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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334675/effects-of-running-retraining-on-biomechanical-factors-associated-with-lower-limb-injury
#1
Marcus D Dunn, David B Claxton, Graham Fletcher, Jonathan S Wheat, David M Binney
Injury risk is an important concern for runners; however, limited evidence exists regarding changes to injury risk following running style retraining. Biomechanical factors, such as absolute peak free moment, knee abduction impulse, peak foot eversion and foot eversion excursion, have been shown to predict lower limb injury. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Pose running retraining on biomechanical factors associated with lower limb running injury. Twenty uninjured recreational runners were pair-matched based on their five km run time performance and randomly assigned to control (n = 10) and intervention (three 2-h Pose running retraining sessions) groups (n = 10)...
January 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332742/the-effects-of-dorso-lumbar-motion-restriction-on-emg-activity-of-selected-muscles-during-running
#2
Joseph J Morley, Edward Traum
The effects of restricting dorso-lumbar spine mobility on electromyographic activity of the erector spinae, quadriceps femoris, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles in runners was investigated. Thermoplastic casting material was fashioned into a rigid orthosis and used to restrict spinal motion during running. Volunteers ran on a treadmill at 2.78 m/sec, under normal conditions and with spinal motion restricted. Surface electromyographic data was collected during both sets of trials. Normal electromyographic data was also compared with previous authors to determine similarity with their electromyographic data...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332730/biomechanical-factors-associated-with-running-economy-and-performance-of-elite-kenyan-distance-runners-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Nassib Tawa, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Running economy (RE) is a determinant of performance in endurance sports and is a complex multi-factorial measure which reflects the combined functioning of bio-mechanical, neuro-muscular, metabolic and cardio-respiratory factors some of which are hereditary or adapt to coaching. Kenyan distance runners have dominated major global events with their unmatched performance for decades and this phenomenon has prompted several investigations aimed at establishing possible factors associated with their performance...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326905/neuromuscular-features-in-sprinters-with-cerebral-palsy-case-studies-based-on-paralympic-classification
#4
Diego Antunes, Mateus Rossato, Rafael Lima Kons, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Gabriela Fischer
Despite the evolution of runner performance in athletes with cerebral palsy (CP), little is known about neuromuscular parameters of sprinters from different classes, especially related to power output, muscular imbalances and asymmetry indexes in lower limbs. The aim of this study was to assess muscle power, muscular imbalance and asymmetry in sprinters with CP. Four male sprinters with CP (age, 18 to 27 years; body mass, 58.5 to 72.8 kg; height, 161.5 to 174 cm) classified as T38, T37, T36, T35 according to International Paralympic Committee functional classification, performed vertical counter movement jump and squat jump on force plate and isokinetic torque evaluations in both limbs...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324820/incidence-and-prevalence-of-patellofemoral-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Benjamin E Smith, James Selfe, Damian Thacker, Paul Hendrick, Marcus Bateman, Fiona Moffatt, Michael Skovdal Rathleff, Toby O Smith, Pip Logan
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain is considered one of the most common forms of knee pain, affecting adults, adolescents, and physically active populations. Inconsistencies in reported incidence and prevalence exist and in relation to the allocation of healthcare and research funding, there is a clear need to accurately understand the epidemiology of patellofemoral pain. METHODS: An electronic database search was conducted, as well as grey literature databases, from inception to June 2017...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320436/the-feasibility-and-usability-of-runningcoach-a-remote-coaching-system-for-long-distance-runners
#6
Daniel Aranki, Gao Xian Peh, Gregorij Kurillo, Ruzena Bajcsy
Studies have shown that about half of the injuries sustained during long-distance running involve the knee. Cadence (steps per minute) has been identified as a factor that is strongly associated with these running-related injuries, making it a worthwhile candidate for further study. As such, it is critical for long-distance runners to minimize their risk of injury by running at an appropriate running cadence. In this paper, we present the results of a study on the feasibility and usability of RunningCoach, a mobile health (mHealth) system that remotely monitors running cadence levels of runners in a continuous fashion, among other variables, and provides immediate feedback to runners in an effort to help them optimize their running cadence...
January 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320422/feasibility-of-detecting-natural-frequencies-of-hydraulic-turbines-while-in-operation-using-strain-gauges
#7
David Valentín, Alexandre Presas, Matias Bossio, Mònica Egusquiza, Eduard Egusquiza, Carme Valero
Nowadays, hydropower plays an essential role in the energy market. Due to their fast response and regulation capacity, hydraulic turbines operate at off-design conditions with a high number of starts and stops. In this situation, dynamic loads and stresses over the structure are high, registering some failures over time, especially in the runner. Therefore, it is important to know the dynamic response of the runner while in operation, i.e., the natural frequencies, damping and mode shapes, in order to avoid resonance and fatigue problems...
January 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319584/physiological-responses-to-overdressing-and-exercise-heat-stress-in-trained-runners
#8
Brett R Ely, Laurie A Blanchard, Jared R Steele, Michael A Francisco, Samuel N Cheuvront, Christopher T Minson
Heat acclimation is the best strategy to improve performance in a hot environment. Many athletes seeking the benefits of heat acclimation lack access to a hot environment for exercise, and thus rely on over-dressing to simulate environmental heat stress. It is currently unknown whether this approach produces the requisite thermoregulatory strain necessary for heat acclimation in trained men and women. PURPOSE: To compare physiological and cellular responses to exercise in a hot environment (HOT; 40°C, 30%rh) with minimal clothing (clo= 0...
January 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317290/running-exercise-protects-against-myelin-breakdown-in-the-absence-of-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-ad-mice
#9
Feng-Lei Chao, Lei Zhang, Yi Zhang, Chun-Ni Zhou, Lin Jiang, Qian Xiao, Yan-Min Luo, Fu-Lin Lv, Qi He, Yong Tang
Neurogenesis might influence oligodendrogenesis and selectively instruct myelination in the mammalian brain. Running exercise could induce neurogenesis and protect the myelin sheaths in the dentate gyrus of AD mice. It is unclearwhether running exercise could protect the myelin sheaths in the absence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of AD mice. Six-month-old male APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a control group (Tg control) or a running group (Tg runner), and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group (WT control)...
January 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315164/effects-of-strength-training-on-postpubertal-adolescent-distance-runners
#10
Richard C Blagrove, Louis P Howe, Emily J Cushion, Adam Spence, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar, Philip R Hayes
PURPOSE: Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However the effects on adolescent (<18 years) runners remains elusive. This randomized control trial aimed to examine the effect of strength training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. METHODS: Participants (n=25, 13 female, 17...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305036/right-ventricular-structure-and-function-in-the-veteran-ultramarathon-runner-is-there-evidence-for-chronic-maladaptation
#11
Oliver Rothwell, Keith George, John Somauroo, Rachel Lord, Mike Stembridge, Rob Shave, Martin D Hoffman, Mathew Wilson, Euan Ashley, Francois Haddad, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, David Oxborough
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that chronic exposure to prolonged strenuous exercise may result in maladaptation of the right ventricle (RV). The of this study aim was to establish RV structure and function, including septal insertion points, using conventional echocardiography and myocardial strain (ε) imaging in a veteran population of ultramarathon runners (UR) and age- and sex-matched controls. METHODS: A retrospective study design provided 40 UR (>35 years old; mean ± SD training experience, 18 ± 12 years) and 24 sedentary controls who had previously undergone conventional two-dimensional, tissue Doppler and speckle-tracking echocardiography to measure RV size and function...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304509/effect-of-foot-progression-angle-adjustment-on-the-knee-adduction-moment-and-knee-joint-contact-force-in-runners-with-and-without-knee-osteoarthritis
#12
I C D Fong, W S C Li, W K J Tai, T W R Tsang, J H Zhang, T L W Chen, H Baur, P Eichelberger, R T H Cheung
BACKGROUND: Knee adduction moment (KAM) is often used as a surrogate marker of knee contact force (KCF) during walking. Previous studies have reported potential benefits to reduce KAM in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by foot progression angle adjustment. However, KAM is an external moment and it does not consider any muscle contribution to the joint loading, which should pose a greater influence in running than walking. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study used a computational model to compare KAM and KCF between runners with and without knee OA during running...
December 30, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303986/the-effect-of-the-accelerometer-operating-range-on-biomechanical-parameters-stride-length-velocity-and-peak-tibial-acceleration-during-running
#13
Christian Mitschke, Pierre Kiesewetter, Thomas L Milani
Previous studies have used accelerometers with various operating ranges (ORs) when measuring biomechanical parameters. However, it is still unclear whether ORs influence the accuracy of running parameters, and whether the different stiffnesses of footwear midsoles influence this accuracy. The purpose of the present study was to systematically investigate the influence of OR on the accuracy of stride length, running velocity, and on peak tibial acceleration. Twenty-one recreational heel strike runners ran on a 15-m indoor track at self-selected running speeds in three footwear conditions (low to high midsole stiffness)...
January 5, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300192/musculoskeletal-ultrasound-liberating-prm-a-reinforcement-for-runners-a-reminder-for-walkers-and-the-last-call-for-couch-potatoes
#14
Levent Özçakar, Murat Kara, Ke-Vin Chang, Henry Lew, Franco Franchignoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298672/no-association-between-actn3-r577x-and-ace-i-d-polymorphisms-and-endurance-running-times-in-698-caucasian-athletes
#15
Ioannis D Papadimitriou, Sarah J Lockey, Sarah Voisin, Adam J Herbert, Fleur Garton, Peter J Houweling, Pawel Cieszczyk, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo, Marek Sawczuk, Myosotis Massidda, Carla Maria Calò, Irina V Astratenkova, Anastasia Kouvatsi, Anastasiya M Druzhevskaya, Macsue Jacques, Ildus I Ahmetov, Georgina K Stebbings, Shane Heffernan, Stephen H Day, Robert Erskine, Charles Pedlar, Courtney Kipps, Kathryn N North, Alun G Williams, Nir Eynon
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating associations between ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D genotypes and endurance athletic status have been limited by small sample sizes from mixed sport disciplines and lack quantitative measures of performance. AIM: To examine the association between ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D genotypes and best personal running times in a large homogeneous cohort of endurance runners. METHODS: We collected a total of 1064 personal best 1500, 3000, 5000 m and marathon running times of 698 male and female Caucasian endurance athletes from six countries (Australia, Greece, Italy, Poland, Russia and UK)...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291269/evaluating-the-predictability-of-distance-race-performance-in-ncaa-cross-country-and-track-and-field-from-high-school-race-times-in-the-united-states
#16
Jamie L Brusa
Successful recruiting for collegiate track & field athletes has become a more competitive and essential component of coaching. This study aims to determine the relationship between race performances of distance runners at the United States high school and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) levels. Conditional inference classification tree models were built and analysed to predict the probability that runners would qualify for the NCAA Division I National Cross Country Meet and/or the East or West NCAA Division I Outdoor Track & Field Preliminary Round based on their high school race times in the 800 m, 1600 m, and 3200 m...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289028/experience-does-not-influence-injury-related-joint-kinematics-and-kinetics-in-distance-runners
#17
Cristine E Agresta, Jillian Peacock, Jeffrey Housner, Ronald F Zernicke, Jessica Deneweth Zendler
PURPOSE: Increased running experience and more time spent running appears to be advantageous in reducing injury risk, although the reason behind this is unclear. It is plausible that more experience results in better running mechanics leading to less injuries. Running mechanics are often screened during clinical assessments and targeted for correction in gait retraining, particularly those thought to be global indicators of injury or those associated with elevated knee joint loading. Examining the biomechanics of runners who are less-injury prone can improve our understanding of the significance of faulty running mechanics in relation to injury...
December 20, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288326/fverga1-encoding-a-della-protein-negatively-regulates-runner-production-in-fragaria-vesca
#18
Weijia Li, Junxiang Zhang, Hongying Sun, Shouming Wang, Keqin Chen, Yuexue Liu, He Li, Yue Ma, Zhihong Zhang
FveRGA1 was highly expressed in tender tissues such as young leaves and stem apices and was localized in the nucleus. RNAi silencing of FveRGA1 in non-runnering woodland strawberry produced many runners. FveRGA1 is thus a key gene controlling strawberry runner formation. The propagation of strawberry is mainly based on runners, while the genes controlling runner production have not been well characterized. Exogenous applications of optimum concentration gibberellins (GAs) promote runner formation in strawberry cultivation and GA can accelerate the degradation of DELLA proteins...
December 29, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287284/potential-relationship-between-passive-plantar-flexor-stiffness-and-running-performance
#19
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
The present study aimed to determine the relationship between passive stiffness of the plantar flexors and running performance in endurance runners. Forty-eight well-trained male endurance runners and 24 untrained male control subjects participated in this study. Plantar flexor stiffness during passive dorsiflexion was calculated from the slope of the linear portion of the torque-angle curve. Of the endurance runners included in the present study, running economy in 28 endurance runners was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-min trials (14, 16, and 18 km/h) of submaximal treadmill running...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284231/assessment-of-the-influence-of-jogging-on-the-shape-of-female-foot-arches
#20
Agata Maslon, Joanna Golec, Elzbieta Szczygiel, Dorota Czechowska, Boguslaw Golec
INTRODUCTION: Both walking and its faster, running, consist of cyclical subsequent phases of swing and support; however, they differ in their time proportions as well as magnitude of acting forces. There is a lack of studies concerning the long-term consequences of repeated jogging cycles on the function of feet and, above all, on their permanent impact on the shape of foot arches. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to answer the question whether regular jogging changes the shape of the transverse and medial longitudinal arches of the feet...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
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