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Cx3cl1 microglia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624735/cx3cr1-deficiency-exacerbates-alpha-synuclein-a53t-induced-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Sara Castro-Sánchez, Ángel J García-Yagüe, Tresa López-Royo, Maria Casarejos, José Luis Lanciego, Isabel Lastres-Becker
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and the accumulation of protein aggregates, called Lewy bodies, where the most abundant is alpha-synuclein (α-SYN). Mutations of the gene that codes for α-SYN (SNCA), such as the A53T mutation, and duplications of the gene generate cases of PD with autosomal dominant inheritance. As a result of the association of inflammation with the neurodegeneration of PD, we analyzed whether overexpression of wild-type α-SYN (α-SYNWT ) or mutated α-SYN (α-SYNA53T ) are involved in the neuronal dopaminergic loss and inflammation process, along with the role of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1)...
April 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501084/the-inhibition-of-cb-1-receptor-accelerates-the-onset-and-development-of-eae-possibly-by-regulating-microglia-macrophages-polarization
#2
Zhi-Yin Lou, Jie Cheng, Xiao-Rong Wang, Yong-Fei Zhao, Jing Gan, Guo-Yu Zhou, Zhen-Guo Liu, Bao-Guo Xiao
Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1 R) regulates the neuro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative damages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanism by which CB1 R inhibition exerts inflammatory effects is still unclear. Here, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CB1 R in the treatment of EAE by using a specific and selective CB1 R antagonist SR141716A. Our study demonstrated that SR141716A accelerated the clinical onset and development of EAE, accompanied by body weight loss...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361745/microglia-and-aging-the-role-of-the-trem2-dap12-and-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axes
#3
REVIEW
Carmen Mecca, Ileana Giambanco, Rosario Donato, Cataldo Arcuri
Depending on the species, microglial cells represent 5-20% of glial cells in the adult brain. As the innate immune effector of the brain, microglia are involved in several functions: regulation of inflammation, synaptic connectivity, programmed cell death, wiring and circuitry formation, phagocytosis of cell debris, and synaptic pruning and sculpting of postnatal neural circuits. Moreover, microglia contribute to some neurodevelopmental disorders such as Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD), and to aged-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and others...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323156/ischemia-induced-neuronal-cell-death-is-mediated-by-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1
#4
Jinkun Wang, Yan Gan, Pengcheng Han, Junxiang Yin, Qingwei Liu, Soha Ghanian, Feng Gao, Guanghui Gong, Zhiwei Tang
The chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of stroke. Previous studies have focused on a paracrine interaction between neurons that produce fractalkine and microglia that express CX3CR1 receptors in the central nervous system. Recent findings have demonstrated the functional expression of CX3CR1 receptors by hippocampal neurons, suggesting their involvement in neuroprotective and neurodegenerative actions. To elucidate the roles of neuronal CX3CR1 in neurodegeneration induced by ischemic stroke, a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was employed...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248573/bisphenol-a-exposure-induces-increased-microglia-and-microglial-related-factors-in-the-murine-embryonic-dorsal-telencephalon-and-hypothalamus
#5
Mifumi Takahashi, Munekazu Komada, Ken Miyazawa, Shigemi Goto, Yayoi Ikeda
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used compound in the food packaging industry. Prenatal exposure to BPA induces histological abnormalities in the neocortex and hypothalamus in association with abnormal behaviors. Yet, the molecular and cellular neurodevelopmental toxicological mechanisms of BPA are incompletely characterized on neuroinflammatory-related endopoints. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effects of BPA exposure in mouse embryos, we examined microglial numbers as well as the expression of microglial-related factors in the E15...
March 1, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247713/role-of-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-diabetic-encephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
Yuan Liu, Mingchao Li, Zuo Zhang, Yun Ye, Jiyin Zhou
In the central nervous system, the primary immune cells, the microglia, prevent pathogenic invasion as the first line of defense. Microglial energy consumption is dependent on their degree of activity. Microglia express transporters for the three primary energy substrates (glucose, fatty acids, glutamine) and regulate diabetic encephalopathy via microglia-neuron interactions. Microglia may play a sentry role for rapid protection or even ablation of impaired neurons. Neurons exhibit hyperactivity in response to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and neurotoxic factors and release potential microglial activators...
March 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194444/behavioral-stress-alters-corticolimbic-microglia-in-a-sex-and-brain-region-specific-manner
#7
Justin L Bollinger, Kaitlyn E Collins, Rushi Patel, Cara L Wellman
Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163038/electroacupuncture-suppresses-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-by-upregulating-cylindromatosis-to-alleviate-inflammatory-injury-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rats
#8
Jin Jiang, Yong Luo, Wenyi Qin, Hongmei Ma, Qiongli Li, Jian Zhan, Ying Zhang
Electroacupuncture (EA) may reduce inflammatory injury by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway activation after ischemic stroke. Thus, we explored temporal and spatial expression of cylindromatosis (CYLD), a negative feedback inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, to learn whether CYLD is essential for EA and reduction of inflammatory injury after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. A middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model was established in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and CYLD gene interference was used to investigate a potential role of neuroprotection...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017970/absence-of-microglial-cx3cr1-impairs-the-synaptic-integration-of-adult-born-hippocampal-granule-neurons
#9
M Bolós, J R Perea, J Terreros-Roncal, N Pallas-Bazarra, J Jurado-Arjona, J Ávila, M Llorens-Martín
Microglia are immune cells that play a crucial role in maintaining brain homeostasis. Among the mechanisms of communication between microglia and neurons, the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis exerts a central modulatory role. Animals lacking CX3CR1 microglial receptor (CX3CR1-/- mice) exhibit marked alterations not only in microglia but also in neurons located in various regions of the brain. Here we show that microglial depletion of CX3CR1 leads to the deficient synaptic integration of adult-born granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), both at the afferent and efferent level...
February 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955220/alterations-in-the-interplay-between-neurons-astrocytes-and-microglia-in-the-rat-dentate-gyrus-in-experimental-models-of-neurodegeneration
#10
Daniele Lana, Filippo Ugolini, Daniele Nosi, Gary L Wenk, Maria G Giovannini
The hippocampus is negatively affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases leading to impaired learning and memory abilities. A diverse series of progressive modifications in the intercellular communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia occur in the hippocampus during aging or inflammation. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological modifications that contribute to hippocampal dysfunction may reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention. The current study focussed on the interplay between neurons and astroglia in the Granule Layer (GL) and the Polymorphic Layer (PL) of the Dentate Gyrus (DG) of adult, aged and LPS-treated rats...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943292/enhanced-fear-and-altered-neuronal-activation-in-forebrain-limbic-regions-of-cx3cr1-deficient-mice
#11
Inga Schubert, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Andrew Winter, Lauren Vollmer, Ian Lewkowich, Renu Sah
Mounting evidence supports immune dysfunction in psychiatric conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The association of immunomodulatory mechanisms with PTSD-relevant behavior and physiology is not well understood. Communication between neurons and microglia, resident immune cells of the central nervous system, is crucial for optimal regulation of behavior and physiology. In this regard, the fractalkine CX3CL1, secreted from neurons and its target, the microglial CX3CR1 receptor represent a primary neuron-microglia inter-regulatory system important for synaptic plasticity and function...
February 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810892/absence-of-cx3cr1-impairs-the-internalization-of-tau-by-microglia
#12
Marta Bolós, María Llorens-Martín, Juan Ramón Perea, Jerónimo Jurado-Arjona, Alberto Rábano, Félix Hernández, Jesús Avila
BACKGROUND: Extracellular Tau is toxic for neighboring cells, and it contributes to the progression of AD. The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis is an important neuron/microglia communication mechanism. METHODS: We studied Tau clearance by microglia both in vitro (microglia primary cultures treated with Cy5-Tau, affinity chromatography to study the binding of Tau to CX3CR1, and Tau-CX3CL1 competition assays) and in vivo (stereotaxic injection of Cy5-Tau into WT and CX3CR1-/- mice)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776289/spinal-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-may-not-directly-participate-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-in-rats
#13
Yawen Peng, Genhua Guo, Bin Shu, Daiqiang Liu, Peng Su, Xuming Zhang, Feng Gao
CX3CL1 (fractalkine), the sole member of chemokine CX3C family, is implicated in inflammatory and neuropathic pain via activating its receptor CX3CR1 on neural cells in spinal cord. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether CX3CL1 or CX3CR1 contributes to the development of morphine tolerance. In this study, we found that chronic morphine exposure did not alter the expressions of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in spinal cord. And neither exogenous CX3CL1 nor CX3CR1 inhibitor could affect the development of morphine tolerance...
November 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612258/downregulated-glia-interplay-and-increased-mirna-155-as-promising-markers-to-track-als-at-an%C3%A2-early-stage
#14
Carolina Cunha, Catarina Santos, Cátia Gomes, Adelaide Fernandes, Alexandra Marçal Correia, Ana Maria Sebastião, Ana Rita Vaz, Dora Brites
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown cause. Absence of specific targets and biomarkers compromise the development of new therapeutic strategies and of innovative tools to stratify patients and assess their responses to treatment. Here, we investigate changes in neuroprotective-neuroinflammatory actions in the spinal cord of SOD1 (G93A) mice, at presymptomatic and symptomatic stages to identify stage-specific biomarkers and potential targets. Results showed that in the presymptomatic stage, there are alterations in both astrocytes and microglia, which comprise decreased expression of GFAP and S100B and upregulation of GLT-1, as well as reduced expression of CD11b, M2-phenotype markers, and a set of inflammatory mediators...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389721/chemokines-in-neuron-glial-cell-interaction-and-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#15
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Yong-Jing Gao
Neuropathic pain resulting from damage or dysfunction of the nervous system is a highly debilitating chronic pain state and is often resistant to currently available treatments. It has become clear that neuroinflammation, mainly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines were originally identified as regulators of peripheral immune cell trafficking and were also expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372329/dynamics-of-the-complement-cytokine-and-chemokine-systems-in-the-regulation-of-synaptic-function-and-dysfunction-relevant-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Shanya Jiang, Kiran Bhaskar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting nearly 45 million people worldwide. However, the etiology of AD is still unclear. Accumulations of amyloid-β plaques and tau tangles, neuroinflammation, and synaptic and neuronal loss are the major neuropathological hallmarks of AD, with synaptic loss being the strongest correlating factor with memory and cognitive impairment in AD. Many of these pathological hallmarks influence each other during the onset and progression of the disease...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101527/regulation-of-physical-microglia-neuron-interactions-by-fractalkine-signaling-after-status-epilepticus
#17
Ukpong B Eyo, Jiyun Peng, Madhuvika Murugan, Mingshu Mo, Almin Lalani, Ping Xie, Pingyi Xu, David J Margolis, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, perform elaborate surveillance in which they physically interact with neuronal elements. A novel form of microglia-neuron interaction named microglial process convergence (MPC) toward neuronal axons and dendrites has recently been described. However, the molecular regulators and pathological relevance of MPC have not been explored. Here, using high-resolution two-photon imaging in vivo and ex vivo , we observed a dramatic increase in MPCs after kainic acid- or pilocarpine-induced experimental seizures that was reconstituted after glutamate treatment in slices from mice...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935376/mesenchymal-stem-cells-modulate-light-induced-activation-of-retinal-microglia-through-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-signaling
#18
Libin Huang, Guoxing Xu, Jian Guo, Maosong Xie, Lisha Chen, Wei Xu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling on the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and retinal microglia. METHODS: Supernatants of homogenized retina were harvested from light-damaged SD rats (ISHR) to stimulated retinal microglia. Stimulated microglia were cocultured with MSCs, CX3CL1 over-expressing MSCs (CX3CL1-MSCs) or CX3CL1-blocked MSCs (anti-CX3CL1-MSCs) for 24 hours, and their molecular and functional changes were examined...
December 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932942/loss-of-fractalkine-signaling-exacerbates-axon-transport-dysfunction-in-a-chronic-model-of-glaucoma
#19
Kevin T Breen, Sarah R Anderson, Michael R Steele, David J Calkins, Alejandra Bosco, Monica L Vetter
Neurodegeneration in glaucoma results in decline and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and is associated with activation of myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages. The chemokine fractalkine (FKN or Cx3cl1) mediates communication from neurons to myeloid cells. Signaling through its receptor Cx3cr1 has been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, but the effects on neuronal pathology are variable. Since it is unknown how FKN-mediated crosstalk influences RGC degeneration in glaucoma, we assessed this in a chronic mouse model, DBA/2J...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923568/noradrenaline-induces-cx3cl1-production-and-release-by-neurons
#20
José L M Madrigal, Javier R Caso, Borja García-Bueno, Irene L Gutiérrez, Juan C Leza
CX3CL1 is a chemokine for which neurons constitute its primary source within the brain. Besides acting as a chemokine, CX3CL1 regulates multiple processes and is known to inhibit microglial activation. Because of this, CX3CL1 is considered as a messenger used by neurons to communicate with microglia. Similarly, the neurotransmitter noradrenaline reduces microglial activation and production of neurotoxic agents. Based on this, the regulation of neuronal CX3CXL1 by noradrenaline was analyzed. In primary cortical neurons, noradrenaline induced the accumulation of CX3CL1 protein and mRNA...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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