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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816745/restoration-of-normal-sympathetic-neural-function-in-heart-failure-following-baroreflex-activation-therapy-final-43-month-study-report
#1
Raffaella Dell'Oro, Edoardo Gronda, Gino Seravalle, Giuseppe Costantino, Luca Alberti, Barbara Baronio, Tiziana Staine, Emilio Vanoli, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi
BACKGROUND: Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) exerts in severe heart failure sympathoinhibitory effects, improving clinical variables and reducing hospitalization rate. The current follow-up study was aimed at determining the long-term effects of BAT, assessing whether BAT in heart failure allows to restore physiological levels of sympathetic function. METHODS: Seven patients out of the 11 heart failure patients aged 66.5 ± 3 years (mean ± SEM) in New York Heart Association Class III with left ventricular ejection fraction 40% or less and impaired functional capacity recruited in the study survived at the final follow-up (43...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815909/proximal-neuropathy-and-associated-skeletal-muscle-changes-resembling-denervation-atrophy-in-hind-limbs-of-chronic-hypoglycaemic-rats
#2
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Molck, Henrik Soeborg, Jette Nowak, Melissa Chapman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bogh
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetic hyperglycaemia. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) might potentially exacerbate or contribute to neuropathy as hypoglycaemia also causes peripheral neuropathy. In rats, IIH induces neuropathy associated with skeletal muscle changes. Aims of the present study were to investigate the progression and sequence of histopathologic changes caused by chronic IIH in rat peripheral nerves and skeletal muscle, and whether such changes were reversible...
August 16, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815834/innervation-of-the-human-posterior-cricoarytenoid-muscle-by-the-external-branch-of-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve
#3
Mehmet Uludag, Nurcihan Aygun, Kinyas Kartal, Evren Besler, Adnan Isgor
BACKGROUND: The posterior cricoarytenoid muscle is the abductor muscle for the vocal cords and is innerved by the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). The purpose of this study was to present our determination if the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) contributes to the motor innervation of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. METHODS: We performed electromyographies (EMGs) via needle electrodes on 47 posterior cricoarytenoid muscles from 28 patients during thyroidectomy (9 lobectomies and 19 total thyroidectomies) with intraoperative neural monitoring...
August 17, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815070/supracarinal-dissection-of-the-oesophagus-and-lymphadenectomy-by-mie
#4
REVIEW
Harushi Osugi, Kousuke Narumiya, Kenji Kudou
Since 1995, video-assisted thoracoscopic oesophagectomy (VATS), according the same surgical principles as the Japanese open surgery, has been completed in 700 patients with oesophageal cancer. Our indication for VATS is (I) no extensive pleural adhesion; (II) no contiguous tumor spread; (III) pulmonary function capable of sustaining single-lung ventilation, and (IV) non radiated patients. We use 4 ports around a 5 cm mini-thoracotomy on 5th intercostal space. We laid emphasis on utilizing magnifying effect of video (5 to 20 magnifications), obtained by positioning the camera at close vicinity to the dissection...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815068/pattern-of-lymph-node-metastases-of-squamous-cell-esophageal-cancer-based-on-the-anatomical-lymphatic-drainage-system-efficacy-of-lymph-node-dissection-according-to-tumor-location
#5
REVIEW
Yuji Tachimori
Knowing the anatomical lymphatic drainage of the esophagus is crucial to understanding the dissemination pattern of esophageal tumor. During the embryonal growth, the middle and lower part of the esophagus stretches as the lymphatic networks develop in the submucosal layer. The abundant submucosal lymphatics drain in a longitudinal fashion directly to their proximal and distal ends. The lymphatic route from the proximal esophagus through recurrent nerve nodes to supraclavicular nodes are a component of the mesentery of the proximal esophagus...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814013/a-third-arm-design-of-a-bypass-prosthesis-enabling-incorporation
#6
Adam W Wilson, Daniel H Blustein, Jon W Sensinger
A variety of factors affect the performance of a person using a myoelectric prosthesis, including increased control noise, reduced sensory feedback, and muscle fatigue. Many studies use able-bodied subjects to control a myoelectric prosthesis using a bypass socket in order to make comparisons to movements made with intact limbs. Depending on the goals of the study, this approach can also allow for greater subject numbers and more statistical power in the analysis of the results. As we develop assessment tools and techniques to evaluate how peripheral nerve interfaces impact prosthesis incorporation, involving normally limbed subjects in the studies becomes challenging...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813574/dynamic-imaging-of-the-eye-optic-nerve-and-extraocular-muscles-with-golden-angle-radial-mri
#7
Saikat Sengupta, David S Smith, Alex K Smith, E Brian Welch, Seth A Smith
Purpose: The eye and its accessory structures, the optic nerve and the extraocular muscles, form a complex dynamic system. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this system in motion can have substantial benefits in understanding oculomotor functioning in health and disease, but has been restricted to date to imaging of static gazes only. The purpose of this work was to develop a technique to image the eye and its accessory visual structures in motion. Methods: Dynamic imaging of the eye was developed on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner, based on a golden angle radial sequence that allows freely selectable frame-rate and temporal-span image reconstructions from the same acquired data set...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811811/transient-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy-after-transoral-intubation-for-general-anesthesia
#8
Young Jin Choi, Jin Hee Lee, Young Duck Shin
Hypoglossal nerve palsy induces palsy in the ipsilateral lingual muscles, resulting in tongue deviation and articulation disorder. It is a rare condition that may stem from a variety of causes. Therefore, it is important to consider the possible causes of hypoglossal nerve palsy related to surgery or anesthesia, including intubation, the surgical positions, and mask ventilation during recovery.
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811104/a-double-determination-of-central-motor-conduction-time-in-the-assessment-of-hirayama-disease
#9
Chaojun Zheng, Dongqing Zhu, Feizhou Lu, Yu Zhu, Xiaosheng Ma, Xinlei Xia, Jianyuan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate central motor conduction time (CMCT) in patients with Hirayama disease (HD) and to analyse the role of motor nerve root lesions in the pathogenesis of HD. METHODS: CMCT measured by F-wave (CMCT-F) and by paravertebral magnetic stimulation (CMCT-M) was performed on both abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) in 41 HD patients and 22 controls. All patients underwent neck-flexion magnetic resonance imaging evaluation...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810724/sympathetic-nerve-traffic-and-blood-pressure-changes-after-bilateral-renal-denervation-in-resistant-hypertension-a-time-integrated-analysis
#10
Gino Seravalle, Graziella D'Arrigo, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesca Mallamaci, Gianmaria Brambilla, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi, Carmine Zoccali
Background: Renal denervation reduces blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic drive in experimental animal models, but the effect of this intervention on sympathetic activity in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension is still unclear. Methods: In an incident series of 29 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension, we performed serial measurements (n = 123) of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography) and standardized BP measurements. Data were analysed by mixed linear modelling (MLM) and by regression analysis of time-integrated changes of both MSNA and synchronous, standardized (in-lab) BP measurements...
August 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809841/measuring-neuromuscular-junction-functionality
#11
Emanuele Rizzuto, Simona Pisu, Carmine Nicoletti, Zaccaria Del Prete, Antonio Musarò
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) functionality plays a pivotal role when studying diseases in which the communication between motor neuron and muscle is impaired, such as aging and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we describe an experimental protocol that can be used to measure NMJ functionality by combining two types of electrical stimulation: direct muscle membrane stimulation and the stimulation through the nerve. The comparison of the muscle response to these two different stimulations can help to define, at the functional level, potential alterations in the NMJ that lead to functional decline in muscle...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808842/colonic-motor-dysfunctions-in-a-mouse-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-an-involvement-of-a2b-adenosine-receptors
#12
Luca Antonioli, Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Erika Tirotta, Daniela Gentile, Laura Benvenuti, Maria Cecilia Giron, Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Genny Orso, Nunzia Bernardini, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Balázs Csóka, Zoltán H Németh, György Haskó, Carmelo Scarpignato, Corrado Blandizzi, Rocchina Colucci
Adenosine A2B receptors (A2BR) regulate several enteric functions. However, their implication in the pathophysiology of intestinal dysmotility associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has not been elucidated. We investigated the expression of A2BR in mouse colon and their role in the mechanisms underlying the development of enteric dysmotility associated with obesity. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD (60% kcal from fat) or normocaloric diet (NCD; 18% kcal from fat) for 8 weeks. Colonic A2BR localization was examined by immunofluorescence...
August 14, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808593/combined-bone-transportation-and-lengthening-techniques-for-the-treatment-of-septic-nonunion-of-the-forearm-followed-by-tendon-transfer
#13
Konstantinos Ditsios, Eirini Iosifidou, Lazaros Kostretzis, Panagiotis Konstantinou, Iosafat Pinto, Ioannis Theodoroudis, Ippokratis Hatzokos
Infected nonunion of a forearm fracture complicated by a considerable skin-muscle defect poses a great challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. The treatment strategy comprises eradication of the infection, ensuring bony union and soft tissue coverage along with functional restoration. We report a case of a 23-year-old man with an open Gustilo-Anderson IIIb fracture complicated by infected nonunion after internal fixation. After thorough surgical debridement, a considerable soft tissue defect, extensor muscle loss, and posterior interosseous nerve laceration had to be addressed...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807781/engrailed-controls-epaxial-hypaxial-muscle-innervation-and-the-establishment-of-vertebrate-three-dimensional-mobility
#14
Mohi U Ahmed, Ashish K Maurya, Louise Cheng, Erika C Jorge, Frank R Schubert, Pascal Maire, M Albert Basson, Philip W Ingham, Susanne Dietrich
Chordates are characterised by contractile muscle on either side of the body that promotes movement by side-to-side undulation. In the lineage leading to modern jawed vertebrates (crown group gnathostomes), this system was refined: body muscle became segregated into distinct dorsal (epaxial) and ventral (hypaxial) components that are separately innervated by the medial and hypaxial motors column, respectively, via the dorsal and ventral ramus of the spinal nerves. This allows full three-dimensional mobility, which in turn was a key factor in their evolutionary success...
August 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807531/absent-cardiac-and-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activities-involvement-in-ross-syndrome-a-follow-up-study
#15
E Fileccia, R Liguori, P Cortelli, V Donadio
PURPOSE: Ross syndrome (RS) is characterized by selective involvement of post-ganglionic skin sympathetic nerve fibres. We report a follow-up study in 4 patients to clarify whether in RS autonomic dysfunction spreads affecting also cardiovascular system. METHODS: The patients underwent cardiovascular reflexes (CVR) and microneurography recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) for a follow-up mean period of 5years. RESULTS: CVR and MSNA were normal at baseline and unchanged over the follow-up...
August 9, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807072/clavicle-fracture-with-osteomyelitis-after-neck-dissection-and-post-operative-radiotherapy-case-report
#16
R Shodo, Y Sato, H Ota, A Horii
BACKGROUND: Non-traumatic bone fractures in cancer patients are usually pathological fractures due to bone metastases. In head and neck cancer patients, clavicle stress fractures may occur as a result of atrophy of the trapezius muscle after neck dissection in which the accessory nerve becomes structurally or functionally damaged. CASE REPORT: A 71-year-old man underwent modified radical neck dissection with accessory nerve preservation and post-operative radiotherapy for submandibular lymph node metastases of tongue cancer...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807025/changes-in-tibialis-anterior-architecture-affect-the-amplitude-of-surface-electromyograms
#17
Taian M Vieira, Maria Cristina Bisi, Rita Stagni, Alberto Botter
BACKGROUND: Variations in the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMGs) are typically considered to advance inferences on the timing and degree of muscle activation in different circumstances. Surface EMGs are however affected by factors other than the muscle neural drive. In this study, we use electrical stimulation to investigate whether architectural changes in tibialis anterior (TA), a key muscle for balance and gait, affect the amplitude of surface EMGs. METHODS: Current pulses (500 μs; 2 pps) were applied to the fibular nerve of ten participants, with the ankle at neutral, full dorsi and full plantar flexion positions...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806216/psoas-versus-femoral-blocks-a-registry-analysis-of-risks-and-benefits
#18
Hagen Bomberg, Andrea Huth, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Paul Kessler, Hinnerk Wulf, Thomas Standl, André Gottschalk, Jens Döffert, Werner Hering, Jürgen Birnbaum, Claudia Spies, Bernd Kutter, Jörg Winckelmann, Gerald Burgard, Oliver Vicent, Thea Koch, Daniel I Sessler, Thomas Volk, Alexander Raddatz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psoas blocks are an alternative to femoral nerve blocks and have the potential advantage of blocking the entire lumbar plexus. However, the psoas muscle is located deeply, making psoas blocks more difficult than femoral blocks. In contrast, while femoral blocks are generally easy to perform, the inguinal region is prone to infection. We thus tested the hypothesis that psoas blocks are associated with more insertion-related complications than femoral blocks but have fewer catheter-related infections...
August 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#19
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802637/blood-pressure-responses-to-dietary-sodium-association-with-autonomic-cardiovascular-function-in-normotensive-adults
#20
Evan L Matthews, Michael S Brian, David G Edwards, Sean D Stocker, Megan M Wenner, William B Farquhar
Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day(-1)) and 1week of low (20mmol·day(-1)) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS...
August 6, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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