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Cx3cl1 microglia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810892/absence-of-cx3cr1-impairs-the-internalization-of-tau-by-microglia
#1
Marta Bolós, María Llorens-Martín, Juan Ramón Perea, Jerónimo Jurado-Arjona, Alberto Rábano, Félix Hernández, Jesús Avila
BACKGROUND: Extracellular Tau is toxic for neighboring cells, and it contributes to the progression of AD. The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis is an important neuron/microglia communication mechanism. METHODS: We studied Tau clearance by microglia both in vitro (microglia primary cultures treated with Cy5-Tau, affinity chromatography to study the binding of Tau to CX3CR1, and Tau-CX3CL1 competition assays) and in vivo (stereotaxic injection of Cy5-Tau into WT and CX3CR1(-/-) mice)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776289/spinal-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-may-not-directly-participate-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-in-rats
#2
Yawen Peng, Genhua Guo, Bin Shu, Daiqiang Liu, Peng Su, Xuming Zhang, Feng Gao
CX3CL1 (fractalkine), the sole member of chemokine CX3C family, is implicated in inflammatory and neuropathic pain via activating its receptor CX3CR1 on neural cells in spinal cord. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether CX3CL1 or CX3CR1 contributes to the development of morphine tolerance. In this study, we found that chronic morphine exposure did not alter the expressions of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in spinal cord. And neither exogenous CX3CL1 nor CX3CR1 inhibitor could affect the development of morphine tolerance...
August 3, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612258/downregulated-glia-interplay-and-increased-mirna-155-as-promising-markers-to-track-als-at-an%C3%A2-early-stage
#3
Carolina Cunha, Catarina Santos, Cátia Gomes, Adelaide Fernandes, Alexandra Marçal Correia, Ana Maria Sebastião, Ana Rita Vaz, Dora Brites
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown cause. Absence of specific targets and biomarkers compromise the development of new therapeutic strategies and of innovative tools to stratify patients and assess their responses to treatment. Here, we investigate changes in neuroprotective-neuroinflammatory actions in the spinal cord of SOD1 (G93A) mice, at presymptomatic and symptomatic stages to identify stage-specific biomarkers and potential targets. Results showed that in the presymptomatic stage, there are alterations in both astrocytes and microglia, which comprise decreased expression of GFAP and S100B and upregulation of GLT-1, as well as reduced expression of CD11b, M2-phenotype markers, and a set of inflammatory mediators...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389721/chemokines-in-neuron-glial-cell-interaction-and-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#4
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Yong-Jing Gao
Neuropathic pain resulting from damage or dysfunction of the nervous system is a highly debilitating chronic pain state and is often resistant to currently available treatments. It has become clear that neuroinflammation, mainly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines were originally identified as regulators of peripheral immune cell trafficking and were also expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372329/dynamics-of-the-complement-cytokine-and-chemokine-systems-in-the-regulation-of-synaptic-function-and-dysfunction-relevant-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Shanya Jiang, Kiran Bhaskar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting nearly 45 million people worldwide. However, the etiology of AD is still unclear. Accumulations of amyloid-β plaques and tau tangles, neuroinflammation, and synaptic and neuronal loss are the major neuropathological hallmarks of AD, with synaptic loss being the strongest correlating factor with memory and cognitive impairment in AD. Many of these pathological hallmarks influence each other during the onset and progression of the disease...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101527/regulation-of-physical-microglia-neuron-interactions-by-fractalkine-signaling-after-status-epilepticus
#6
Ukpong B Eyo, Jiyun Peng, Madhuvika Murugan, Mingshu Mo, Almin Lalani, Ping Xie, Pingyi Xu, David J Margolis, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, perform elaborate surveillance in which they physically interact with neuronal elements. A novel form of microglia-neuron interaction named microglial process convergence (MPC) toward neuronal axons and dendrites has recently been described. However, the molecular regulators and pathological relevance of MPC have not been explored. Here, using high-resolution two-photon imaging in vivo and ex vivo, we observed a dramatic increase in MPCs after kainic acid- or pilocarpine-induced experimental seizures that was reconstituted after glutamate treatment in slices from mice...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935376/mesenchymal-stem-cells-modulate-light-induced-activation-of-retinal-microglia-through-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-signaling
#7
Libin Huang, Guoxing Xu, Jian Guo, Maosong Xie, Lisha Chen, Wei Xu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling on the interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and retinal microglia. METHODS: Supernatants of homogenized retina were harvested from light-damaged SD rats (ISHR) to stimulated retinal microglia. Stimulated microglia were cocultured with MSCs, CX3CL1 over-expressing MSCs (CX3CL1-MSCs) or CX3CL1-blocked MSCs (anti-CX3CL1-MSCs) for 24 hours, and their molecular and functional changes were examined...
December 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932942/loss-of-fractalkine-signaling-exacerbates-axon-transport-dysfunction-in-a-chronic-model-of-glaucoma
#8
Kevin T Breen, Sarah R Anderson, Michael R Steele, David J Calkins, Alejandra Bosco, Monica L Vetter
Neurodegeneration in glaucoma results in decline and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and is associated with activation of myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages. The chemokine fractalkine (FKN or Cx3cl1) mediates communication from neurons to myeloid cells. Signaling through its receptor Cx3cr1 has been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, but the effects on neuronal pathology are variable. Since it is unknown how FKN-mediated crosstalk influences RGC degeneration in glaucoma, we assessed this in a chronic mouse model, DBA/2J...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923568/noradrenaline-induces-cx3cl1-production-and-release-by-neurons
#9
José L M Madrigal, Javier R Caso, Borja García-Bueno, Irene L Gutiérrez, Juan C Leza
CX3CL1 is a chemokine for which neurons constitute its primary source within the brain. Besides acting as a chemokine, CX3CL1 regulates multiple processes and is known to inhibit microglial activation. Because of this, CX3CL1 is considered as a messenger used by neurons to communicate with microglia. Similarly, the neurotransmitter noradrenaline reduces microglial activation and production of neurotoxic agents. Based on this, the regulation of neuronal CX3CXL1 by noradrenaline was analyzed. In primary cortical neurons, noradrenaline induced the accumulation of CX3CL1 protein and mRNA...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687148/cathepsin-s-contributes-to-microglia-mediated-olfactory-dysfunction-through-the-regulation-of-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-in-a-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-model
#10
Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Insung Kang, Soon Won Choi, Tae-Hoon Shin, Ji-Hee Shin, Byung-Chul Lee, Jin Young Lee, Jae-Jun Kim, Myung Geun Kook, Kyung-Sun Kang
Microglia can aggravate olfactory dysfunction by mediating neuronal death in the olfactory bulb (OB) of a murine model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by lipid trafficking defects. In this study, we focused on the crosstalk between neurons and microglia to elucidate the mechanisms underlying extensive microgliosis in the NPC1-affected brain. Microglia in the OB of NPC1 mice strongly expressed CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (Cx3cr1), a specific receptor for the neural chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (Cx3cl1)...
December 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646532/spinal-microglial-activation-in-a-murine-surgical-model-of-knee-osteoarthritis
#11
P B Tran, R E Miller, S Ishihara, R J Miller, A M Malfait
OBJECTIVE: Microgliosis, the activation of microglial cells, is thought to contribute to synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn and thereby promote chronic pain. The primary aim of this study was to document the temporal profile of dorsal horn microgliosis after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in wild type (WT) and Adamts5 null mice. Since neuronal fractalkine (CX3CL1) contributes to microgliosis, we assessed its release from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures after DMM...
May 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639555/microglial-cx3cr1-promotes-adult-neurogenesis-by-inhibiting-sirt-1-p65-signaling-independent-of-cx3cl1
#12
Sabine Sellner, Ricardo Paricio-Montesinos, Alena Spieß, Annette Masuch, Daniel Erny, Laura A Harsan, Dominik V Elverfeldt, Marius Schwabenland, Knut Biber, Ori Staszewski, Sergio Lira, Steffen Jung, Marco Prinz, Thomas Blank
Homo and heterozygote cx3cr1 mutant mice, which harbor a green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their cx3cr1 loci, represent a widely used animal model to study microglia and peripheral myeloid cells. Here we report that microglia in the dentate gyrus (DG) of cx3cr1 (-/-) mice displayed elevated microglial sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression levels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) p65 activation, despite unaltered morphology when compared to cx3cr1 (+/-) or cx3cr1 (+/+) controls...
September 17, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549131/fractalkine-shedding-is-mediated-by-p38-and-the-adam10-protease-under-pro-inflammatory-conditions-in-human-astrocytes
#13
Sinead A O'Sullivan, Fabrizio Gasparini, Anis K Mir, Kumlesh K Dev
BACKGROUND: The fractalkine (CX3CR1) ligand is expressed in astrocytes and reported to be neuroprotective. When cleaved from the membrane, soluble fractalkine (sCX3CL1) activates the receptor CX3CR1. Although somewhat controversial, CX3CR1 is reported to be expressed in neurons and microglia. The membrane-bound form of CX3CL1 additionally acts as an adhesion molecule for microglia and infiltrating white blood cells. Much research has been done on the role of fractalkine in neuronal cells; however, little is known about the regulation of the CX3CL1 ligand in astrocytes...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493972/actions-of-thyroid-hormone-analogues-on-chemokines
#14
REVIEW
Paul J Davis, Gennadi V Glinsky, Hung-Yun Lin, Shaker A Mousa
The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429982/cx3cl1-cx3cr1-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-target-for-neuroprotection
#15
REVIEW
Peiqing Chen, Wenjuan Zhao, Yanjie Guo, Juan Xu, Ming Yin
CX3C chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1) is an intriguing chemokine belonging to the CX3C family. CX3CL1 is secreted by neurons and plays an important role in modulating glial activation in the central nervous system after binding to its sole receptor CX3CR1 which mainly is expressed on microglia. Emerging data highlights the beneficial potential of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common progressive neurodegenerative disease, and in the progression of which neuroinflammation plays a vital role...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378696/lrrk2-modulates-microglial-activity-through-regulation-of-chemokine-c-x3-c-receptor-1-mediated-signalling-pathways
#16
Bo Ma, Leyan Xu, Xiaodong Pan, Lixin Sun, Jinhui Ding, Chengsong Xie, Vassilis E Koliatsos, Huaibin Cai
Multiple missense mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common degenerative movement disorder. LRRK2 is expressed by both neurons and microglia, the residential immune cells in the brain. Increasing evidence supports a role of LRRK2 in modulating microglial activity, of which Lrrk2-null rodent microglia display less inflammatory response to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The underlying molecular mechanism, however, remains elusive. Chemokine (C-X3-C) receptor 1 (CX3CR1), predominantly expressed by microglia, suppresses microglial inflammation while promotes migration...
August 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328691/differential-subnetwork-of-chemokines-cytokines-in-human-mouse-and-rat-brain-cells-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#17
Yang Du, Wenjun Deng, Zixing Wang, MingMing Ning, Wei Zhang, Yiming Zhou, Eng H Lo, Changhong Xing
Mice and rats are the most commonly used animals for preclinical stroke studies, but it is unclear whether targets and mechanisms are always the same across different species. Here, we mapped the baseline expression of a chemokine/cytokine subnetwork and compared responses after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primary neurons, astrocytes, and microglia from mouse, rat, and human. Baseline profiles of chemokines (CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10) and cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNFα) showed significant differences between human and rodents...
April 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314452/microglial-phagocytosis-and-activation-underlying-photoreceptor-degeneration-is-regulated-by-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-signaling-in-a-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#18
Matthew K Zabel, Lian Zhao, Yikui Zhang, Shaimar R Gonzalez, Wenxin Ma, Xu Wang, Robert N Fariss, Wai T Wong
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of mutation-bearing photoreceptors, is a significant cause of incurable blindness in the young worldwide. Recent studies have found that activated retinal microglia contribute to photoreceptor demise via phagocytosis and proinflammatory factor production, however mechanisms regulating these contributions are not well-defined. In this study, we investigate the role of CX3CR1, a microglia-specific receptor, in regulating microglia-mediated degeneration using the well-established rd10 mouse model of RP...
September 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239349/fractalkine-attenuates-microglial-cell-activation-induced-by-prenatal-stress
#19
Joanna Ślusarczyk, Ewa Trojan, Katarzyna Głombik, Katarzyna Chamera, Adam Roman, Bogusława Budziszewska, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965567/anthocyanin-effects-on-microglia-m1-m2-phenotype-consequence-on-neuronal-fractalkine-expression
#20
Manuela Meireles, Cláudia Marques, Sónia Norberto, Paulo Santos, Iva Fernandes, Nuno Mateus, Ana Faria, Conceição Calhau
Microglia mediate multiple aspects of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype or microglia-neuron crosstalk can be an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy. Anthocyanins are a class of flavonoids found e.g., in berries that has been attracting interest due to its neuroprotective potential. However, there are no data clarifying the impact of anthocyanins on microglial phenotype or on microglia-neuron crosstalk (CX3CR1/CX3CL1)...
May 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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