden to enable photon beam operation...
April 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352885/enhanced-emission-of-encaged-oh-free-ca12-1-x-sr12xal14o33-0-1-gd-3-conductive-phosphors-via-tuning-the-encaged-electron-concentration-for-low-voltage-feds
#5
Meng Zhang, Yuxue Liu, Jian Yang, Hancheng Zhu, Duanting Yan, Xinyang Zhang, Chunguang Liu, Changshan Xu, Hong Zhang
Encaged-OH(-)-free Ca12(1-x)Sr12xAl14O33:0.1%Gd(3+) conductive phosphors were prepared through a melt-solidification process in combination with a subsequent heat treatment. Absorption spectra showed that the maximum encaged-electron concentration was increased to 1.08 × 10(21) cm(-3) through optimizing the doping amount of Sr(2+) (x = 0.005). Meanwhile, FTIR and Raman spectra indicated that pure Ca11.94Sr0.06Al14O33:0.1%Gd(3+) conductive phosphor without encaged OH(-) and C2(2-) anions was acquired. For the conductive powders heat-treated in air for different times, the encaged-electron concentrations were tuned from 1...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259731/open-cellular-metal-implant-design-and-fabrication-for-biomechanical-compatibility-with-bone-using-electron-beam-melting
#6
L E Murr
Implant history extends more than 4000 years in antiquity, with biocompatible alloy implants extending over only 70 years. Over the past several decades, total hip and knee replacements of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys have exhibited post implantation life spans extending over 15 years; limited by infection, loosening, stress-shielding-related bone resorption and other mechanical failures. With the advent of additive manufacturing technologies, such as electron beam melting (EBM) over the past decade, personalized, patient-specific; porous (open-cellular) implant components can be manufactured, and the integration of chemical, biological and mechanical methods is able to optimize strategies for improving long-term clinical outcomes...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211998/nanojoint-formation-between-ceramic-titanate-nanowires-and-spot-melting-of-metal-nanowires-with-electron-beam
#7
Arixin Bo, Jose Alarco, Huaiyong Zhu, Eric R Waclawik, Haifei Zhan, YuanTong Gu
Construction of nanoarchitectures requires techniques like joint formation and trimming. For ceramic materials, however, it is extremely difficult to form nanojoints by conventional methods like merging. In this work, we demonstrate that ceramic titanate nanowires (NWs) can be joined by spot melting under electron beam (e-beam) irradiation (EBI). The irradiation fuses the contacted spot of titanate NWs yielding an intact nanojoint. Nanojoints with different morphologies can be produced. The joint structures consist of titanium dioxide (TiO2) rutile, anatase, and titanate phases in the direction away from the e-beam melting spot...
March 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197824/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-surface-topography-evaluation-of-additive-manufacturing-titanium-implant-materials
#8
Jukka T Tuomi, Roy V Björkstrand, Mikael L Pernu, Mika V J Salmi, Eero I Huotilainen, Jan E H Wolff, Pekka K Vallittu, Antti A Mäkitie
Custom-designed patient-specific implants and reconstruction plates are to date commonly manufactured using two different additive manufacturing (AM) technologies: direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and electron beam melting (EBM). The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the surface structure and to assess the cytotoxicity of titanium alloys processed using DMLS and EBM technologies as the existing information on these issues is scarce. "Processed" and "polished" DMLS and EBM disks were assessed...
March 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195226/controlled-growth-of-hexagonal-gold-nanostructures-during-thermally-induced-self-assembling-on-ge-001-surface
#9
B R Jany, N Gauquelin, T Willhammar, M Nikiel, K H W van den Bos, A Janas, K Szajna, J Verbeeck, S Van Aert, G Van Tendeloo, F Krok
Nano-sized gold has become an important material in various fields of science and technology, where control over the size and crystallography is desired to tailor the functionality. Gold crystallizes in the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase, and its hexagonal closed packed (hcp) structure is a very unusual and rare phase. Stable Au hcp phase has been reported to form in nanoparticles at the tips of some Ge nanowires. It has also recently been synthesized in the form of thin graphene-supported sheets which are unstable under electron beam irradiation...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194017/in-situ-study-on-atomic-mechanism-of-melting-and-freezing-of-single-bismuth-nanoparticles
#10
Yingxuan Li, Ling Zang, Daniel L Jacobs, Jie Zhao, Xiu Yue, Chuanyi Wang
Experimental study of the atomic mechanism in melting and freezing processes remains a formidable challenge. We report herein on a unique material system that allows for in situ growth of bismuth nanoparticles from the precursor compound SrBi2Ta2O9 under an electron beam within a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Simultaneously, the melting and freezing processes within the nanoparticles are triggered and imaged in real time by the HRTEM. The images show atomic-scale evidence for point defect induced melting, and a freezing mechanism mediated by crystallization of an intermediate ordered liquid...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120065/skull-bone-defects-reconstruction-with-custom-made-titanium-graft-shaped-with-electron-beam-melting-technology-preliminary-experience-in-a-series-of-ten-patients
#11
Natale Francaviglia, Rosario Maugeri, Antonino Odierna Contino, Francesco Meli, Vito Fiorenza, Gabriele Costantino, Roberto Giuseppe Giammalva, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty represents a challenge in neurosurgery. Its goal is not only plastic reconstruction of the skull but also to restore and preserve cranial function, to improve cerebral hemodynamics, and to provide mechanical protection of the neural structures. The ideal material for the reconstructive procedures and the surgical timing are still controversial. Many alloplastic materials are available for performing cranioplasty and among these, titanium still represents a widely proven and accepted choice...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047367/su-f-t-88-field-s-metal-for-electron-beam-inserts-and-blocks
#12
J Ha, A Gallogly, J Cui, R Jennelle
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to show that Field's metal can be used as a viable alternative material to lead-based low-melting temperature alloys (e.g., Cerrobend) for electron beam inserts and blocks. The goal is to eliminate exposure risks associated with lead and cadmium. METHODS: Field's metal (51% Indium, 32.5% Bismuth, 16.5% Tin) is a low-melting point eutectic alloy, and is proposed as a lead-free replacement for Cadmium-free alloy (52.5% Bismuth, 32% Lead, 15...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978917/-comparison-of-surface-characteristics-and-cytocompatibility-of-ti-6al-4v-alloy-fabricated-with-select-laser-melting-and-electron-beam-melting
#13
B J Zhao, H Wang, R Z Yan, C Wang, R X Li, M Hu
Objective: To evaluate the surface characteristics and cytocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fabricated using select laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) technique. Methods: Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens were fabricated with SLM and EBM. A wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was used as a control. Its properties were evaluated using component analysis, contact angle test, surface roughness, surface topography, cell ultrastructure, cell attachment and proliferation observation, metal ion precipitation examination...
December 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960108/a-technique-for-evaluating-bone-ingrowth-into-3d-printed-porous-ti6al4v-implants-accurately-using-x-ray-micro-computed-tomography-and-histomorphometry
#14
Anders Palmquist, Furqan A Shah, Lena Emanuelsson, Omar Omar, Felicia Suska
This paper investigates the application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to accurately evaluate bone formation within 3D printed, porous Ti6Al4V implants manufactured using Electron Beam Melting (EBM), retrieved after six months of healing in sheep femur and tibia. All samples were scanned twice (i.e., before and after resin embedding), using fast, low-resolution scans (Skyscan 1172; Bruker micro-CT, Kontich, Belgium), and were analysed by 2D and 3D morphometry. The main questions posed were: (i) Can low resolution, fast scans provide morphometric data of bone formed inside (and around) metal implants with a complex, open-pore architecture?, (ii) Can micro-CT be used to accurately quantify both the bone area (BA) and bone-implant contact (BIC)?, (iii) What degree of error is introduced in the quantitative data by varying the threshold values?, and (iv) Does resin embedding influence the accuracy of the analysis? To validate the accuracy of micro-CT measurements, each data set was correlated with a corresponding centrally cut histological section...
November 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888725/functional-response-of-osteoblasts-in-functionally-gradient-titanium-alloy-mesh-arrays-processed-by-3d-additive-manufacturing
#15
K C Nune, A Kumar, R D K Misra, S J Li, Y L Hao, R Yang
We elucidate here the osteoblasts functions and cellular activity in 3D printed interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient Ti-6Al-4V alloy mesh structures in terms of cell proliferation and growth, distribution of cell nuclei, synthesis of proteins (actin, vinculin, and fibronectin), and calcium deposition. Cell culture studies with pre-osteoblasts indicated that the interconnected porous architecture of functionally gradient mesh arrays was conducive to osteoblast functions. However, there were statistically significant differences in the cellular response depending on the pore size in the functionally gradient structure...
February 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885781/cellular-response-of-osteoblasts-to-low-modulus-ti-24nb-4zr-8sn-alloy-mesh-structure
#16
K C Nune, R D K Misra, S J Li, Y L Hao, R Yang
Titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb) are widely used for implants, which are characterized by high elastic modulus (∼110 GPa) with (α + β) structure and that may induce undesirable stress shielding effect and immune responses associated with the presence of toxic elements. In this regard, we have combined the attributes of a new alloy design and the concept of additive manufacturing to fabricate 3D scaffolds with an interconnected porous structure. The new alloy is a β-type Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy with significantly reduced modulus...
March 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874002/atomically-resolved-phase-transition-of-fullerene-cations-solvated-in-helium-droplets
#17
M Kuhn, M Renzler, J Postler, S Ralser, S Spieler, M Simpson, H Linnartz, A G G M Tielens, J Cami, A Mauracher, Y Wang, M Alcamí, F Martín, M K Beyer, R Wester, A Lindinger, P Scheier
Helium has a unique phase diagram and below 25 bar it does not form a solid even at the lowest temperatures. Electrostriction leads to the formation of a solid layer of helium around charged impurities at much lower pressures in liquid and superfluid helium. These so-called 'Atkins snowballs' have been investigated for several simple ions. Here we form HenC60(+) complexes with n exceeding 100 via electron ionization of helium nanodroplets doped with C60. Photofragmentation of these complexes is measured by merging a tunable narrow-bandwidth laser beam with the ions...
November 22, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806759/-evaluation-of-biocompatibility-of-ti-6al-4v-scaffolds-fabricated-by-electron-beam-melting
#18
H Wang, B J Zhao, R Z Yan, C Wang, C C Luo, M Hu
Objective: To investigate the biocompatibility of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by electron beam melting(EBM). Methods: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSC) co-cultured with Ti-6Al-4V specimens fabricated with EBM was prepared as experimental group and the regular cells culture was employed as control. The biocompatibility was detected using CCK-8 and cytoskeleton staining. The osteogenic differentiation ability was assessed using mineralization nodule formation. A 24 mm defect was created on the right mandibular body in 12 beagles...
November 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806757/-a-preliminary-study-on-the-mechanical-characteristics-of-the-titanium-scaffolds-with-three-dimensional-mesh-structure-fabricated-by-electron-beam-melting
#19
R Z Yan, Y F Li, C Wang, R X Li, Z W Liu, M Hu
Objective: To examine the biomechanical properties of three-dimensional(3D) printed electron beam melting(EBM) Ti-6Al-4V mesh as scaffold for mandibular repairment. Methods: We fabricated Ti-6Al-4V samples of different structures with strut, sheet and 3D mesh scaffolds(a controllable diameter 0.35, 0.50, 0.70 mm, distribution density: intensive sparse) by EBM process. The mechanical properties of these structures were examined by X-ray energy dispersive spectrum(EDS), uniaxial tensile test, three-point bending test, under compression load and compared with their different microstructure and mechanical properties...
November 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788122/incorporating-simvastatin-poloxamer-407-hydrogel-into-3d-printed-porous-ti6al4v-scaffolds-for-the-promotion-of-angiogenesis-osseointegration-and-bone-ingrowth
#20
Hao Liu, Wei Li, Can Liu, Jie Tan, Hong Wang, Bao Hai, Hong Cai, Hui-Jie Leng, Zhong-Jun Liu, Chun-Li Song
Three-dimensional porous titanium alloys printed via electron beam melting have low stiffness similar to that of cortical bone and are promising scaffolds for orthopedic applications. However, the bio-inert nature of titanium alloy is poorly compatible with bone ingrowth. We previously observed that simvastatin/poloxamer 407 thermosensitive hydrogel induces endogenous angiogenic/osteogenic growth factors and promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis, but the mechanical properties of this hydrogel are poor. The purpose of this study was to construct 3D-printed porous titanium scaffolds (pTi scaffolds) filled with simvastatin/hydrogel and evaluate the effects of this composite on osseointegration, bone ingrowth and neovascularization using a tibial defect rabbit model...
October 27, 2016: Biofabrication
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