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Muscle nerve

Michael James Eastwood, And Ajith Paulose George
Intraoperative identification of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) is key in reducing nerve injury. This study aims to explore the surgical anatomy of the SAN and 2 landmarks for its identification-the sternocleidomastoid branch of the occipital artery (SBOA) and superior sternocleidomastoid tendon (SST)-to propose a novel method of identifying the SAN during surgical neck dissections. Twelve cadavers underwent bilateral level II-V neck dissection identifying the SAN, SBOA, and SST. Variation was documented and distance between landmarks and the SAN measured...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Takahiro Maekawa, Riki Ogasawara, Arata Tsutaki, Kihyuk Lee, Satoshi Nakada, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
High-intensity exercise has recently been shown to cause an increase in brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Some studies have suggested that myokines secreted from contracting skeletal muscle, such as irisin (one of the truncated form of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)), play important roles in this process. Thus, we hypothesized that locally evoked muscle contractions may cause an increase of BDNF in the hippocampus through some afferent mechanisms. Under anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed on a custom-made dynamometer and their triceps surae muscles were made to maximally contract via delivery of electric stimulations of the sciatic nerve (100 Hz with 1-ms pulse and 3-s duration)...
March 20, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Felix A Thomas, Volker Dietz, Thiemo Scharfenberger, Miriam Schrafl-Altermatt
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of unilateral reduction of afferent input on the 'neural coupling' mechanism during cooperative hand movements. This 'neural coupling' is reflected in the task-specific appearance of contralateral reflex responses in forearm muscles to unilateral arm nerve stimulation. Sensory input from the right hand was reduced by ischemic nerve block at the right wrist. Ipsilateral and contralateral reflex responses elicited by stimulation of the ulnar nerve either at the left or the right wrist proximal to the nerve block were recorded in forearm extensors during the performance of cooperative hand movements...
March 19, 2018: Neuroreport
Ji Won Kim, JaeSang Ko, Young Jun Woo, Hyoung Won Bae, Jin Sook Yoon
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in patients with GO and to investigate the associations between clinical features of the disease and the prevalence of OHT and OAG. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among a total of 1128 patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, including intraocular pressure, optic disc photography, visual field testing using a Humphrey visual field analyzer, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
F Munell, M A Tormos, M Roig-Quilis
Brainstem dysgenesis designates all those patients with congenital dysfunction of cranial nerves and muscle tone due to prenatal lesions or malformations of the brainstem. This generic term has the advantage over the eponyms Moebius 'expanded' or 'unrestricted', Robin, Cogan or Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndromes in that it has a less restrictive view and provides a frame work that enables a systematic approach to diagnosis and research of most developmental disorders involving the brainstem. The review of the literature and our experience shows that infants with a predominant rombencephalic involvement are due to brainstem prenatal disruptive vascular accidents, while cases with midbrain and cerebellar involvement and widespread malformative syndromes have most likely an underlying genetic cause...
April 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Jian Weng, Yan-Hua Wang, Ming Li, Dian-Ying Zhang, Bao-Guo Jiang
Delay of axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury usually leads to progressive muscle atrophy and poor functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is considered to be one of the main molecular mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly. We hold the hypothesis that the innervation of target muscle can be promoted by accelerating axon regeneration and decelerating muscle cell degeneration so as to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following peripheral nerve injury...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Ping Yao, Peng Li, Jun-Jian Jiang, Hong-Ye Li
Scar hyperplasia at the suture site is an important reason for hindering the repair effect of peripheral nerve injury anastomosis. To address this issue, two repair methods are often used. Biological agents are used to block nerve sutures and the surrounding tissue to achieve physical anti-adhesion effects. Another agent is glucocorticosteroid, which can prevent scar growth by inhibiting inflammation. However, the overall effect of promoting regeneration of the injured nerve is not satisfactory. In this regard, we envision that these two methods can be combined and lead to shared understanding for achieving improved nerve repair...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Forouzan Mohamadi, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammad Reza Nourani, Akbar Ahmadi, Jafar Ai
Regeneration of peripheral nerve defects remained a remarkable clinical challenge. Engineered nerve conduits represent a promising strategy to improve functional recovery in peripheral nerve injury repair. However, nerve conduits require additional factors such as neurotrophic factors to create a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Neurotrophic factors have well-demonstrated abilities to improve neurite outgrowth, making them great candidates for repairing of defected nerves. To this end, we examined the beneficial effects of repairing the transected rat sciatic nerve by loading of nerve growth factor (NGF) in nerve conduits...
March 20, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Jessica E Steele, Ian R Woodcock, Adrian D Murphy, Monique M Ryan, Tony J Penington, Christopher J Coombs
INTRODUCTION: Masticatory muscles or their nerve supply are options for facial reanimation surgery, but their ability to create spontaneous smile has been questioned. This study assessed the percentage of healthy adults who activate the temporalis and masseter muscles during voluntary and spontaneous smile. METHODS: Healthy volunteer adults underwent electromyography (EMG) studies of the temporalis and masseter muscles during voluntary and spontaneous smile. Responses were repeated three times and recorded as negative, weakly positive, or strongly positive according to the activity observed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Moniek A M Munneke, Chantal D Bakker, Eline A Goverde, Jaco W Pasman, Dick F Stegeman
After stroke, motor pathways are often affected, leading to paresis. It remains difficult to reliably predict motor recovery of the upper extremity, for which transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may add to clinical examination. Placement of the surface electromyography (sEMG) electrodes in TMS is essential for information about specific muscle groups and corticospinal pathways. This study primarily aimed to determine the optimal sEMG electrode positions for recording activity of forearm flexor and extensor muscles...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Yu-Ichi Noto, Neil G Simon, Alexis Selby, Nidhi Garg, Kazumoto Shibuya, Nortina Shahrizaila, William Huynh, José M Matamala, Thanuja Dharmadasa, Susanna B Park, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate differences in the distribution and firing frequency of fasciculations between peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to explore the generator site of fasciculations. METHODS: Ultrasound of 14 preselected muscles was performed in patients with peripheral hyperexcitability and ALS. The distribution and firing frequency of fasciculations were calculated. Cortical excitability assessment was also done by threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Giovanni Cirillo, Vincenzo Todisco, Gioacchino Tedeschi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term effects of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) on neurophysiological and clinical parameters in patients affected by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: 16 drug-naïve CIDP patients, fulfilling the clinical and neurophysiological criteria for typical CIDP, were treated with one cycle of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (0.4 g/kg/day for 5 consecutive days) and then shifted to the subcutaneous treatment (SCIg) (0...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Eunoo Bak, Namju Kim, Sang In Khwarg, Ho-Kyung Choung
SIGNIFICANCE: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) has variable initial manifestations, and acute orbital inflammation may be the first sign without apparent zoster rash. This case series is significant for presenting diverse clinical features and treatment options of HZO with acute orbital inflammation. PURPOSE: To report a case series of patients diagnosed as HZO with acute orbital inflammation including two cases with unique presentations. CASE REPORTS: Medical records of four patients of HZO with acute orbital inflammation were reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Jonathan D Glass
Maintaining the connections between nerve cells and muscle could help to slow the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
March 19, 2018: ELife
Korbinian Benz, Carla Kozmacs, Andree Piwowarczyk, Jochen Jackowski
A female patient, now aged 17 years, was diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in the right pterygopalatine fossa when she was 3 years old. The RMS was successfully treated by excision, but the subsequent radiation and polychemotherapy resulted in the complete anesthesia of the distribution area of the right trigeminal nerve and loss of vision in the right eye. The patient also experienced pain in the mandibular joints and masticatory muscles. Panoramic radiographs displayed a multiple agenesia of the permanent teeth and underdeveloped apices...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Jacqueline Garcia Duarte, Rodolfo Duarte Nascimento, Patrícia Rocha Martins, Débora d'Ávila Reis
Megaesophagus is one of the major manifestations of the chronic phase of Chagas disease. Its primary symptom is generally dysphagia due to disturbance in the lower esophageal sphincter. Microscopically, the affected organ presents denervation, which has been considered as consequence of an inflammatory process that begins at the acute phase and persists in the chronic phase. Inflammatory infiltrates are composed of lymphocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, mast cells, and eosinophils. In this study, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of nerve growth factor (NGF), and of its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA), molecules that are well known for having a relevant role in neuroimmune communication in the gastrointestinal tract...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Michael R Deschenes, Shuhan Li, Matthew A Adan, Jane J Oh, Hailey C Ramsey
BACKGROUND: This project aimed to determine the adaptability of the neuromuscular system to the stimuli of exercise training, and aging. METHODS: Young adult, and aged male rats were randomly assigned to either exercise training, or sedentary control groups. Exercise training featured an 8 week program of treadmill running. At the end of the intervention period, neuromuscular function was quantified with ex vivo stimulation procedures on isolated soleus muscles...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Emmanuel Weyne, Johanna L Hannan, Thomas Gevaert, Yodi Soebadi, Hotaka Matsui, Fabio Castiglione, Koenraad van Renterghem, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Maarten Albersen
BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that the neuropeptide galanin was strongly upregulated soon after bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) and that galanin and its receptors were expressed in nitrergic erectile innervation. Galanin has been observed to exert neuroregenerative effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons, but evidence for these effects in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) after BCNI is lacking. AIM: To evaluate the neurotropic effects of galanin receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro in nitrergic neurons and MPG and in vivo in rats after BCNI...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Ángel Agis-Torres, Paz Recio, María Elvira López-Oliva, María Pilar Martínez, María Victoria Barahona, Sara Benedito, Salvador Bustamante, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Cidre, Albino García-Sacristán, Dolores Prieto, Vítor S Fernandes, Medardo Hernández
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) play a pivotal role in nerve-mediated relaxation of the bladder outflow region. In the bladder neck, a marked phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) expression has also been described and PDE4 inhibitors, as rolipram, produce smooth muscle relaxation. This study investigates the role of PDE4 isoenzyme in bladder neck gaseous inhibitory neurotransmission. We used Western blot and double immunohistochemical staining for the detection of NPP4 (PDE4) and PDE4A and organ baths for isometric force recording to roflumilast and tadalafil, PDE4 and PDE5, respectively, inhibitors in pig and human samples...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Haiyong He, Wensheng Li, Chaofeng Liang, Lun Luo, Bo Hou, Huasheng Yang, Ying Guo
BACKGROUND: A pterional-orbital or subfrontal-orbital approach is recommended as a surgical treatment in cranio-orbital lesions. We describe a less invasive approach through an eyebrow incision combined supraorbital minicraniotomy and orbital osteotomy for treating some selected cranio-orbital lesions. METHODS: Sixteen patients with different cranio-orbital lesions were treated using this less invasive approach. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated to shed light on specific parameters related to this approach...
March 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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