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sensory attenuation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928667/thirty-five-day-fluoxetine-treatment-limits-sensory-motor-deficit-and-biochemical-disorders-in-a-rat-model-of-decompression-sickness
#1
Caroline Cosnard, Sébastien De Maistre, Jacques H Abraini, Laurent Chazalviel, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Jean-Jacques Risso, Nicolas Vallée
According to the OECD statistical base for 2014, anti-depressants will, on average, be distributed at a rate of 62 daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants for the 25 countries surveyed (Health at a glance: Europe 2014; OECD Health Statistics; World Health Organization and OECD Health Statistics, 2014). Divers must be concerned. On another hand, divers are potentially exposed to decompression sickness including coagulation inflammation and ischemia, which can result in neurological lesions or even death. The purpose of this study is to assess whether chronic treatment with anti-depressants may represent a contraindication to the practice of an at-risk activity, such as, scuba diving, or even presents a benefit by attenuating the severity of the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924007/multiple-signaling-pathways-coordinately-regulate-forgetting-of-olfactory-adaptation-through-control-of-sensory-responses-in-c-elegans
#2
Tomohiro Kitazono, Sayuri Hara-Kuge, Osamu Matsuda, Akitoshi Inoue, Manabi Fujiwara, Takeshi Ishihara
Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of C. elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 (ok1052), which shows excessive forgetting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921770/does-an-observer-s-empathy-influence-my-pain-effect-of-perceived-empathetic-or-unempathetic-support-in-a-pain-test
#3
C Fauchon, I Faillenot, A M Perrin, C Borg, V Pichot, F Chouchou, L Garcia-Larrea, R Peyron
The physiological and behavioural effects of empathy for other's pain have been widely investigated, while the opposite situation, i.e. the influence on one's pain of empathetic feedback from others, remains largely unexplored. Here, we assessed whether and how empathetic and unempathetic comments from observers modulate pain and associated vegetative reactions. In Study 1, conversations between observers of a pain study were recorded by professional actors. Comments were prepared to be perceived as empathetic, unempathetic, or neutral, and were validated in 40 subjects...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902571/pain-perception-and-body-awareness-among-individuals-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#4
Karni Ginzburg, Iftah Biran, Itay Goor Aryeh, Noga Tsur, Ruth Defrin
Studies indicate that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often demonstrate attenuated pain perception, termed hypoalgesia. This study examines the hypothesis that body awareness moderates the association between BPD and pain perception. Participants consisted of 46 women diagnosed with BPD and 47 healthy controls. Sensory testing included the measurement of heat-pain thresholds, ratings of suprathreshold stimuli, measurement of temperature evoking moderate pain, and temporal summation of noxious mechanical stimuli...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901718/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-negatively-regulate-the-positioning-of-mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-distal-axons
#5
Rajiv Sainath, Lorena Armijo-Weingart, Andrea Ketscheck, Zhuxuan Xu, Shuxin Li, Gianluca Gallo
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are components of the extracellular matrix that inhibit the extension and regeneration of axons. However, the underlying mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are functionally inter-linked organelles important to axon development and maintenance. We report that CSPGs impair the targeting of mitochondria and ER to the growth cones of chicken embryonic sensory axons. The effect of CSPGs on the targeting of mitochondria is blocked by inhibition of the LAR receptor for CSPGs...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885452/mirna-mediated-downregulation-of-kcc2-and-vgat-expression-in-spinal-cord-contributes-to-neonatal-cystitis-induced-visceral-pain-in-rats
#6
Jian Zhang, James Yu, Pradeep Kannampalli, Linghui Nie, Hui Meng, Bidyut Medda, Reza Shaker, Jyoti N Sengupta, Banani Banerjee
Loss of GABAergic inhibition in pain pathways has been considered to be a key component in the development of chronic pain. In the present study, we intended to examine if miR-92b-mediated post-transcriptional dysregulation of spinal potassium chloride cotransporter (KCC2) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) plays a major role in the development and maintenance of long-term visceral hyperalgesia in neonatal zymosan-treated rats. Neonatal cystitis was induced by transurethral zymosan administration from postnatal (P) days 14-16 (protocol 1)...
September 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882563/adenosine-a1-receptor-potentiated-glycinergic-transmission-in-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn-of-rats-after-peripheral-inflammation
#7
Hu-Hu Bai, Jiang-Ping Liu, Li Yang, Ji-Yuan Zhao, Zhan-Wei Suo, Xian Yang, Xiao-Dong Hu
Adenosine is present at the extracellular space within spinal cord dorsal horn and engaged in the processing of nociceptive sensory signals. Systemic or spinal administration of exogenous adenosine produces a potent analgesia against pathological pain. Here we found that inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission was an important target for adenosine regulation. In spinal cord slices from intact rats, adenosine increased the inhibitory postsynaptic currents mediated by glycine receptors (GlyRs). In spinal slices from Complete Freund's Adjuvant-injected rats, adenosine potentiated glycinergic transmission to a more degree than in control rats...
September 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867384/downregulations-of-trpm8-expression-and-membrane-trafficking-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-mediate-the-attenuation-of-cold-hyperalgesia-in-cci-rats-induced-by-gfr%C3%AE-3-knockdown
#8
Lin Su, Ruichen Shu, Chengcheng Song, Yonghao Yu, Guolin Wang, Yazhuo Li, Changxiao Liu
BACKGROUND: Cold hyperalgesia is an intractable sensory abnormality commonly seen in peripheral neuropathies. Although glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha3 (GFRα3) is required for the formation of pathological cold pain has been revealed, potential transduction mechanism is poorly elucidated. We have previously demonstrated the contribution of enhanced activity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) to cold hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve...
September 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866595/a-possible-explanation-of-how-high-frequency-deep-brain-stimulation-suppresses-low-frequency-tremors-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Vrutangkumar V V Shah, Sachin Goyal, Harish J Palanthandalam-Madapusi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system and one of its key symptoms is rest tremor. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) effectively suppresses rest tremor in Parkinson's disease. Despite being a successful treatment option, its underlying principle and the mechanism by which it attenuates tremors is not yet fully understood. Since existing methods for tuning DBS parameters are largely trial and error, understanding how DBS works can help reduce time and costs, and could also ultimately lead to better treatment strategies for PD...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861281/comparing-intensities-and-modalities-within-the-sensory-attenuation-paradigm-preliminary-evidence
#10
Dalila Burin, Alvise Battaglini, Lorenzo Pia, Giusy Falvo, Mattia Palombella, Adriana Salatino
It is well-documented that the intensity of a self-generated somatosensory stimulus is perceived to be attenuated in respect to an identical stimulus generated by others. At present, it is not clear whether such a phenomenon, known as somatosensory attenuation, is based not only on feedforward motor signals but also on re-afferences towards the body. To answer this question, in the present pilot investigation on twelve healthy subjects, three types of stimulations (sensory non-nociceptive electrical - ES, nociceptive electrical - NES, and vibrotactile - VTS) and intensities (1 = sensory threshold ∗ 2...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856444/mechanisms-of-curcumin-induced-gastroprotection-against-ethanol-induced-gastric-mucosal-lesions
#11
Renata Czekaj, Jolanta Majka, Katarzyna Magierowska, Zbigniew Sliwowski, Marcin Magierowski, Robert Pajdo, Agata Ptak-Belowska, Marcin Surmiak, Slawomir Kwiecien, Tomasz Brzozowski
BACKGROUND: Curcumin, a pleiotropic substance used for centuries in traditional medicine, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative efficacy against various tumours, but the role of curcumin in gastroprotection is little studied. We determined the effect of curcumin against gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by 75% ethanol and alterations in gastric blood flow (GBF) in rats with cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 activity inhibited by indomethacin, SC-560 or rofecoxib, inhibited NO-synthase activity, capsaicin denervation and blockade of TRPV1 receptors by capsazepine...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851567/association-of-down-regulation-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-substance-p-with-increase-of-myocardial-vulnerability-in-diabetic-neuropathic-rats
#12
Tu-Ping Li, Zheng Guo, Chao-Jie Liu, Tao Sun, Lu Chen, Xin Zhao
Diabetic patients present high co-morbidities of neuropathy and severer consequences of coronary heart disease. But the pathological mechanism is still unclear. Here we investigated a potential association of diabetic impairment of sensory nerves with increase of vulnerability of myocardium in acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. A rat model of diabetes mellitus was induced by high fat and sugar diet plus a small dose of streptozotocin. Impairment of sensory nerves was evaluated by measurement of changes in tail flick latency to noxious thermal stimulation and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the myocardium of the heart were examined...
August 26, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842410/impaired-feedforward-control-and-enhanced-feedback-control-of-speech-in-patients-with-cerebellar-degeneration
#13
Benjamin Parrell, Zarinah Agnew, Srikantan Nagarajan, John Houde, Richard B Ivry
The cerebellum has been hypothesized to form a crucial part of the speech motor control network. Evidence for this comes from patients with cerebellar damage, who exhibit a variety of speech deficits, as well as imaging studies showing cerebellar activation during speech production in healthy individuals. To date, the precise role of the cerebellum in speech motor control remains unclear, as it has been implicated in both anticipatory (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) control. Here, we assess both anticipatory and reactive aspects of speech motor control, comparing the performance of patients with cerebellar degeneration and matched controls...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842279/itch-induces-conditioned-place-aversion-in-mice
#14
Di Mu, Yan-Gang Sun
Itch sensation consists of both sensory and emotional components. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the transduction and transmission of itch sensation have been studied extensively in rodents. However, whether itch induces emotional responses in mice still remains unknown. We found that pruritogens induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) in mice, and that the CPA lasted for at least two weeks. Disruption of itch signal transmission by depletion of peripheral sensory fibers expressing TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1) attenuated chloroquine-induced CPA...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839077/alcohol-consumption-in-a-general-antenatal-population-and-child-neurodevelopment-at-2-years
#15
Jane L Halliday, Evelyne Muggli, Sharon Lewis, Elizabeth J Elliott, David J Amor, Colleen O'Leary, Susan Donath, Della Forster, Cate Nagle, Jeffrey M Craig, Peter J Anderson
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is a community health problem with up to 50% of pregnant women drinking alcohol. The relationship between low or sporadic binge PAE and adverse child outcomes is not clear. This study examines the association between PAE in the general antenatal population and child neurodevelopment at 2 years, accounting for relevant contributing factors. METHODS: This prospective population-based cohort recruited 1570 pregnant women, providing sociodemographic, psychological and lifestyle information and alcohol use for five time periods...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833700/essential-role-of-endogenous-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-pain-associated-plasticity-in-the-central-amygdala
#16
Kei Shinohara, Ayako M Watabe, Masashi Nagase, Yuya Okutsu, Yukari Takahashi, Hiroki Kurihara, Fusao Kato
The role of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is well established in nociceptive behaviors. CGRP is highly expressed in the projection pathway from the parabrachial nucleus to the laterocapsular region of the central amygdala (CeC), which plays a critical role in relaying nociceptive information. The CeC is a key structure in pain behavior because it integrates and modulates nociceptive information along with other sensory signals. Previous studies have demonstrated that blockade of the amygdalar CGRP-signaling cascade attenuates nociceptive behaviors in pain models, while CGRP application facilitates amygdalar synaptic transmission and induces pain behaviors...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807794/flavor-and-object-recognition-memory-impairment-induced-by-excitotoxic-lesions-of-the-perirhinal-cortex
#17
E Morillas, B Gómez-Chacón, M Gallo
Recognition memory is based on the ability to assess the familiarity of a previously encountered stimulus. It can be approached using tests for different sensorial modalities. Excitotoxic lesions of the perirhinal cortex (Prh) were performed in order to assess the relevance of its integrity for object and flavor recognition memory. Object recognition memory was impaired with a 24h retention interval. Flavor neophobia attenuation was prevented on a second encounter with the tastant. These results support a role of the perirhinal cortex in mediating the transition from novel to familiar, both in object and flavor recognition memory...
August 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803347/melatonin-mitochondria-and-the-skin
#18
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Igor Semak, Tae-Kang Kim, Zorica Janjetovic, Radomir M Slominski, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors...
August 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802192/soft-diet-feeding-impairs-neural-transmission-between-mitral-cells-and-interneurons-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#19
Tomohiro Noguchi, Chizuru Utsugi, Makoto Kashiwayanagi
(Objective) The subventricular zone in mice generates a lot of neuroblasts even during adulthood. These neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb and differentiate into inhibitory interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells. Olfactory sensory neurons receive information from various odorants and transmit it to the olfactory bulb. Our previous study showed that soft-diet feeding impairs neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, in turn leading to the reduction of odor-induced behaviors and Fos-immunoreactivities, the latter of which are markers of neural activity, at the olfactory bulb after exposure to odors...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797631/hspb1-mutations-causing-hereditary-neuropathy-in-humans-disrupt-non-cell-autonomous-protection-of-motor-neurons
#20
Patrick L Heilman, SungWon Song, Carlos J Miranda, Kathrin Meyer, Amit K Srivastava, Amy Knapp, Christopher G Wier, Brian K Kaspar, Stephen J Kolb
Heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), is a ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional protein chaperone. Mutations in HSPB1 result in the development of a late-onset, distal hereditary motor neuropathy type II (dHMN) and axonal Charcot-Marie Tooth disease with sensory involvement (CMT2F). The functional consequences of HSPB1 mutations associated with hereditary neuropathy are unknown. HSPB1 also displays neuroprotective properties in many neuronal disease models, including the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
August 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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