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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141294/-positions-of-the-implanted-stimulating-electrodes-for-artificial-facial-nerve-for-inducing-contraction-of-the-orbicularis-oris-muscle-in-rabbit-with-peripheral-facial-paralysis
#1
D Y Xu, N J Zhao, Y X Zhao, D Luo, Y J Sun, K Y Li
Objective: To explore the optimal positions of the implanted stimulating eletrodes for artificial facial nerve (AFN) for inducing contraction of the orbicularis oris muscle (OOM) in rabbit with peripheral facial paralysis. Methods: According to the four microelectrodes of the AFN stimulating side, four modes of the implanted positions were divided. In line with different modes, the electrodes were implanted into the affected OOM of the rabbits with unilateral peripheral facial paralysis. AFN output electric stimulation to induce contraction of the affected OOM with uniform stimulating frequency and pulse length in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140923/il-4-mediates-the-analgesia-produced-by-low-intensity-exercise-in-mice-with-neuropathic-pain
#2
Franciane Bobinski, Juliana Maia Teixeira, Kathleen Anne Sluka, Adair Roberto Soares Santos
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates the immune system resulting in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Exercise modulates the immune system promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages in uninjured muscle, and increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines can promote healing and analgesia. We proposed that PNI will decrease, and treadmill exercise will increase, release of anti-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138875/variant-course-of-extensor-pollicis-brevis-tendon-in-the-third-extensor-compartment
#3
Shiro Sugiura, Yusuke Matsuura, Takane Suzuki, Satoru Nishikawa, Chisato Mori, Kazuki Kuniyoshi
INTRODUCTION: According to the anatomical literature, the extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tendon passes through the first compartment and enters the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. There have been a few reports on the different types of supernumerary EPB tendons; however, an unusual course of the EPB tendon is extremely rare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Gross Anatomy, we detected an variant EPB muscle in a 96-year-old fresh female cadaver...
November 14, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136737/-research-progress-on-early-diagnosis-reasonable-prevention-and-treatment-of-symptomatic-spinal-epidural-hematoma-following-spinal-surgery
#4
X W Ye, S S Liu, P H Zeng, B L Liu
Symptomatic spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) following spinal surgery is rare but one of the serious complications. SSEH can leave devastating neurological consequences if missing the optimal timing for treatment. The early diagnosis of SSEH is critical to the neurologic recovery, and MRI examination can help to check the location and the scope of the hematoma and provide imaging information for surgical operation. The risk factors of SSEH can be divided into preoperative factors, intraoperative factors and postoperative factors...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136715/-analysis-of-the-clinical-and-electrophysiological-characteristics-of-multifocal-motor-neuropathy
#5
H F Wang, F Yang, F Cui, Z H Chen, L Ling, X S Huang
Ten patients diagnosed with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) were recruited in the Department of Neurology at Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 1, 2009 to August 31, 2015. The clinical and electrophysiological features were analyzed retrospectively. All patients complained of progressive asymmetric limb weakness, which was more severe in distal than in proximal. Five presented muscle atrophy. None had sensory disturbances. All suffered diminished or disappeared tendon reflex, whereas Babinski signs were negative...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135783/beyond-the-bottom-of-the-foot-topographic-organization-of-the-foot-dorsum-in-walking
#6
Taryn Klarner, Gregory E P Pearcey, Yao Sun, Trevor S Barss, Chelsea Kaupp, Bridget Munro, Nick Frank, E Paul Zehr
INTRODUCTION: Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. METHODS: Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking...
December 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134424/anatomical-basis-for-simultaneous-block-of-greater-and-third-occipital-nerves-with-an-ultrasound-guided-technique
#7
Ken Kariya, Yosuke Usui, Naoko Higashi, Tatsuo Nakamoto, Hironobu Shimbori, Satoshi Terada, Hideo Takahashi, Hisashi Ueta, Yusuke Kitazawa, Yasushi Sawanobori, Yasuhisa Okuda, Kenjiro Matsuno
PURPOSE: In some headache disorders, for which the greater occipital nerve block is partly effective, the third occipital nerve is also suggested to be involved. We aimed to establish a simple technique for simultaneously blocking the greater and third occipital nerves. METHODS: We performed a detailed examination of dorsal neck anatomy in 33 formalin-fixed cadavers, and deduced two candidate target points for blocking both the greater and third occipital nerves...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132416/distinct-functional-consequences-of-ecel1-dine-missense-mutations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-congenital-contracture-disorders
#8
Kenichi Nagata, Mika Takahashi, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroshi Kiyama, Takaomi C Saido
Endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1, also termed DINE in rodents), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, has been identified as a gene responsible for distal arthrogryposis (DA). ECEL1-mutated DA is generally characterized by ocular phenotypes in addition to the congenital limb contractures that are common to all DA subtypes. Until now, the consequences of the identified pathogenic mutations have remained incompletely understood because of a lack of detailed phenotypic analyses in relevant mouse models. In this study, we generated a new knock-in mouse strain that carries an ECEL1/DINE pathogenic G607S missense mutation, based on a previous study reporting atypical DA hindlimb phenotypes in two siblings with the mutation...
November 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131007/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-sensitivity-of-amplified-trpa1-activity-in-skeletal-muscle-afferent-nerves-and-exercise-pressor-reflex-in-rats-with-femoral-artery-occlusion
#9
Jihong Xing, Jianhua Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Limb ischemia occurs in peripheral artery disease (PAD). Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) that regulates blood flow directed to the ischemic limb is exaggerated during exercise in this disease, and transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) in thin-fiber muscle afferents contributes to the amplified sympathetic response. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in regulating abnormal TRPA1 function and the TRPA1-mediated sympathetic component of the exercise pressor reflex...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128986/longitudinal-neurophysiological-assessment-of-intramuscular-type-a-botulin-toxin-in-healthy-humans
#10
L Lispi, L Leonardi, A Petrucci
The aim of this study is to assess the neurophysiological abnormalities of type A botulin toxin-infiltrated human muscle, and their evolution over time. Seried cMAP measurements, 3 and 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation, EMG, SFEMG over 3 months from toxin injection. Our findings consist in lack of decrement with 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation and facilitation with 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation; progressive increasing of jitter; early appearance of fibrillations; small and short motor unit action potential in the first 3 weeks, followed by increasing of MUAP amplitude and duration, with polyphasic morphology...
November 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128629/influence-of-emotional-stimuli-on-lower-limb-cutaneous-reflexes-during-human-gait
#11
Martin Zaback, Brian C Horslen, Taylor W Cleworth, Laurel Collins, Cécile Langlet, J Timothy Inglis, Mark G Carpenter
Previous research has shown that cutaneous reflexes are modulated when walking with a threat to stability. It is unclear if this reflex modulation is purely related to the context of the imposed threat or if emotional changes associated with the threat exert an independent influence on reflex excitability. This study investigated the influence of emotional stimuli on lower limb cutaneous reflexes during treadmill walking. Twenty-eight healthy young adults walked at a self-selected pace while viewing pictures that manipulated emotional arousal and valence (confirmed with electrodermal and self-report measures)...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128312/parosteal-lipoma-as-a-rare-cause-of-peripheral-neuropathy-and-local-irritation-a-report-of-12-cases
#12
Kerem Başarir, Ercan Şahin, Mahmut Kalem, Mustafa Onur Karaca, Yusuf Yildiz, Yener Sağlik
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and functional results of patients with parosteal lipomas. METHODS: A total of 12 patients (8 females and 4 males; mean age: 45 (10-62) years) with parosteal lipomas who were treated between April 1986 and April 2014, were included into the study. The medical records of the patients were reviewed to analyze the clinical features and functional results of the patients. RESULTS: Of the 12 lipomas, 5 were localized in the proximal arm, 4 in the forearm, 1 in the distal arm, 1 in the distal thigh and 1 in the distal tibia...
November 8, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127695/management-of-the-other-retroperitoneal-sarcomas
#13
REVIEW
Piotr L Rutkowski, John T Mullen
The focus of this review is on the management of the less common sarcomas occurring in the retroperitoneal space, including solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) of the psoas muscle. As for other retroperitoneal sarcomas, surgical resection is the mainstay of curative therapy, and multidisciplinary preoperative assessment, including percutaneous needle biopsy for histologic confirmation, is the basis for personalized management, as the surgical management, and the integration of systemic therapy and radiation therapy is unique to each histologic subtype...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127505/high-resolution-ultrasonography-of-the-normal-extratemporal-facial-nerve
#14
Hannes Wegscheider, Gerd Fabian Volk, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Bernhard Moriggl
The technical advances in sonography of the past decade have supported the rapid improvement of high-resolution imaging, which enables the quick visualization of peripheral nerves at relatively limited costs. Recently, the possibility of visualizing the extratemporal facial nerve (FN) has been considered. This manuscript describes the first systematic evaluation in cadavers, of a novel ultrasonographic approach with this specific aim. Eight cadaveric hemifaces were evaluated by means of high-frequency ultrasound with two linear (13 and 22 MHz) and a convex transducer (6...
November 10, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127470/rectus-abdominis-muscle-innervation-an-anatomical-study-with-surgical-implications-in-diep-flap-harvesting
#15
Carla Stecco, Gian Paolo Azzena, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Astrid Behr, Anna Rambaldo, Cesare Tiengo, Raffaele De Caro
PURPOSE: To improve the current knowledge of rectus abdominis innervation, so as to identify a safe area where the vascular pedicle should be dissected to reduce the risk of nerve damage during deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvesting. METHODS: Ten abdominal wall dissections were performed. Perforating arteries were identified and classified into nerve-related perforators and non-nerve-related perforators depending on the presence of nerve branches crossing vessels...
November 10, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127449/determining-a-threshold-sub-acute-dose-leading-to-minimal-physiological-alterations-following-prolonged-exposure-to-the-nerve-agent-vx-in-rats
#16
E Bloch-Shilderman, I Rabinovitz, I Egoz, G Yacov, N Allon, U Nili
VX, a potent inhibitor of cholinesterase (ChE), is considered as one of the most toxic, persistent and least volatile nerve agents. VX is absorbed in various environmental surfaces and is gradually released long after its initial dispersal. Its toxicity is mainly caused by disrupting central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system activity, leading to potential long-term detrimental effects on health. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the threshold VX dose leading to minimal physiological alterations following prolonged VX exposure...
November 10, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126611/diaphragmatic-thickness-ratio-inspiratory-expiratory-as-a-diagnostic-method-of-diaphragmatic-palsy-associated-with-interescalene-block
#17
V M López Escárraga, K Dubos España, R H Castillo Bustos, L Peidró, S Sastre, X Sala-Blanch
INTRODUCTION: Diaphragmatic paralysis is a side-effect associated with interscalene block. Thickness index of the diaphragm muscle (inspiratory thickness/expiratory thickness) obtained by ultrasound has recently been introduced in clinical practice for diagnosis of diaphragm muscle atrophy. Our objective was to evaluate this index for the diagnosis of acute phrenic paresis associated with interscalene block. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We designed an observational study in 22 patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy...
November 7, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125661/eyelid-reanimation-using-crossface-nerve-graft-relationship-between-surgical-outcome-and-preoperative-paralysis-duration
#18
Masayuki Okochi, Hiromi Okochi, Emiko Asai, Takao Sakaba, Kazuki Ueda
BACKGROUND: To reanimate the mimetic muscles, crossface nerve graft (CFNG) is an effective surgical option. However, muscle atrophy after facial paralysis may influence the surgical result. We analyzed the relationship between surgical result and preoperative paralysis duration. METHODS: We performed CFNG on 15 patients. The sural nerve was transferred between the affected and nonaffected sides of the zygomatic branch. Eyelid function and eyelid lid were evaluated using the modified House-Brackmann scale...
November 10, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125188/the-mouse-passive-transfer-model-of-musk-myasthenia-gravis-disrupted-musk-signaling-causes-synapse-failure
#19
REVIEW
Nazanin Ghazanfari, Sofie Trajanovska, Marco Morsch, Simon X Liang, Stephen W Reddel, William D Phillips
While the majority of myasthenia gravis patients express antibodies targeting the acetylcholine receptor, the second most common cohort instead displays autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase found in the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. During development, MuSK serves as a signaling hub, coordinating the alignment of the pre- and postsynaptic components of the synapse. Adult mice that received repeated daily injections of IgG from anti-MuSK(+) myasthenia gravis patients developed muscle weakness, associated with neuromuscular transmission failure...
November 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124999/cervical-myelitis-presenting-as-occipital-neuralgia
#20
Sang-Mi Noh, Hyun Goo Kang
Occipital neuralgia is a common form of headache that is characterized by paroxysmal severe lancinating pain in the occipital nerve distribution. The exact pathophysiology is still not fully understood and occipital neuralgia often develops spontaneously. There are no specific guidelines for evaluation of patients with occipital neuralgia. Cervical spine, spinal cord, and posterior neck muscle lesions can induce occipital neuralgia. Brain and spine imaging may be necessary in some cases, according to the nature of the headache or response to treatment...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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