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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431979/past-exposure-to-fruit-and-vegetable-variety-moderates-the-link-between-fungiform-papillae-density-and-current-variety-of-fv-consumed-by-children
#1
Anna Fogel, Jackie Blissett
Higher fungiform papillae density (FPD) has been associated with lower taste sensitivity thresholds and greater perceived taste intensity along with consumption of fewer fruit and vegetables (FV). Children exposed to greater variety of FV tend to habitually consume more FV, however, it is unknown whether exposure effects are attenuated by individual differences in FPD or whether these effects vary according to sensory properties of FV. This study examined the links between children's FPD, current variety of FV consumed, and past experiences with variety of fruit and vegetables...
April 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429852/anti-inflammatory-and-retinal-protective-effects-of-capsaicin-on-ischemia-induced-injuries-through-the-release-of-endogenous-somatostatin
#2
Jun Wang, Wenke Tian, Shuaiwei Wang, Wenqiang Wei, Dongdong Wu, Honggang Wang, Li Wang, Ruisheng Yang, Ailing Ji, Yanzhang Li
The mechanisms regarding the retinal protective and anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin (CAP) remain unclear. Somatostatin is contained in CAP-sensitive sensory neurons, including nerve terminals, from which it can be released by capsaicin. The present study provides a novel neurohumoral regulatory mechanism for CAP-induced-endogenous somatostatin in a retinal ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) mouse model. CAP (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) was injected subcutaneously 5 min after I/R. A selective somatostatin-depleting agent, cysteamine, was applied subcutaneously 4 hours before the experiment to examine the effects of endogenous somatostatin...
April 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428749/deep-brain-stimulation-improves-the-symptoms-and-sensory-signs-of-persistent-central-neuropathic-pain-from-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#3
Walter J Jermakowicz, Ian D Hentall, Jonathan R Jagid, Corneliu C Luca, James Adcock, Alberto Martinez-Arizala, Eva Widerström-Noga
Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is a significant problem after spinal cord injury (SCI). Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches may reduce the severity, but relief is rarely substantial. While deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat various chronic pain types, the technique has rarely been used to attenuate CNP after SCI. Here we present the case of a 54-year-old female with incomplete paraplegia who had severe CNP in the lower limbs and buttock areas since her injury 30 years prior. She was treated with bilateral DBS of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428563/a-sublethal-dose-of-a-neonicotinoid-insecticide-disrupts-visual-processing-and-collision-avoidance-behaviour-in-locusta-migratoria
#4
Rachel H Parkinson, Jacelyn M Little, John R Gray
Neonicotinoids are known to affect insect navigation and vision, however the mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood. A visual motion sensitive neuron in the locust, the Descending Contralateral Movement Detector (DCMD), integrates visual information and is involved in eliciting escape behaviours. The DCMD receives coded input from the compound eyes and monosynaptically excites motorneurons involved in flight and jumping. We show that imidacloprid (IMD) impairs neural responses to visual stimuli at sublethal concentrations, and these effects are sustained two and twenty-four hours after treatment...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425486/lamin-b1-is-required-for-mature-neuron-specific-gene-expression-during-olfactory-sensory-neuron-differentiation
#5
Crystal M Gigante, Michele Dibattista, Frederick N Dong, Xiaobin Zheng, Sibiao Yue, Stephen G Young, Johannes Reisert, Yixian Zheng, Haiqing Zhao
B-type lamins are major constituents of the nuclear lamina in all metazoan cells, yet have specific roles in the development of certain cell types. Although they are speculated to regulate gene expression in developmental contexts, a direct link between B-type lamins and developmental gene expression in an in vivo system is currently lacking. Here, we identify lamin B1 as a key regulator of gene expression required for the formation of functional olfactory sensory neurons. By using targeted knockout in olfactory epithelial stem cells in adult mice, we show that lamin B1 deficient neurons exhibit attenuated response to odour stimulation...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424466/the-role-of-the-brown-adipose-tissue-in-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-activation-induced-sleep-metabolic-and-feeding-responses
#6
Éva Szentirmai, Levente Kapás
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological stimulation of β3-ARs leads to increased sleep in mice and if this change is BAT dependent. In wild-type (WT) animals, administration of CL-316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist, induced significant increases in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) lasting for 4-10 h. Simultaneously, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) was significantly decreased and body temperature was increased with a delay of 5-6 h...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418820/case-241-hemiparkinsonism-hemiatrophy-spect-with-99m-tc-trodat-1-and-muscle-mr-imaging-abnormalities
#7
Thiago Cardoso Vale, Flávia Cristina de Lima Pinto, José Luiz Pedroso, Marília Alves Dos Reis, Ilza Rosa Batista, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, René Leandro Magalhães Rivero, Renato Adam Mendonça, Orlando G Barsottini
History A 43-year-old right-handed man presented with a history of progressive mild left-sided weakness and slowness of movements. Symptoms began 4 years earlier, and the patient noticed a progressive decline in his daily routine due to gait difficulties in the past year. There was no history of head trauma, surgery, drug therapy, smoking, or alcohol abuse, nor was there any relevant family history. Examination revealed normal cognition (29 of 30 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination and 27 of 30 points on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and normal cerebellar, sensory, cranial nerve, and autonomic function...
May 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416686/ngf-trka-signaling-in-sensory-nerves-is-required-for-skeletal-adaptation-to-mechanical-loads-in-mice
#8
Ryan E Tomlinson, Zhi Li, Zhu Li, Liliana Minichiello, Ryan C Riddle, Arun Venkatesan, Thomas L Clemens
Sensory nerves emanating from the dorsal root extensively innervate the surfaces of mammalian bone, a privileged location for the regulation of biomechanical signaling. Here, we show that NGF-TrkA signaling in skeletal sensory nerves is an early response to mechanical loading of bone and is required to achieve maximal load-induced bone formation. First, the elimination of TrkA signaling in mice harboring mutant TrkA(F592A) alleles was found to greatly attenuate load-induced bone formation induced by axial forelimb compression...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412531/vagus-nerve-is-involved-in-the-changes-in-body-temperature-induced-by-intragastric-administration-of-1-8-cineole-via-trpm8-in-mice
#9
Tomomi Urata, Noriyuki Mori, Tsutomu Fukuwatari
Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a cold receptor activated by mild cold temperature (<28°C). TRPM8 expressed in cutaneous sensory nerves is involved in cold sensation and thermoregulation. TRPM8 mRNA is detected in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal mucosa, and in the vagal afferent nerve. The relationship between vagal afferent nerve-specific expression of TRPM8 and thermoregulation remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether TRPM8 expression in the vagal afferent nerve is involved in autonomic thermoregulation...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406156/exploring-the-significance-of-morphological-diversity-for-cerebellar-granule-cell-excitability
#10
Catriona M Houston, Efthymia Diamanti, Maria Diamantaki, Elena Kutsarova, Anna Cook, Fahad Sultan, Stephen G Brickley
The relatively simple and compact morphology of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) has led to the view that heterogeneity in CGC shape has negligible impact upon the integration of mossy fibre (MF) information. Following electrophysiological recording, 3D models were constructed from high-resolution imaging data to identify morphological features that could influence the coding of MF input patterns by adult CGCs. Quantification of MF and CGC morphology provided evidence that CGCs could be connected to the multiple rosettes that arise from a single MF input...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404507/paclitaxel-inhibits-the-activity-and-membrane-localization-of-pkc%C3%AE-and-pkc%C3%AE-i-ii-to-elicit-a-decrease-in-stimulated-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-release-from-cultured-sensory-neurons
#11
Lisa M Darby, Hongdi Meng, Jill C Fehrenbacher
Peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting and debilitating side effect of the chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel. Consequently, elucidating the mechanisms by which this drug alters sensory neuronal function is essential for the development of successful therapeutics for peripheral neuropathy. We previously demonstrated that chronic treatment with paclitaxel (3-5days) reduces neuropeptide release stimulated by agonists of TRPV1. Because the activity of TRPV1 channels is modulated by conventional and novel PKC isozymes (c/nPKC), we investigated whether c/nPKC mediate the loss of neuropeptide release following chronic treatment with paclitaxel (300nM; 3 and 5days)...
April 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401289/characterization-of-odorants-in-inflatable-aquatic-toys-and-swimming-learning-devices-which-substances-are-causative-for-the-characteristic-odor-and-potentially-harmful
#12
Christoph Wiedmer, Cristina Velasco-Schön, Andrea Buettner
Based on the observation of intense and offensive smells in the product group of aquatic toys, four representative products were exemplarily chosen and sensorially characterized by an expert panel. Panellists reported mostly almond- and rubber-like notes for three of the four samples, whereas the smell of the fourth sample was dominated by organic solvent-associated notes such as "nail polish-like." To elucidate the molecular reasons of these smells, we isolated the volatile fraction of the product by solvent extraction and high vacuum distillation, and identified the main odorants by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), followed by one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography, with parallel mass spectrometric and olfactometric detection...
April 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396046/minocycline-prevents-muscular-pain-hypersensitivity-and-cutaneous-allodynia-produced-by-repeated-intramuscular-injections-of-hypertonic-saline-in-healthy-human-participants
#13
Mohamad Samir Samour, Saad Saulat Nagi, Peter John Shortland, David Anthony Mahns
Minocycline, a glial suppressor, prevents behavioural hypersensitivities in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. However clinical trials of minocycline in human studies have produced mixed results. This study addressed two questions: can repeated injections of hypertonic saline (HS) in humans induce persistent hypersensitivity? Can pre-treatment with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with microglial inhibitory effects, prevent the onset of hypersensitivity? Twenty seven healthy participants took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, consisting of six test sessions across 2 weeks...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379583/b-vitamins-potentiate-acute-morphine-antinociception-and-attenuate-the-development-of-tolerance-to-chronic-morphine-in-mice
#14
Xue-Ting Deng, Yuan Han, Wen-Tao Liu, Xue-Jun Song
Objectives. : Opiate analgesics are the most effective treatments for severe pain, but their clinical utility is often hampered by the development of analgesic tolerance. There are striking similarities between morphine actions and neuropathic pain. We have demonstrated that B vitamins can attenuate neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury, sensory neuron inflammation/compression, and transient spinal cord ischemia. Given this similarity, the present study investigated whether B vitamins might be able to modify the antinociceptive effect of morphine as well as morphine tolerance in mice...
March 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373843/antihyperalgesic-activities-of-endocannabinoids-in-a-mouse-model-of-antiretroviral-induced-neuropathic-pain
#15
Neha Munawar, Mabayoje A Oriowo, Willias Masocha
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of the antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, their use is sometimes limited by the development of a painful sensory neuropathy, which does not respond well to drugs. Smoked cannabis has been reported in clinical trials to have efficacy in relieving painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of endocannabinoid system molecules is altered during NRTI-induced painful neuropathy, and also whether endocannabinoids can attenuate NRTI-induced painful neuropathy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371926/sensory-innervation-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-a-crucial-role-in-artery-vasodilatation-and-leptin-release
#16
Hamidah Abu Bakar, William Robert Dunn, Craig Daly, Vera Ralevic
Aims: Electrical field stimulation (EFS) elicits robust sensory neurogenic relaxation responses in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed but these responses are absent or difficult to demonstrate in isolated arteries. We believe that this mismatch is due to the absence of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) as it is conventionally removed in studies on isolated vessels. We aimed to determine whether sensory nerves are expressed in PVAT, their physiological roles and their possible interactions with PVAT-derived adipokines...
March 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361948/degradation-of-neural-representations-in-higher-visual-cortex-by-sleep-deprivation
#17
Jia-Hou Poh, Michael W L Chee
A night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) impairs selective attention and is accompanied by attenuated activation within ventral visual cortex (VVC). However, finer details of how TSD compromises selectivity of visual processing remain unclear. Drawing from prior work in cognitive aging, we predicted that TSD would result in dedifferentiation of neural responses for faces and houses within the VVC. Instead, we found preservation of category selectivity. This was observed both in voxels highly selective for each category, and also across multiple voxels evaluated using MVPA...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347837/a-novel-therapeutic-with-two-snap-25-inactivating-proteases-shows-long-lasting-anti-hyperalgesic-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#18
Jiafu Wang, Laura Casals-Diaz, Tomas Zurawski, Jianghui Meng, Orla Moriarty, John Nealon, Om Prakash Edupuganti, Oliver Dolly
A pressing need exists for long-acting, non-addictive medicines to treat chronic pain, a major societal burden. Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) complex - a potent, specific and prolonged inhibitor of neuro-exocytosis - gives some relief in several pain disorders, but not for all patients. Our study objective was to modify BoNT/A to overcome its inability to block transmitter release elicited by high [Ca(2+)]i and increase its limited analgesic effects. This was achieved by fusing a BoNT/A gene to that for the light chain (LC) of type/E...
March 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340743/linking-atr-ftir-and-raman-features-to-phenolic-extractability-and-other-attributes-in-grape-skin
#19
Julio Nogales-Bueno, Berta Baca-Bocanegra, Abigail Rooney, José Miguel Hernández-Hierro, Francisco José Heredia, Hugh J Byrne
The importance of wine phenolics on the sensory characteristic of red wines is well-known. Therefore, it is necessary to control the extractability of phenolic compounds from grape skins, which depends significantly on grape ripeness and hence, on cell wall degradation. In the present study, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectra of grape skin have been recorded. Then, these spectral matrices have been studied and the main spectral features have been linked to extractabilities of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavanols and total phenols)...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334175/attenuated-fast-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-during-human-sleep
#20
Omer Sharon, Yuval Nir
During sleep, external sensory events rarely elicit a behavioral response or affect perception. However, how sensory processing differs between wakefulness and sleep remains unclear. A major difficulty in this field stems from using brief auditory stimuli that often trigger nonspecific high-amplitude "K-complex" responses and complicate interpretation. To overcome this challenge, here we delivered periodic visual flicker stimulation across sleep and wakefulness while recording high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in humans...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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