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Cx3cl1 microglia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101527/regulation-of-physical-microglia-neuron-interactions-by-fractalkine-signaling-after-status-epilepticus
#1
Ukpong B Eyo, Jiyun Peng, Madhuvika Murugan, Mingshu Mo, Almin Lalani, Ping Xie, Pingyi Xu, David J Margolis, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, perform elaborate surveillance in which they physically interact with neuronal elements. A novel form of microglia-neuron interaction named microglial process convergence (MPC) toward neuronal axons and dendrites has recently been described. However, the molecular regulators and pathological relevance of MPC have not been explored. Here, using high-resolution two-photon imaging in vivo and ex vivo, we observed a dramatic increase in MPCs after kainic acid- or pilocarpine-induced experimental seizures that was reconstituted after glutamate treatment in slices from mice...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935376/mesenchymal-stem-cells-modulate-light-induced-activation-of-retinal-microglia-through-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-signaling
#2
Libin Huang, Guoxing Xu, Jian Guo, Maosong Xie, Lisha Chen, Wei Xu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling on the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and retinal microglia. METHODS: Supernatants of homogenized retina were harvested from light-damaged SD rats (ISHR) to stimulated retinal microglia. Stimulated microglia were cocultured with MSCs, CX3CL1 over-expressing MSCs (CX3CL1-MSCs) or CX3CL1-blocked MSCs (anti-CX3CL1-MSCs) for 24 hours, and their molecular and functional changes were examined...
December 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932942/loss-of-fractalkine-signaling-exacerbates-axon-transport-dysfunction-in-a-chronic-model-of-glaucoma
#3
Kevin T Breen, Sarah R Anderson, Michael R Steele, David J Calkins, Alejandra Bosco, Monica L Vetter
Neurodegeneration in glaucoma results in decline and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and is associated with activation of myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages. The chemokine fractalkine (FKN or Cx3cl1) mediates communication from neurons to myeloid cells. Signaling through its receptor Cx3cr1 has been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, but the effects on neuronal pathology are variable. Since it is unknown how FKN-mediated crosstalk influences RGC degeneration in glaucoma, we assessed this in a chronic mouse model, DBA/2J...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923568/noradrenaline-induces-cx3cl1-production-and-release-by-neurons
#4
José L M Madrigal, Javier R Caso, Borja García-Bueno, Irene L Gutiérrez, Juan C Leza
CX3CL1 is a chemokine for which neurons constitute its primary source within the brain. Besides acting as a chemokine, CX3CL1 regulates multiple processes and is known to inhibit microglial activation. Because of this, CX3CL1 is considered as a messenger used by neurons to communicate with microglia. Similarly, the neurotransmitter noradrenaline reduces microglial activation and production of neurotoxic agents. Based on this, the regulation of neuronal CX3CXL1 by noradrenaline was analyzed. In primary cortical neurons, noradrenaline induced the accumulation of CX3CL1 protein and mRNA...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687148/cathepsin-s-contributes-to-microglia-mediated-olfactory-dysfunction-through-the-regulation-of-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-in-a-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-model
#5
Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Insung Kang, Soon Won Choi, Tae-Hoon Shin, Ji-Hee Shin, Byung-Chul Lee, Jin Young Lee, Jae-Jun Kim, Myung Geun Kook, Kyung-Sun Kang
Microglia can aggravate olfactory dysfunction by mediating neuronal death in the olfactory bulb (OB) of a murine model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by lipid trafficking defects. In this study, we focused on the crosstalk between neurons and microglia to elucidate the mechanisms underlying extensive microgliosis in the NPC1-affected brain. Microglia in the OB of NPC1 mice strongly expressed CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (Cx3cr1), a specific receptor for the neural chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (Cx3cl1)...
December 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646532/spinal-microglial-activation-in-a-murine-surgical-model-of-knee-osteoarthritis
#6
P B Tran, R E Miller, S Ishihara, R J Miller, A M Malfait
OBJECTIVE: Microgliosis, the activation of microglial cells, is thought to contribute to synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn and thereby promote chronic pain. The primary aim of this study was to document the temporal profile of dorsal horn microgliosis after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in wild type (WT) and Adamts5 null mice. Since neuronal fractalkine (CX3CL1) contributes to microgliosis, we assessed its release from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures after DMM...
September 16, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639555/microglial-cx3cr1-promotes-adult-neurogenesis-by-inhibiting-sirt-1-p65-signaling-independent-of-cx3cl1
#7
Sabine Sellner, Ricardo Paricio-Montesinos, Alena Spieß, Annette Masuch, Daniel Erny, Laura A Harsan, Dominik V Elverfeldt, Marius Schwabenland, Knut Biber, Ori Staszewski, Sergio Lira, Steffen Jung, Marco Prinz, Thomas Blank
Homo and heterozygote cx3cr1 mutant mice, which harbor a green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their cx3cr1 loci, represent a widely used animal model to study microglia and peripheral myeloid cells. Here we report that microglia in the dentate gyrus (DG) of cx3cr1 (-/-) mice displayed elevated microglial sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression levels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) p65 activation, despite unaltered morphology when compared to cx3cr1 (+/-) or cx3cr1 (+/+) controls...
September 17, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549131/fractalkine-shedding-is-mediated-by-p38-and-the-adam10-protease-under-pro-inflammatory-conditions-in-human-astrocytes
#8
Sinead A O'Sullivan, Fabrizio Gasparini, Anis K Mir, Kumlesh K Dev
BACKGROUND: The fractalkine (CX3CR1) ligand is expressed in astrocytes and reported to be neuroprotective. When cleaved from the membrane, soluble fractalkine (sCX3CL1) activates the receptor CX3CR1. Although somewhat controversial, CX3CR1 is reported to be expressed in neurons and microglia. The membrane-bound form of CX3CL1 additionally acts as an adhesion molecule for microglia and infiltrating white blood cells. Much research has been done on the role of fractalkine in neuronal cells; however, little is known about the regulation of the CX3CL1 ligand in astrocytes...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493972/actions-of-thyroid-hormone-analogues-on-chemokines
#9
REVIEW
Paul J Davis, Gennadi V Glinsky, Hung-Yun Lin, Shaker A Mousa
The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429982/cx3cl1-cx3cr1-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-target-for-neuroprotection
#10
REVIEW
Peiqing Chen, Wenjuan Zhao, Yanjie Guo, Juan Xu, Ming Yin
CX3C chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1) is an intriguing chemokine belonging to the CX3C family. CX3CL1 is secreted by neurons and plays an important role in modulating glial activation in the central nervous system after binding to its sole receptor CX3CR1 which mainly is expressed on microglia. Emerging data highlights the beneficial potential of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common progressive neurodegenerative disease, and in the progression of which neuroinflammation plays a vital role...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378696/lrrk2-modulates-microglial-activity-through-regulation-of-chemokine-c-x3-c-receptor-1-mediated-signalling-pathways
#11
Bo Ma, Leyan Xu, Xiaodong Pan, Lixin Sun, Jinhui Ding, Chengsong Xie, Vassilis E Koliatsos, Huaibin Cai
Multiple missense mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common degenerative movement disorder. LRRK2 is expressed by both neurons and microglia, the residential immune cells in the brain. Increasing evidence supports a role of LRRK2 in modulating microglial activity, of which Lrrk2-null rodent microglia display less inflammatory response to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The underlying molecular mechanism, however, remains elusive. Chemokine (C-X3-C) receptor 1 (CX3CR1), predominantly expressed by microglia, suppresses microglial inflammation while promotes migration...
August 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328691/differential-subnetwork-of-chemokines-cytokines-in-human-mouse-and-rat-brain-cells-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#12
Yang Du, Wenjun Deng, Zixing Wang, MingMing Ning, Wei Zhang, Yiming Zhou, Eng H Lo, Changhong Xing
Mice and rats are the most commonly used animals for preclinical stroke studies, but it is unclear whether targets and mechanisms are always the same across different species. Here, we mapped the baseline expression of a chemokine/cytokine subnetwork and compared responses after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primary neurons, astrocytes, and microglia from mouse, rat, and human. Baseline profiles of chemokines (CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10) and cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNFα) showed significant differences between human and rodents...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314452/microglial-phagocytosis-and-activation-underlying-photoreceptor-degeneration-is-regulated-by-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-signaling-in-a-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#13
Matthew K Zabel, Lian Zhao, Yikui Zhang, Shaimar R Gonzalez, Wenxin Ma, Xu Wang, Robert N Fariss, Wai T Wong
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of mutation-bearing photoreceptors, is a significant cause of incurable blindness in the young worldwide. Recent studies have found that activated retinal microglia contribute to photoreceptor demise via phagocytosis and proinflammatory factor production, however mechanisms regulating these contributions are not well-defined. In this study, we investigate the role of CX3CR1, a microglia-specific receptor, in regulating microglia-mediated degeneration using the well-established rd10 mouse model of RP...
September 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239349/fractalkine-attenuates-microglial-cell-activation-induced-by-prenatal-stress
#14
Joanna Ślusarczyk, Ewa Trojan, Katarzyna Głombik, Katarzyna Chamera, Adam Roman, Bogusława Budziszewska, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965567/anthocyanin-effects-on-microglia-m1-m2-phenotype-consequence-on-neuronal-fractalkine-expression
#15
Manuela Meireles, Cláudia Marques, Sónia Norberto, Paulo Santos, Iva Fernandes, Nuno Mateus, Ana Faria, Conceição Calhau
Microglia mediate multiple aspects of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype or microglia-neuron crosstalk can be an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy. Anthocyanins are a class of flavonoids found e.g., in berries that has been attracting interest due to its neuroprotective potential. However, there are no data clarifying the impact of anthocyanins on microglial phenotype or on microglia-neuron crosstalk (CX3CR1/CX3CL1)...
May 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962414/the-effect-of-gcsb-5-a-new-herbal-medicine-on-changes-in-pain-behavior-and-neuroglial-activation-in-a-rat-model-of-lumbar-disc-herniation
#16
Hee Kyung Cho, So-Yeon Kim, Mi Jung Choi, Seung Ok Baek, Sang Gyu Kwak, Sang Ho Ahn
OBJECTIVE: Lumbar disc herniation can induce sciatica by mechanical compression and/or chemical irritation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of GCSB-5 (Shinbaro®) and NSAIDs on pain-related behavior and on the expressions of microglia, astrocytes, CGRP, TRPV1, IL-6, and CX3CL1 in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation. METHODS: 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent implantation of nucleus pulposus to a dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Rats were divided into five groups as follows; a saline group (the vehicle control group) (n=27), a 10 mg/kg aceclofenac group (the aceclofenac group) (n=22), and 100, 300 or 600 mg/kg GCSB-5 groups (the GCSB-5 100, 300, or 600 groups) (n=21 for each group)...
March 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935332/knockout-of-fractalkine-receptor-cx3cr1-does-not-alter-disease-or-microglial-activation-in-prion-infected-mice
#17
James F Striebel, Brent Race, James A Carroll, Katie Phillips, Bruce Chesebro
Microglial activation is a hallmark of the neuroimmunological response to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion disease. The CX3C chemokine axis consists of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1); these are expressed by neurons and microglia respectively, and are known to modulate microglial activation. In prion-infected mice, both Cx3cr1 and Cx3cl1 are altered, suggesting a role in disease. To investigate the influence of CX3C axis signalling on prion disease, we infected Cx3cr1 knockout (Cx3cr1-KO) and control mice with scrapie strains 22L and RML...
June 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26927660/analysis-of-the-role-of-cx3cl1-fractalkine-and-its-receptor-cx3cr1-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-insight-into-recent-advances-in-actions-of-neurochemokine-agents
#18
Łukasz A Poniatowski, Piotr Wojdasiewicz, Maciej Krawczyk, Dariusz Szukiewicz, Robert Gasik, Łukasz Kubaszewski, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska
CX3CL1 (fractalkine) is the only member of the CX3C (delta) subfamily of chemokines which is unique and combines the properties of both chemoattractant and adhesion molecules. The two-form ligand can exist either in a soluble form, like all other chemokines, and as a membrane-anchored molecule. CX3CL1 discloses its biological properties through interaction with one dedicated CX3CR1 receptor which belongs to a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis acts in many physiological phenomena including those occurring in the central nervous system (CNS), by regulating the interactions between neurons, microglia, and immune cells...
March 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883520/cx3cr1-ablation-ameliorates-motor-and-respiratory-dysfunctions-and-improves-survival-of-a-rett-syndrome-mouse-model
#19
Makoto Horiuchi, Lucas Smith, Izumi Maezawa, Lee-Way Jin
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2, an epigenetic modulator that binds the methyl CpG dinucleotide in target genes to regulate transcription. Previously we and others reported a role of microglia in the pathophysiology of RTT. Because microglia in the Mecp2 knockout (Mecp2KO) mouse model of RTT over-produce neurotoxic mediators glutamate and reactive oxygen species, we hypothesize that blocking neuron-microglia interaction by ablation of CX3CR1, a chemokine receptor expressed in microglia/myeloid cells mediating such interaction by pairing with its neuronal ligand CX3CL1, would ameliorate the RTT-like phenotype in Mecp2KO mice...
February 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26867675/tgf-beta1-regulates-human-brain-pericyte-inflammatory-processes-involved-in-neurovasculature-function
#20
Justin Rustenhoven, Miranda Aalderink, Emma L Scotter, Robyn L Oldfield, Peter S Bergin, Edward W Mee, E Scott Graham, Richard L M Faull, Maurice A Curtis, Thomas I-H Park, Mike Dragunow
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is strongly induced following brain injury and polarises microglia to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Augmentation of TGFβ1 responses may therefore be beneficial in preventing inflammation in neurological disorders including stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. However, several other cell types display immunogenic potential and identifying the effect of TGFβ1 on these cells is required to more fully understand its effects on brain inflammation...
February 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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