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sensory attenuation

Wijeong Jang, Minwoo Baek, Yeon Soo Han, Changsoo Kim
BACKGROUND: Nociceptive sensitization is an increase in pain perception in response to stimulus. Following brief irradiation of Drosophila larvae with UV, nociceptive sensitization occurs in class IV multiple dendritic (mdIV) neurons, which are polymodal sensory nociceptors. Diverse signaling pathways have been identified that mediate nociceptive sensitization in mdIV neurons, including TNF, Hedgehog, BMP, and Tachykinin, yet the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. RESULTS: Here we report that duox heterozygous mutant larvae, which have normal basal nociception, exhibit an attenuated hypersensitivity response to heat and mechanical force following UV irradiation...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Brain
Maria Pyasik, Dalila Burin, Lorenzo Pia
The relation between sense of body ownership and sense of agency is still highly debated. Here we investigated in a large sample of healthy participants the associations between several implicit and explicit indexes of the two senses. Specifically, we examined the correlations between proprioceptive shift (implicit measure) and questionnaire on the subjective experience of ownership (explicit measure) within the rubber hand illusion paradigm (body ownership), and intentional binding (implicit measure), attenuation of the intensity of auditory outcomes of actions (implicit measure) and questionnaire on the subjective experience of authorship (explicit measure) within the Libet's clock paradigm (sense of agency)...
March 10, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Masaki Kobayashi, Douglas W Zochodne
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) continues to be generally considered as a "microvascular" complication of diabetes mellitus alongside nephropathy and retinopathy. The microvascular hypothesis, however, may be tempered by the concept that diabetes directly targets dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. This neuron specific concept, supported by accumulating evidence, might account for important features of DPN, such as its early sensory neuron degeneration. Diabetic sensory neurons develop neuronal atrophy alongside a series of mRNA changes related to declines in structural proteins, increases in heat shock protein (HSP), increases in the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), declines in growth factor signaling and other changes...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Zachary Jonas Hall, Vincent Tropepe
The postembryonic brain exhibits experience-dependent development, in which sensory experience guides normal brain growth. This neuroplasticity is thought to occur primarily through structural and functional changes in pre-existing neurons. Whether neurogenesis also mediates the effects of experience on brain growth is unclear. Here, we characterized the importance of motor experience on postembryonic neurogenesis in larval zebrafish. We found that movement maintains an expanded pool of forebrain neural precursors by promoting progenitor self-renewal over the production of neurons...
March 12, 2018: ELife
R L Blakemore, M R Mac Askill, R Shoorangiz, T J Anderson
Recent animal studies have shown that stress can profoundly affect motor behaviour and worsen motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) by acting on the dopaminergic system, possibly due to stress-associated emotional changes. However, systematic investigation of the influence of acute emotional stressors on motor function in PD is scarce. Here we examined the effect of repeated exposure to negative emotional stimuli on grip-force control in PD. Eighteen patients with idiopathic PD (tested off-medication) and 18 healthy controls produced an isometric precision grip contraction at 15% of maximum force while viewing a series of unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral emotional images (blocked presentation; without visual feedback of force output)...
March 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Pratibha Narayanan, Meike Hütte, Galina Kudryasheva, Francisco J Taberner, Stefan G Lechner, Florian Rehfeldt, David Gomez-Varela, Manuela Schmidt
Piezo2 ion channels are critical determinants of the sense of light touch in vertebrates. Yet, their regulation is only incompletely understood. We recently identified myotubularin related protein-2 (Mtmr2), a phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatase, in the native Piezo2 interactome of murine dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Here, we demonstrate that Mtmr2 attenuates Piezo2-mediated rapidly adapting mechanically activated (RA-MA) currents. Interestingly, heterologous Piezo1 and other known MA current subtypes in DRG appeared largely unaffected by Mtmr2...
March 9, 2018: ELife
Alfred Lim, Vivian Eng, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to an increase in reaction times to targets that appeared at a previously cued location relative to an uncued location, often investigated using a spatial cueing paradigm. Despite numerous studies that have examined many aspects of IOR, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying IOR are still in dispute. The objective of the current research is to investigate the plausible mechanisms by manipulating the cue and target types between central and peripheral stimuli in a traditional cue-target paradigm with saccadic responses to targets...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Tim Meier-Dörnberg, Oliver Ingo Kory, Fritz Jacob, Maximilian Michel, Mathias Hutzler
Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus is generally considered to be an obligatory spoilage microorganism and spoilage yeast in beer and beer-mixed beverages (Folz, Hofmann and Stahl 2011; Hutzler et al. 2012). Their super-attenuating ability causes increased carbon dioxide concentrations, beer gushing and potential bottle explosion along with changes in flavor, sedimentation and increased turbidity. This research shows clear differences in the super-attenuating properties of S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus yeast strains and their potential for industrial brewing applications...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Lu-Mei Chi, Yu Gao, Guang-Xian Nan
RATIONALE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) represent recurrent autoimmune diseases, generally beginning with optic nerve neuritis or acute transverse myelitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male with long-term alcohol intake was hospitalized because of limb numbness. EMG examination showed the peripheral sensory nerve was in demyelination and an axonal injury was found. His symptoms could not be improved by vitamin B injection but were later significantly attenuated by dexamethasone treatment...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bingbo Bao, Kai Fu, Xianyou Zheng, Haifeng Wei, Pengbo Luo, Hongyi Zhu, Xiaozhong Zhu, Xingwei Li, Tao Gao
OBJECTIVES: Nerve transfer has been developed to restore partial function after serious nerve injuries, for example, restoring bladder control after spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim here was to establish a preclinical proof-of-concept model using nerve transfer for restoring anorectal function after SCI. SETTING: We used laminectomy to model SCI, and bilateral spinal ventral and dorsal nerve root anastomosis to re-establish connectivity to the anorectal musculature...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Liansheng Liu, Yaohui Zhu, Michaël Noë, Qian Li, Pankaj Jay Pasricha
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis, associated with increased pancreatic expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB). It is not clear how these might contribute to pain. We investigated whether TGFB signaling via SMAD induces sensitization of pancreatic sensory neurons to increase nociception. METHODS: CP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by infusion of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid; some rats were given intrathecal infusions of TGFB1...
March 2, 2018: Gastroenterology
Bum-Soo Kim, Joon-Hyuk Choi, Suk-Hwan Baek, Deok-Hee Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dexmedetomidine is known to have neural protection effect via attenuation of inflammatory responses induced by local anesthetics. We investigated whether intraneural dexmedetomidine is effective for attenuating or preventing neural injury resulting from inadvertent intraneural injection of local anesthetic. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided, and left sciatic nerve was surgically exposed. The rats received no injection (control group) or intraneural injections of 0...
March 3, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Giles Hamilton-Fletcher, Katarzyna Pisanski, David Reby, Michał Stefańczyk, Jamie Ward, Agnieszka Sorokowska
Cross-modal correspondences describe the widespread tendency for attributes in one sensory modality to be consistently matched to those in another modality. For example, high pitched sounds tend to be matched to spiky shapes, small sizes, and high elevations. However, the extent to which these correspondences depend on sensory experience (e.g. regularities in the perceived environment) remains controversial. Two recent studies involving blind participants have argued that visual experience is necessary for the emergence of correspondences, wherein such correspondences were present (although attenuated) in late blind individuals but absent in the early blind...
March 1, 2018: Cognition
Azusa Majikina, Kenji Takahashi, Shigeru Saito, Makoto Tominaga, Toshio Ohta
Pulegone, one of avian repellents, is used to prevent the economic loss caused by birds. Chemical repellents often evoke unpleasant sensations and sensory irritation resulting in avoidance under some circumstances. It is recognized that some TRP channels expressing sensory neurons are related to nociception. Here we determined the molecular mechanisms of the repellent action of pulegone using isolated chicken sensory neurons and heterologous expression system. Pulegone increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) in chicken sensory neurons...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Giulia Freer, Mauro Pistello
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of varicella (chicken pox), a childhood exanthematic disease that develops as a result of primary infection, and zoster (shingles), caused by reactivation of the virus persisting in a latent form in the dorsal sensory ganglia. Although varicella is generally a mild self-limiting illness, in immunocompromised subjects and adults it can have a serious clinical course that can lead to permanent damage of the central nervous system. In these and in most zoster cases, treatment with anti-herpetic drugs and/or immunotherapy is necessary...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
Andrew J Shepherd, Aaron D Mickle, Suraj Kadunganattil, Hongzhen Hu, Durga P Mohapatra
Bone metastasis in breast, prostate and lung cancers often leads to chronic pain, which is poorly managed by existing analgesics. The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie chronic pain associated with bone-metastasized cancers are not well understood, but sensitization of peripheral nociceptors by tumor microenvironment factors has been demonstrated to be important. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is highly expressed in bone-metastasized breast and prostate cancers, and is critical to growth and proliferation of these tumors in the bone tumor microenvironment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Kathia Cordero, Gemma G Coronel, Miguel Serrano-Illán, Jennifer Cruz-Bracero, Johnny D Figueroa, Marino De León
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in debilitating autonomic dysfunctions, paralysis and significant sensorimotor impairments. A key component of SCI is the generation of free radicals that contributes to the high levels of oxidative stress observed. This study investigates whether dietary supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) improves functional recovery after SCI. Female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either with a normal diet or a dietary regiment supplemented with vitamin E (51 IU/g) for eight weeks...
February 26, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shaziela Ishak, Andrea Bubka, Frederick Bonato
Sensory conflict theories of motion sickness (MS) assert that symptoms may result when incoming sensory inputs (e.g., visual and vestibular) contradict each other. Logic suggests that attenuating input from one sense may reduce conflict and hence lessen MS symptoms. In the current study, it was hypothesized that attenuating visual input by blocking light entering the eye would reduce MS symptoms in a motion provocative environment. Participants sat inside an aircraft cockpit mounted onto a motion platform that simultaneously pitched, rolled, and heaved in two conditions...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Judy Xu, David Friedman, Janet Metcalfe
Although much research shows that early sensory and attentional processing is affected by mind wandering, the effect of mind wandering on deep (i.e. semantic) processing is relatively unexplored. To investigate this relation, we recorded event-related potentials as participants studied English-Spanish word pairs, one at a time, while being intermittently probed for whether they were 'on task' or 'mind wandering'. Both perceptual processing, indexed by the P2 component, and deep processing, indexed by a late, sustained slow wave maximal at parietal electrodes, was attenuated during periods preceding participants' mind wandering reports...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Xiao-Xue Yang, Yu Zhang, Yue-Him Wong, Pei-Yuan Qian
The larvae of many sessile marine invertebrates go through a settlement process, during which the planktonic larvae attach to a substrate and metamorphose into sessile juveniles. Larval attachment and metamorphosis (herein defined as "settlement") are complex processes mediated by many signaling pathways. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling is one of the pathways that inhibits larval settlement in marine invertebrates across different phyla. NO is synthesized by NO synthase (NOS), which is a client of molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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