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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647573/focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling-regulates-anti-inflammatory-function-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induced-by-biomechanical-force
#1
Hyun Jung Lee, Miguel F Diaz, Adesuwa Ewere, Scott D Olson, Charles S Cox, Pamela L Wenzel
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have tremendous potential for use in regenerative medicine due to their multipotency and immune cell regulatory functions. Biomimetic physical forces have been shown to direct differentiation and maturation of MSCs in tissue engineering applications; however, the effect of force on immunomodulatory activity of MSCs has been largely overlooked. Here we show in human bone marrow-derived MSCs that wall shear stress (WSS) equivalent to the fluid frictional force present in the adult arterial vasculature significantly enhances expression of four genes that mediate MSC immune regulatory function, PTGS2, HMOX1, IL1RN, and TNFAIP6...
June 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634447/the-moving-rubber-hand-illusion-reveals-that-explicit-sense-of-agency-for-tapping-movements-is-preserved-in-functional-movement-disorders
#2
Angela Marotta, Federica Bombieri, Massimiliano Zampini, Federico Schena, Carlo Dallocchio, Mirta Fiorio, Michele Tinazzi
Functional movement disorders (FMD) are characterized by motor symptoms (e.g., tremor, gait disorder, and dystonia) that are not compatible with movement abnormalities related to a known organic cause. One key clinical feature of FMD is that motor symptoms are similar to voluntary movements but are subjectively experienced as involuntary by patients. This gap might be related to abnormal self-recognition of bodily action, which involves two main components: sense of agency and sense of body ownership. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate whether this function is altered in FMD, specifically focusing on the subjective feeling of agency, body ownership, and their interaction during normal voluntary movements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632750/renal-sodium-handling-and-blood-pressure-changes-in-gestational-protein-restricted-offspring-role-of-renal-nerves-and-ganglia-neurokinin-expression
#3
Augusto H Custódio, Marcelo C de Lima, Bárbara Vaccari, Patrícia A Boer, José A R Gontijo
BACKGROUND: Considering long-term changes in renal sodium handling and blood pressure in maternal protein-restricted (LP) offspring, we assumed that the development of LP hypertension results from abnormal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurokinin expression associated with impaired responsiveness of renal sensory receptors, promoting a reduced urinary excretion of sodium. The present study investigates whether increased blood pressure in protein-restricted offspring would be associated with changes in the DRG cells and in renal pelvic wall expression of NK1R, SP and CGRP when compared to NP offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624316/reversal-learning-in-c58-mice-modeling-higher-order-repetitive-behavior
#4
Cristina M Whitehouse, Lisa S Curry-Pochy, Robin Shafer, Joseph Rudy, Mark H Lewis
Restricted, repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and prevalent in other neurodevelopmental disorders. These behaviors cluster as repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and behaviors reflecting resistance to change. The C58 mouse strain is a promising model for these behaviors as it emits high rates of aberrant repetitive sensory-motor behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to extend characterization of the C58 model to resistance to change. This was done by comparing C58 to C57BL/6 mice on a reversal learning task under either a 100% or 80%/20% probabilistic reinforcement schedule...
June 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623423/cxcl10-suppression-of-hem-and-lymph-angiogenesis-in-inflamed-corneas-through-mmp13
#5
Nan Gao, Xiaowei Liu, Jiayin Wu, Juan Li, Chen Dong, Xinyi Wu, Xiao Xiao, Fu-Shin X Yu
Though not present in the normal adult cornea, both hem- and lymph-angiogenesis can be induced in this tissue after an inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic insult. We previously showed that the chemokine CXCL10 plays a key role in eradicating invading Candida (C.) albicans in C57BL6 mouse corneas. However, even after the clearance of pathogens, infection-induced inflammation and angiogenesis continue to progress in the cornea. The aim of this study is define the role of CXCL10 as a major angiostatic factor in modulating cornea angiogenesis in B6 mouse corneas under pathogenic conditions...
June 16, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622417/the-antimigraine-butterbur-ingredient-isopetasin-desensitises-peptidergic-nociceptors-via-the-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-channel
#6
Silvia Benemei, Francesco De Logu, Simone Li Puma, Ilaria Maddalena Marone, Elisabetta Coppi, Filippo Ugolini, Wolfgang Liedtke, Pollastro Federica, Giovanni Appendino, Pierangelo Geppetti, Serena Materazzi, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mechanism of the antimigraine action of butterbur [Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn.] is unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of isopetasin, a major butterbur constituent, to specifically target the transient receptor ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel and to affect functional responses relevant to migraine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Single cell calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings in human and rodent TRPA1-expressing cells, neurogenic motor responses in isolated rat/mouse urinary bladder, release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from mouse spinal cord in vitro, and facial rubbing in mice and meningeal blood flow in rat were examined...
June 16, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621665/neural-mechanisms-of-social-learning-in-the-female-mouse
#7
Yuan Gao, Carl Budlong, Emily Durlacher, Ian G Davison
Social interactions are often powerful drivers of learning. In female mice, mating creates a long-lasting sensory memory for the pheromones of the stud male that alters neuroendocrine responses to his chemosignals for many weeks. The cellular and synaptic correlates of pheromonal learning, however, remain unclear. We examined local circuit changes in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) using targeted ex vivo recordings of mating-activated neurons tagged with a fluorescent reporter. Imprinting led to striking plasticity in the intrinsic membrane excitability of projection neurons (mitral cells, MCs) that dramatically curtailed their responsiveness, suggesting a novel cellular substrate for pheromonal learning...
June 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#8
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604222/-express-primary-sensory-neuron-specific-interference-of-trpv1-signaling-by-aav-encoded-trpv1-peptide-aptamer-attenuates-neuropathic-pain
#9
Hongfei Xiang, Zhen Liu, Fei Wang, Hao Xu, Christopher Roberts, Gregory Fischer, Cheryl Stucky, Dean Caron, Bin Pan, Quinn Hogan, Hongwei Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603483/oscillatory-mechanisms-of-stimulus-processing-and-selection-in-the-visual-and-auditory-systems-state-of-the-art-speculations-and-suggestions
#10
REVIEW
Benedikt Zoefel, Rufin VanRullen
All sensory systems need to continuously prioritize and select incoming stimuli in order to avoid overflow or interference, and provide a structure to the brain's input. However, the characteristics of this input differ across sensory systems; therefore, and as a direct consequence, each sensory system might have developed specialized strategies to cope with the continuous stream of incoming information. Neural oscillations are intimately connected with this selection process, as they can be used by the brain to rhythmically amplify or attenuate input and therefore represent an optimal tool for stimulus selection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600678/co-altered-functional-networks-and-brain-structure-in-unmedicated-patients-with-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorders
#11
Hao He, Jing Sui, Yuhui Du, Qingbao Yu, Dongdong Lin, Wayne C Drevets, Jonathan B Savitz, Jian Yang, Teresa A Victor, Vince D Calhoun
Bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) share similar clinical characteristics that often obscure the diagnostic distinctions between their depressive conditions. Both functional and structural brain abnormalities have been reported in these two disorders. However, the direct link between altered functioning and structure in these two diseases is unknown. To elucidate this relationship, we conducted a multimodal fusion analysis on the functional network connectivity (FNC) and gray matter density from MRI data from 13 BD, 40 MDD, and 33 matched healthy controls (HC)...
June 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582479/restless-rest-intrinsic-sensory-hyperactivity-and-disinhibition-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Kevin Clancy, Mingzhou Ding, Edward Bernat, Norman B Schmidt, Wen Li
Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by exaggerated threat response, and theoretical accounts to date have focused on impaired threat processing and dysregulated prefrontal-cortex-amygdala circuitry. Nevertheless, evidence is accruing for broad, threat-neutral sensory hyperactivity in post-traumatic stress disorder. As low-level, sensory processing impacts higher-order operations, such sensory anomalies can contribute to widespread dysfunctions, presenting an additional aetiological mechanism for post-traumatic stress disorder...
June 3, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577446/that-s-my-hand-therefore-that-s-my-willed-action-how-body-ownership-acts-upon-conscious-awareness-of-willed-actions
#13
Dalila Burin, Maria Pyasik, Adriana Salatino, Lorenzo Pia
Whether and how body ownership ("this body is mine") contributes to human conscious experience of voluntary action is still unclear. In order to answer this question, here we incorporated two signatures (i.e., an ad hoc questionnaire and the sensory attenuation paradigm) of human's sense of agency ("this action is due to my own will") within a well-known experimental manipulation of body ownership (i.e., the rubber hand illusion paradigm). In two different experiments, we showed that the illusory ownership over a fake hand (induced by the rubber hand illusion) triggered also an illusory agency over its movements at both explicit and implicit level...
May 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566000/peripheral-kv7-channels-regulate-visceral-sensory-function-in-mouse-and-human-colon
#14
Madusha Peiris, James Rf Hockley, David E Reed, Ewan St John Smith, David C Bulmer, L Ashley Blackshaw
Background Chronic visceral pain is a defining symptom of many gastrointestinal disorders. The KV7 family (KV7.1-KV7.5) of voltage-gated potassium channels mediates the M current that regulates excitability in peripheral sensory nociceptors and central pain pathways. Here, we use a combination of immunohistochemistry, gut-nerve electrophysiological recordings in both mouse and human tissues, and single-cell qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of gut-projecting sensory neurons, to investigate the contribution of peripheral KV7 channels to visceral nociception...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560821/ecto-5-nucleotidase-cd73-regulates-peripheral-chemoreceptor-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-responses-to-hypoxia
#15
Andrew P Holmes, Clare J Ray, Selina A Pearson, Andrew M Coney, Prem Kumar
Augmented sensory neuronal activity from the carotid body (CB) has emerged as a principal cause of hypertension in a number of cardiovascular related pathologies including obstructive sleep apnoea, heart failure and diabetes. Development of new targets and pharmacological treatment strategies aiming to reduce CB sensory activity may thus improve outcomes in these key patient cohorts. The current study tested whether ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), an enzyme that generates adenosine, is functionally important in modifying CB sensory activity and cardiovascular respiratory responses to hypoxia...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559582/thalamic-bursts-down-regulate-cortical-theta-and-nociceptive-behavior
#16
Brian W LeBlanc, Brent Cross, Kelsey A Smith, Catherine Roach, Jimmy Xia, Yu-Chieh Chao, Joshua Levitt, Suguru Koyama, Christopher I Moore, Carl Y Saab
We tested the relation between pain behavior, theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations in somatosensory cortex and burst firing in thalamic neurons in vivo. Optically-induced thalamic bursts attenuated cortical theta and mechanical allodynia. It is proposed that thalamic bursts are an adaptive response to pain that de-synchronizes cortical theta and decreases sensory salience.
May 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559380/crossmodal-classification-of-mu-rhythm-activity-during-action-observation-and-execution-suggests-specificity-to-somatosensory-features-of-actions
#17
Michel-Pierre Coll, Clare Press, Hannah Hobson, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
The alpha mu rhythm (8-13 Hz) has been considered to reflect mirror neuron activity because it is attenuated by both action observation and action execution. The putative link between mirror neuron system activity and the mu rhythm has been used to study the involvement of the mirror system in a wide range of socio-cognitive processes and clinical disorders. However, previous research has failed to convincingly demonstrate the specificity of the mu rhythm, meaning that it is unclear whether the mu rhythm reflects mirror neuron activity...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555101/learning-related-brain-electrical-activity-dynamics-associated-with-the-subsequent-impact-of-learnt-action-outcome-associations
#18
Fabian Baum, Uta Wolfensteller, Hannes Ruge
Goal-directed behavior relies on the integration of anticipated outcomes into action planning based on acquired knowledge about the current contingencies between behavioral responses (R) and desired outcomes (O) under specific stimulus conditions (S). According to ideomotor theory, bidirectional R-O associations are an integral part of this knowledge structure. Previous EEG studies have identified neural activity markers linked to the involvement of such associations, but the initial acquisition process has not yet been characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539876/plantar-sole-unweighting-alters-the-sensory-transmission-to-the-cortical-areas
#19
Laurence Mouchnino, Olivia Lhomond, Clément Morant, Pascale Chavet
It is well established that somatosensory inputs to the cortex undergo an early and a later stage of processing. The later has been shown to be enhanced when the earlier transmission decreased. In this framework, mechanical factors such as the mechanical stress to which sensors are subjected when wearing a loaded vest are associated with a decrease in sensory transmission. This decrease is in turn associated with an increase in the late sensory processes originating from cortical areas. We hypothesized that unweighting the plantar sole should lead to a facilitation of the sensory transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522561/immediate-and-delayed-potentiating-effects-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-on-trpv1-sensitivity-of-rat-vagal-pulmonary-sensory-neurons
#20
Chun-Chun Hsu, You Shuei Lin, Ruei-Lung Lin, Lu-Yuan Lee
We studied acute effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) on the sensitivity of isolated rat vagal pulmonary sensory neurons. Our results showed: 1) A brief pretreatment with a low dose of TNFα (1.44 nM, 9 min) enhanced the sensitivity of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors in these neurons in two distinct phases: the inward current evoked by capsaicin was amplified (∆=247%) immediately following the TNFα pretreatment, which gradually declined toward control and then increased again reaching another peak (∆=384%) after 60-90 min...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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