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sensory attenuation

Wei Sun, Fei Yang, Yan Wang, Han Fu, Yan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Xiao-Liang Wang, Qing Lin, Jun Chen
Under physiological state, small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are believed to mediate nociceptive behavioral responses to painful stimuli. However, recently it has been found that a number of large-sized neurons are also involved in nociceptive transmission under neuropathic conditions. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms that large-sized DRG neurons mediate nociception are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of large-sized neurons in bee venom (BV)-induced mechanical allodynia and the underlying mechanisms were investigated...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Sooyeon Song, Sei-Jung Lee, Dong-June Park, Sejong Oh, Kye-Taek Lim
Recently, interest in the beneficial role of probiotics in the protection and management of allergic diseases caused by immune disorders has been increasing. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 on induced allergic inflammatory response in bisphenol A-treated rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells and mouse splenocytes. We also evaluated the applicability of L. plantarum L67 as a yogurt starter culture. We measured the ability of Lactobacillus strains to induce the production of IL-12 and IFN- γ in cultured splenocytes by ELISA...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Ting Wang, Siow-Ying Tan, William Mutilangi, Marcal Plans, Luis Rodriguez-Saona
Formulating whey protein beverages at acidic pH provides better clarity but the beverages typically develop an unpleasant and astringent flavor. Our aim was to evaluate the application of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in predicting astringency of acidic whey protein beverages. Whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) from different manufacturers were used to formulate beverages at pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.9. Trained panelists using the spectrum method of descriptive analysis tested the beverages providing astringency scores...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Miriam Aceves, Eric Bancroft, Alejandro R Aceves, Michelle Hook
Opioids are frequently used for the treatment of pain following spinal cord injury (SCI). Unfortunately, we have shown that morphine administered in the acute phase of SCI results in significant, adverse secondary consequences including compromised locomotor and sensory recovery. Similarly, we showed that selective activation of the κ-opioid receptor (KOR), even at a dose 32-fold lower than morphine, is sufficient to attenuate recovery of locomotor function. In the current study, we tested whether activation of the KOR is necessary to produce morphine's adverse effects using nor-Binaltorphimine (norBNI), a selective KOR antagonist...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Guy Griebel, Philippe Pichat, Denis Boulay, Vanessa Naimoli, Lisa Potestio, Robert Featherstone, Sukhveen Sahni, Henry Defex, Christophe Desvignes, Franck Slowinski, Xavier Vigé, Olivier E Bergis, Rosy Sher, Raymond Kosley, Sathapana Kongsamut, Mark D Black, Geoffrey B Varty
Normalization of altered glutamate neurotransmission through activation of the mGluR2 has emerged as a new approach to treat schizophrenia. These studies describe a potent brain penetrant mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SAR218645. The compound behaves as a selective PAM of mGluR2 in recombinant and native receptor expression systems, increasing the affinity of glutamate at mGluR2 as inferred by competition and GTPγ(35)S binding assays. SAR218645 augmented the mGluR2-mediated response to glutamate in a rat recombinant mGluR2 forced-coupled Ca(2+) mobilization assay...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiao-Bo Wu, De-Li Cao, Xin Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Lin-Xia Zhao, Bin Qian, Yong-Jing Gao
CXCL13 is a B lymphocyte chemoattractant and activates CXCR5 receptor in the immune system. Here we investigated whether CXCL13/CXCR5 mediates inflammatory pain in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the underlying mechanisms. Peripheral injection of complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) increased the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in DRG neurons. In Cxcr5(-/-) mice, CFA-induced pain hypersensitivity were attenuated. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed that the excitability of dissociated DRG neurons was increased after CFA injection or CXCL13 incubation from wild-type (WT) mice, but not from Cxcr5(-/-) mice...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Arkady Khoutorsky, Robert E Sorge, Masha Prager-Khoutorsky, Sophie Anne Pawlowski, Geraldine Longo, Seyed Mehdi Jafarnejad, Soroush Tahmasebi, Loren J Martin, Mark H Pitcher, Christos G Gkogkas, Reza Sharif-Naeini, Alfredo Ribeiro-da-Silva, Charles W Bourque, Fernando Cervero, Jeffrey S Mogil, Nahum Sonenberg
A response to environmental stress is critical to alleviate cellular injury and maintain cellular homeostasis. Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a key integrator of cellular stress responses and an important regulator of mRNA translation. Diverse stress signals lead to the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eIF2 (Ser51), resulting in inhibition of global protein synthesis while promoting expression of proteins that mediate cell adaptation to stress. Here we report that eIF2α is instrumental in the control of noxious heat sensation...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Scott T Barrett, Trevor N Geary, Amy N Steiner, Rick A Bevins
RATIONALE: Nicotine and bupropion have been demonstrated to enhance the value of other reinforcers, and this may partially account for nicotine reward and dependence. Evidence suggests that the sexes differ in their sensitivity to the primary and secondary reinforcing effects of nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli. Whether the sexes also differ in sensitivity to the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine (and bupropion) is yet unclear. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and bupropion using a reinforcer demand approach...
October 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Noham Wolpe, James N Ingram, Kamen A Tsvetanov, Linda Geerligs, Rogier A Kievit, Richard N Henson, Daniel M Wolpert, James B Rowe
The control of voluntary movement changes markedly with age. A critical component of motor control is the integration of sensory information with predictions of the consequences of action, arising from internal models of movement. This leads to sensorimotor attenuation-a reduction in the perceived intensity of sensations from self-generated compared with external actions. Here we show that sensorimotor attenuation occurs in 98% of adults in a population-based cohort (n=325; 18-88 years; the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience)...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Britta Biedermann, Peter de Lissa, Yatin Mahajan, Vince Polito, Nicolas Badcock, Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Linda Larsen, Genevieve McArthur
The findings of a study by Cahn and Polich (2009) suggests that there is an effect of a meditative state on three event-related potential (ERP) brain markers of "low-level" auditory attention (i.e., acoustic representations in sensory memory) in expert meditators: the N1, the P2, and the P3a. The current study built on these findings by examining trait and state effects of meditation on the passive auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), N1, and P2 ERPs. We found that the MMN was significantly larger in meditators than non-meditators regardless of whether they were meditating or not (a trait effect), and that N1 amplitude was significantly attenuated during meditation in non-meditators but not expert meditators (an interaction between trait and state)...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Masaru Ishibashi, Iryna Gumenchuk, Kenichi Miyazaki, Takafumi Inoue, William N Ross, Christopher S Leonard
UNLABELLED: Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides that regulate multiple homeostatic processes, including reward and arousal, in part by exciting serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons, the major source of forebrain serotonin. Here, using mouse brain slices, we found that, instead of simply depolarizing these neurons, orexin-A altered the spike encoding process by increasing the postspike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) via two distinct mechanisms. This orexin-enhanced AHP (oeAHP) was mediated by both OX1 and OX2 receptors, required Ca(2+) influx, reversed near EK, and decayed with two components, the faster of which resulted from enhanced SK channel activation, whereas the slower component decayed like a slow AHP (sAHP), but was not blocked by UCL2077, an antagonist of sAHPs in some neurons...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Léo Pio-Lopez, Ange Nizard, Karl Friston, Giovanni Pezzulo
Active inference is a general framework for perception and action that is gaining prominence in computational and systems neuroscience but is less known outside these fields. Here, we discuss a proof-of-principle implementation of the active inference scheme for the control or the 7-DoF arm of a (simulated) PR2 robot. By manipulating visual and proprioceptive noise levels, we show under which conditions robot control under the active inference scheme is accurate. Besides accurate control, our analysis of the internal system dynamics (e...
September 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
W Huang, M Calvo, T Pheby, D L H Bennett, A S C Rice
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most frequent manifestation of HIV disease. It often presents with significant neuropathic pain and is associated with previous exposure to neurotoxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, HIV-SN prevalence remains high even in resource-rich settings where these drugs are no longer used. Previous evidence suggests that exposure to indinavir, a protease inhibitor commonly used in antiretroviral therapy, may link to elevated HIV-SN risk. Here we investigated whether indinavir treatment was associated with the development of a "dying back" axonal neuropathy and changes in pain-relevant limb withdrawal and thigmotactic behaviours...
September 23, 2016: Pain
Sameh Ghroubi, Samar Alila, Atika Mallek, Wafa Elleuch, Khlil Nouri, Mohamed Habib Elleuch
OBJECTIVE: To show the contribution of the sensory nerve action potential in the topographic diagnosis of traumatic brachial plexus injuries through an illustration of 7 clinical cases. OBSERVATIONS: We report 7 clinical cases of patients with unilateral traumatic brachial plexus injuries, following public highway accident. We realized an electroneuromyographic test (ENMG) for each patient in our service. A radiculopathy C5C6C7 were found in 3 subjects. Other patients had a radiculopathy C5 T1, a radiculopathy C7C8 T1, a lesion of the upper trunk or a lesion of the posterior cord...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Evelyn M R Lake, Paolo Bazzigaluppi, James Mester, Lynsie A M Thomason, Rafal Janik, Mary Brown, JoAnne McLaurin, Peter L Carlen, Dale Corbett, Greg J Stanisz, Bojana Stefanovic
Brain plasticity following focal cerebral ischemia has been observed in both stroke survivors and in preclinical models of stroke. Endogenous neurovascular adaptation is at present incompletely understood yet its potentiation may improve long-term functional outcome. We employed longitudinal MRI, intracranial array electrophysiology, Montoya Staircase testing, and immunofluorescence to examine function of brain vessels, neurons, and glia in addition to forelimb skilled reaching during the subacute stage of ischemic injury progression...
September 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Zheng Ye, Arjen Stolk, Ivan Toni, Peter Hagoort
Listeners interpret utterances by integrating information from multiple sources including word level semantics and world knowledge. When the semantics of an expression is inconsistent with his or her knowledge about the world, the listener may have to search through the conceptual space for alternative possible world scenarios that can make the expression more acceptable. Such cognitive exploration requires considerable computational resources and might depend on motivational factors. This study explores whether and how oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to influence social motivation by reducing social anxiety and enhancing affiliative tendencies, can modulate the integration of world knowledge and sentence meanings...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Meaghan S Adams, Christina Popovich, W Richard Staines
While there is evidence to show early enhancement of modality-specific somatosensory cortical event-related potentials (ERP) when two stimuli are task-relevant, less is understood about the cortical and behavioural correlates of early modality-specific sensory gating. This study sought to understand how attentional gating affects cortical processing of visual and tactile stimuli at early stages of modality-specific representation. Specifically, alterations in early somatosensory and visual processing based on attentional relevance were examined, along with the effect of an unattended sensory stimulus on cortical processing and behavioural performance...
September 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Matthew J Urban, Robert T Sataloff
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between white matter changes (WMCs) and abnormal balance test results on computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) and electronystagmography (ENG). Also, to compare the utility of CDP with ENG for this purpose. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary care referral center. PATIENTS: A retrospective review of 137 subjects was conducted. The CDP and ENG results were compared between patients with (80) and without (57) WMCs as detected byT2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Yasuyuki Iwata, Yasutomo Jono, Hiroki Mizusawa, Atsushi Kinoshita, Koichi Hiraoka
The present study investigated whether the long-interval interhemispheric inhibition (LIHI) is induced by the transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary sensory area (S1-TMS) without activation of the conditioning side of the primary motor area (M1) contributing to the contralateral motor evoked potential (MEP), whether the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1 modulated by the tactile input, and whether the pathways mediating the LIHI are different from those mediating the M1-TMS-induced LIHI...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Christine Altmann, Stefanie Hardt, Caroline Fischer, Juliana Heidler, Hee-Young Lim, Annett Häussler, Boris Albuquerque, Béla Zimmer, Christine Möser, Christian Behrends, Frank Koentgen, Ilka Wittig, Mirko H H Schmidt, Albrecht M Clement, Thomas Deller, Irmgard Tegeder
Peripheral or central nerve injury is a frequent cause of chronic pain and the mechanisms are not fully understood. Using newly generated transgenic mice we show that progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve injury and accelerates nerve healing. A yeast-2-hybrid screen revealed putative interactions of progranulin with autophagy-related proteins, ATG12 and ATG4b. This was supported by colocalization and proteomic studies showing regulations of ATG13 and ATG4b and other members of the autophagy network, lysosomal proteins and proteins involved in endocytosis...
September 11, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
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