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sensory attenuation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782958/changes-in-behavioural-parameters-oxidative-stress-and-neurotrophins-in-the-brain-of-adult-offspring-induced-to-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-the-effects-of-fa-deficient-or-fa-supplemented-diet-during-the-neurodevelopmental-phase
#1
L Canever, T G Freire, G A Mastella, L Damázio, S Gomes, I Fachim, C Michels, G Carvalho, A K Godói, B R Peterle, F F Gava, S Valvassori Sda, J Budni, J Quevedo, A I Zugno
A deficiency of maternal folic acid (FA) can compromise the function and development of the brain, and may produce a susceptibility to diseases such as schizophrenia (SZ) in the later life of offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of both FA deficient and FA supplemented diets during gestation and lactation on behavioural parameters, the markers of oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors in adult offspring which had been subjected to an animal model of SZ. Female mother rats (Dam's) were separated into experimental maternal groups, which began receiving a special diet (food) consisting of the AIN-93 diet, a control diet, or an FA deficient diet during the periods of pregnancy and lactation...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773008/antimicrobial-cytotoxic-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-activity-of-culinary-processed-shiitake-medicinal-mushroom-lentinus-edodes-agaricomycetes-and-its-major-sulfur-sensory-active-compound-lenthionine
#2
Kristyna Kupcova, Iveta Stefanova, Zuzana Plavcova, Jan Hosek, Pavel Hrouzek, Roman Kubec
The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of raw and culinary processed shiitake mushrooms were evaluated and compared with those of lenthionine (1,2,3,5,6-penta-thiepane), the principal aroma-bearing substance of the shiitake medicinal mushroom (Lentinus edodes). Antimicrobial activity was tested using a panel of 4 strains of bacteria, 2 yeasts, and 2 fungi. Cytotoxic properties were evaluated against 3 cell lines (HepG2, HeLa, PaTu), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of tested samples was assayed based on their ability to attenuate the secretion of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767748/glial-activation-and-central-synapse-loss-but-not-motoneuron-degeneration-are-prevented-by-the-sigma-1-receptor-agonist-pre-084-in-the-smn2b-mouse-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#3
Clàudia Cerveró, Alba Blasco, Olga Tarabal, Anna Casanovas, Lídia Piedrafita, Xavier Navarro, Josep E Esquerda, Jordi Calderó
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by the loss of α-motoneurons (MNs) with concomitant muscle denervation. MN excitability and vulnerability to disease are particularly regulated by cholinergic synaptic afferents (C-boutons), in which Sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) is concentrated. Alterations in Sig1R have been associated with MN degeneration. Here, we investigated whether a chronic treatment with the Sig1R agonist PRE-084 was able to exert beneficial effects on SMA. We used a model of intermediate SMA, the Smn2B/- mouse, in which we performed a detailed characterization of the histopathological changes that occur throughout the disease...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759144/tropisetron-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-sp-nk1r-signaling-pathway
#4
Yan Yu, Wanhu Zhu, Qing Liang, Jing Liu, Xu Yang, Guangchun Sun
Tropisetron, an antagonist of serotonin type 3 receptors (5-HT3 Rs), has been investigated in colonic inflammatory process. Since substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor (SP/NK1R) signaling pathway plays a key role in several sensory neuronal inflammatory. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of tropisetron in mice cerebral cortex, and discovered that it was a potential inhibitor in LPS-mediated neuron inflammation through SP/NK1R signaling pathway. We found that tropisetron significantly reduced the increased number of iba-1 positive microglia, down-regulated the gene transcription and protein expression of IL-1β,IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS stimulated cerebral cortex...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755934/physical-activity-levels-of-adults-with-various-physical-disabilities
#5
Ellen L de Hollander, Karin I Proper
This study examined the physical activity (PA) levels of people with specific disabilities, using health care registration data. Data of 321,656 adults (83%) from the Dutch Public Health Monitor 2012 were used to assess adherence to the World Health Organization (WHO) PA guidelines (%) and the time (min/week) spent on moderate-to-vigorous-intensity and vigorous-intensity PA. Specific physical and sensory (i.e. vision and hearing) disabilities were identified by means of two health claims registries that include reimbursement of functional aids and long-term care...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751679/effect-of-processing-on-postprandial-glycemic-response-and-consumer-acceptability-of-lentil-containing-food-items
#6
D Dan Ramdath, Thomas M S Wolever, Yaw Chris Siow, Donna Ryland, Aileen Hawke, Carla Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Michel Aliani
The consumption of pulses is associated with many health benefits. This study assessed post-prandial blood glucose response (PPBG) and the acceptability of food items containing green lentils. In human trials we: (i) defined processing methods (boiling, pureeing, freezing, roasting, spray-drying) that preserve the PPBG-lowering feature of lentils; (ii) used an appropriate processing method to prepare lentil food items, and compared the PPBG and relative glycemic responses (RGR) of lentil and control foods; and (iii) conducted consumer acceptability of the lentil foods...
May 11, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744667/vagus-nerve-stimulation-exerts-cardioprotection-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-predominantly-through-its-efferent-vagal-fibers
#7
Watthana Nuntaphum, Wanpitak Pongkan, Suwakon Wongjaikam, Savitree Thummasorn, Pongpan Tanajak, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Kannaporn Intachai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to exert cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, whether the cardioprotection of VNS is mainly due to direct activation through its ipsilateral efferent fibers (motor) rather than indirect effects mediated by the afferent fibers (sensory) have not been clearly understood. We hypothesized that VNS exerts cardioprotection predominantly through its efferent vagal fibers. Thirty swine (30-35 kg) were randomized into five groups: I/R no VNS (I/R), and left mid-cervical VNS with both vagal trunks intact (LC-VNS), with left vagus nerve transection (LtVNX), with right vagus nerve transection (RtVNX) and with atropine pretreatment (Atropine), respectively...
May 9, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738617/sensory-attenuation-of-self-produced-signals-does-not-rely-on-self-specific-motor-predictions
#8
Jakob Kaiser, Simone Schütz-Bosbach
Sensory events produced by ourselves are known to lead to lower neural and perceptual impact than sensory events from other environmental sources. This sensory attenuation is widely assumed to result from control processes that are specific to our own motor actions, potentially helping us to distinguish effects produced by ourselves and others. However, previous research cannot rule out that the putative self-attenuation in fact reflect actor-independent, general predictive mechanisms, which, in direct comparison, just highlight external events due to lower predictability of their onset and thus higher surprise...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735654/identification-of-cytokine-specific-sensory-neural-signals-by-decoding-murine-vagus-nerve-activity
#9
Theodoros P Zanos, Harold A Silverman, Todd Levy, Tea Tsaava, Emily Battinelli, Peter W Lorraine, Jeffrey M Ashe, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey, Chad E Bouton
The nervous system maintains physiological homeostasis through reflex pathways that modulate organ function. This process begins when changes in the internal milieu (e.g., blood pressure, temperature, or pH) activate visceral sensory neurons that transmit action potentials along the vagus nerve to the brainstem. IL-1β and TNF, inflammatory cytokines produced by immune cells during infection and injury, and other inflammatory mediators have been implicated in activating sensory action potentials in the vagus nerve...
May 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729592/role-of-inter-trial-phase-coherence-in-atypical-auditory-evoked-potentials-to-speech-and-nonspeech-stimuli-in-children-with-autism
#10
Luodi Yu, Suiping Wang, Dan Huang, Xueyuan Wu, Yang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This autism study investigated how inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) drives abnormalities in auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses for speech and nonspeech stimuli. METHODS: Auditory P1-N2 responses and ITPCs in the theta band (4-7 Hz) for pure tones and words were assessed with EEG data from 15 school-age children with autism and 16 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls. RESULTS: The autism group showed enhanced P1 and reduced N2 for both speech and nonspeech stimuli in comparison with the TD group...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728858/amelioration-of-lactic-acid-sensations-in-sensitive-skin-by-stimulating-the-barrier-function-and-improving-the-ceramide-profile
#11
Hiroshi Nojiri, Koichi Ishida, Xueqiu Yao, Wei Liu, Genji Imokawa
We determined whether compensating ceramides in the stratum corneum (SC) may ameliorate the impaired barrier function and subsequently attenuate the enhanced skin sensitivity. Treatment for 4 weeks with the ceramide complex cream or the placebo cream significantly ameliorated the intensity of lactic acid sensations in 39 female subjects with sensitive skin, the degree of which was attenuated to a greater extent at 1 week by the ceramide complex cream compared with the placebo cream. The amelioration of skin sensations was accompanied by a significant increase in total ceramide content in the SC elicited by the ceramide complex cream that was significantly more effective than the placebo cream at 4 weeks...
May 4, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722912/region-specific-deletions-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt1-differentially-affect-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#12
Zhuoyang Zhao, Yuichi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Ogawa, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter and plays an important role in neuropathic pain, which is frequently caused by nerve damage. According to recent studies, nerve injury induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in the spinal cord and several supraspinal regions, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Among glutamate signaling components, accumulating evidence suggests that the glial glutamate transporter GLT1 plays a critical role in neuropathic pain. Indeed, GLT1 expression is reduced in the spinal cord but increased in the PAG after nerve injury, suggesting that the role of GLT1 in neuropathic pain may vary according to the brain region...
May 3, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720932/influence-of-musical-enculturation-on-brain-responses-to-metric-deviants
#13
Niels T Haumann, Peter Vuust, Freja Bertelsen, Eduardo A Garza-Villarreal
The ability to recognize metric accents is fundamental in both music and language perception. It has been suggested that music listeners prefer rhythms that follow simple binary meters, which are common in Western music. This means that listeners expect odd-numbered beats to be strong and even-numbered beats to be weak. In support of this, studies have shown that listeners exposed to Western music show stronger novelty and incongruity related P3 and irregularity detection related mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to attenuated odd- than attenuated even-numbered metric positions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712513/-express-prenatal-maternal-stress-induces-visceral-hypersensitivity-of-adult-rat-offspring-through-activation-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-signaling-in-primary-sensory-neurons
#14
Hong-Jun Wang, Xue Xu, Rui-Hua Xie, Yun-Yun Rui, Ping-An Zhang, Xiao-Jue Zhu, Guang-Yin Xu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of unknown etiology characterized by widespread, chronic abdominal pain associated with altered bowel movements. Increasing amounts of evidence indicate that stressors presented during gestational periods could have long-term effects on the offspring's tissue structure and function, which may predispose to gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of the present study is designed to determine whether prenatal maternal stress (PMS) is a adverse factor affecting gastrointestinal sensitivity and to investigate possible mechanisms underlying PMS-induced visceral hypersensitivity in adult offspring...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707744/trpv4-mediated-anti-nociceptive-effect-of-suberanilohydroxamic-acid-on-mechanical-pain
#15
Geunyeol Choi, Tae-Jin Yang, Sungjae Yoo, Seung-In Choi, Ji Yeon Lim, Pyung Sun Cho, Sun Wook Hwang
Biological effects of suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) have mainly been observed in the context of tumor suppression via epigenetic mechanisms, but other potential outcomes from its use have also been proposed in different fields such as pain modulation. Here, we tried to understand whether SAHA modulates specific pain modalities by a non-epigenetic unknown mechanism. From 24 h Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-inflamed hind paws of mice, mechanical and thermal inflammatory pain indices were collected with or without immediate intraplantar injection of SAHA...
April 29, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705476/pain-related-encephalic-regions-influenced-by-yoga-meditation-an-integrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Petra Jurisic, Daiana Cristina Salm, Cintia Vieira, Francisco José Cidral-Filho, Leidiane Mazzardo-Martins, Daniel Fernandes Martins
INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms underlying the use of yoga in pain relief are still unclear. This study reviewed literature reports on encephalic activity related to analgesia induced by yoga meditation practice. METHODS: This integrative review examined studies published in the Pubmed, LILACS and MEDLINE databases without restriction of the year of publication. The research involved 16 descriptors related to the words: yoga, pain and neuroimaging methods. Inclusion criteria involved only the publications available online, with free access and written in English...
May 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702431/short-chain-fatty-acids-suppress-food-intake-by-activating-vagal-afferent-neurons
#17
Chayon Goswami, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada
Fermentable carbohydrates including dietary fibers and resistant starch produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate and butyrate, through microbial fermentation in the intestine of rodents and humans. Consumption of fermentable carbohydrate and SCFAs suppress food intake, an effect involving the brain. However, their signaling pathway to the brain remains unclear. Vagal afferents serve to link intestinal information to the brain. In the present study, we explored possible role of vagal afferents in the anorexigenic effect of SCFAs...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696497/cerebellar-ataxia-neuropathy-vestibular-areflexia-syndrome-canvas-with-chronic-cough-and-preserved-muscle-stretch-reflexes-evidence-for-selective-sparing-of-afferent-ia-fibres
#18
Jon Infante, Antonio García, Karla M Serrano-Cárdenas, Rocío González-Aguado, José Gazulla, Enrique M de Lucas, José Berciano
The aim of this study was to describe five patients with cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) with chronic cough and preserved limb muscle stretch reflexes. All five patients were in the seventh decade of age, their gait imbalance having been initiated in the fifth decade. In four patients cough antedated gait imbalance between 15 and 29 years; cough was spasmodic and triggered by variable factors. Established clinical picture included severe hypopallesthesia predominating in the lower limbs with postural imbalance, and variable degree of cerebellar axial and appendicular ataxia, dysarthria and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691389/motor-imagery-involves-predicting-the-sensory-consequences-of-the-imagined-movement
#19
Konstantina Kilteni, Benjamin Jan Andersson, Christian Houborg, H Henrik Ehrsson
Research on motor imagery has identified many similarities between imagined and executed actions at the behavioral, physiological and neural levels, thus supporting their "functional equivalence". In contrast, little is known about their possible "computational equivalence"-specifically, whether the brain's internal forward models predict the sensory consequences of imagined movements as they do for overt movements. Here, we address this question by assessing whether imagined self-generated touch produces an attenuation of real tactile sensations...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679548/the-effect-of-myelotomy-following-low-thoracic-spinal-cord-compression-injury-in-rats
#20
Carolin Meyer, Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Robin Gensch, Robert Seitz, Gregor Stein, Marilena Manthou, Theodora Papamitsou, Makoto Nakamura, Bertil Bouillon, Mary Galea, Peter Batchelor, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Angelov
Myelotomy is a surgical procedure allowing removal of extravasated blood and necrotic tissue that is thought to attenuate secondary injury as well as promote recovery in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) models and humans. Here we examined in rat whether myelotomy at 48 h after low-thoracic compressive SCI provided any benefit over a 12 week period. Compared to animals receiving SCI alone, myelotomy worsened BBB scores (p < 0.05) and also did not improve plantar stepping, ladder climbing, urinary bladder voiding or sensory function (thermal latency) during the 12-week period...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
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