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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161412/fluid-dynamics-in-heart-development-effects-of-hematocrit-and-trabeculation
#1
Nicholas A Battista, Andrea N Lane, Jiandong Liu, Laura A Miller
Recent in vivo experiments have illustrated the importance of understanding the haemodynamics of heart morphogenesis. In particular, ventricular trabeculation is governed by a delicate interaction between haemodynamic forces, myocardial activity, and morphogen gradients, all of which are coupled to genetic regulatory networks. The underlying haemodynamics at the stage of development in which the trabeculae form is particularly complex, given the balance between inertial and viscous forces. Small perturbations in the geometry, scale, and steadiness of the flow can lead to changes in the overall flow structures and chemical morphogen gradients, including the local direction of flow, the transport of morphogens, and the formation of vortices...
November 16, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160704/nanobiotechnology-for-environment-innovative-solutions-for-the-management-of-harmful-algal-blooms
#2
Matthew Robert Gellert, Beum Jun Kim, Samuel Evan Reffsin, Sebastian Eureko Jusuf, Nicole Denise Wagner, Stephen Winans, Mingming Wu
Nanobiotechnology has played important roles in solving contemporary health problems including cancer and diabetes, but has not yet been widely exploited for problems in food security and environmental protection. Water scarcity is an emerging worldwide problem due to climate change and population increase. Current methods of managing water resources are not efficient or sustainable. In this perspective, we focus on harmful algal blooms to demonstrate how nanobiotechnology can be explored to understand microbe-environment interaction and allow for toxin/pollutant detection with significantly improved sensitivity...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160124/an-evaluation-of-talent-4-a-programme-to-identify-talent-and-skills-for-prisoners-disadvantaged-unemployed-and-vulnerable-groups
#3
Rebecca McGuire-Snieckus, Laura Caulfield
Previous research suggests that the relationship between employment and recidivism is complex, with more support needed to facilitate employability motivation for sustained change. An arts-based programme designed to facilitate vocational self-determinism among prisoners with evidence of impact across three prisons in the United Kingdom was replicated and delivered to 234 prisoners and long-term unemployed participants from six European countries, to explore whether the findings from the previous evaluation would be replicated on a much larger scale...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160024/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-perspectives-on-the-causes-of-the-science-practice-gap-in-ecology-and-conservation
#4
Diana Bertuol-Garcia, Carla Morsello, Charbel N El-Hani, Renata Pardini
Applying scientific knowledge to confront societal challenges is a difficult task, an issue known as the science-practice gap. In Ecology and Conservation, scientific evidence has been seldom used directly to support decision-making, despite calls for an increasing role of ecological science in developing solutions for a sustainable future. To date, multiple causes of the science-practice gap and diverse approaches to link science and practice in Ecology and Conservation have been proposed. To foster a transparent debate and broaden our understanding of the difficulties of using scientific knowledge, we reviewed the perceived causes of the science-practice gap, aiming to: (i) identify the perspectives of ecologists and conservation scientists on this problem, (ii) evaluate the predominance of these perspectives over time and across journals, and (iii) assess them in light of disciplines studying the role of science in decision-making...
November 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160007/identification-of-factors-contributing-to-successful-self-directed-weight-loss-a-qualitative-study
#5
N Rafiei, T Gill
BACKGROUND: Despite the number of weight management programmes and their wide promotion, most overweight and obese individuals tend to lose weight on their own. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and strategies of those who successfully engage in self-directed weight loss, which could empower other overweight and obese individuals with information and strategies to manage their weight on their own. METHODS: Men and women who had lost at least 5% of their body weight without direct interaction with professionals or weight management programmes were recruited...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159935/bayesian-estimation-of-multicomponent-relaxation-parameters-in-magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting
#6
Debra McGivney, Anagha Deshmane, Yun Jiang, Dan Ma, Chaitra Badve, Andrew Sloan, Vikas Gulani, Mark Griswold
PURPOSE: To estimate multiple components within a single voxel in magnetic resonance fingerprinting when the number and types of tissues comprising the voxel are not known a priori. THEORY: Multiple tissue components within a single voxel are potentially separable with magnetic resonance fingerprinting as a result of differences in signal evolutions of each component. The Bayesian framework for inverse problems provides a natural and flexible setting for solving this problem when the tissue composition per voxel is unknown...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159579/examining-the-effectiveness-of-naturalistic-social-skills-training-in-developing-social-skills-and-theory-of-mind-in-preschoolers-with-asd
#7
Grzegorz Szumski, Joanna Smogorzewska, Paweł Grygiel, Ann-Marie Orlando
We compared the effectiveness of two programs for developing social skills, 'Play Time/Social Time' (PT/ST) and 'I Can Problem Solve' (ICPS), in improving the social skills and theory of mind (ToM) of preschoolers with ASD. The experiment took place in a classroom setting. Fifty-two children attended and data were analyzed with latent growth curve models. Comparison with a control group indicated that both programs were effective in developing social skills. The PT/ST program was more effective than ICPS in developing interaction skills; both programs improved children's ability to cope with difficult social situations...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159486/program-components-of-psychosocial-interventions-in-foster-and-kinship-care-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kemmis-Riggs, Adam Dickes, John McAloon
Foster children frequently experience early trauma that significantly impacts their neurobiological, psychological and social development. This systematic review examines the comparative effectiveness of foster and kinship care interventions. It examines the components within each intervention, exploring their potential to benefit child and carer well-being, particularly focussing on child behaviour problems, and relational functioning. Systematic searches of electronic databases included PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, the Cochrane Collaborations Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Scopus to identify randomised or quasi-randomised trials of psychosocial foster/kinship care interventions, published between 1990 and 2016...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158359/are-cocaine-seeking-habits-necessary-for-the-development-of-addiction-like-behavior-in-rats
#9
Bryan F Singer, Monica Fadanelli, Alex B Kawa, Terry E Robinson
Drug self-administration models of addiction typically require animals to make the same response (e.g., a lever-press or nose-poke) over and over to procure and take drugs. By their design, such procedures often produce behavior controlled by stimulus-response (S-R) habits. This has supported the notion of addiction as a "drug habit", and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of such behavior. However, for addicts to procure drugs, like cocaine, often requires considerable ingenuity and flexibility in seeking behavior, which, by definition, precludes the development of habits...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157980/preparation-and-characterization-of-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticles-carrying-insulin-and-gallic-acid-for-insulin-oral-delivery
#10
Yuxiao Zhang, Li Zhang, Qing Ban, Jian Li, Chu-Hua Li, Yan-Qing Guan
Although nanoparticles carriers for oral delivery of insulin have been researched for many years, this method still fails to solve issues with toxicity, biocompatibility, and degradability in the organism. We therefore developed an innovative conjugation system to solve this problem. Nano hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles were used as the core, then polyethylene glycol (PEG) was wrapped onto the surface of hydroxyapatite, and, finally, insulin (INS) and gallic acid (GA) were conjugated with PEG. PEG functionalized HAP was increased the hydrophilicity of the nanoparticles, also protected them from degradation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
November 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157873/quantized-filtering-for-t-s-fuzzy-networked-systems-with-saturation-nonlinearities-an-output-dependent-triggering-method
#11
Yushun Tan, Dongsheng Du, Shumin Fei
This paper addresses the problem of H∞ filter design for T-S fuzzy systems with saturation nonlinearities. For the purpose of reducing network burden, an output-dependent triggering scheme and a quantizer are introduced at the same time. The output-dependent triggering scheme is applied to determine whether or not the current instant information should be transmitted to the quantizer. Saturation nonlinearities, as a common phenomenon in networked systems due to the physical or technological constraints, is also considered here...
November 17, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156647/effects-of-nutritional-interventions-during-pregnancy-on-infant-and-child-cognitive-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Rachael M Taylor, Shanna M Fealy, Alessandra Bisquera, Roger Smith, Clare E Collins, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Alexis J Hure
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the current literature and meta-analyses results from nutritional interventions during pregnancy that aimed to optimise infant and child cognitive outcomes...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156614/a-loop-all-fiber-current-sensor-based-on-single-polarization-single-mode-couplers
#13
Hao Zhang, Junzhen Jiang, Yu Zhang, Huaixi Chen, Na Zhao, Lingyan Lin, Yishen Qiu
Low current sensitivity and insufficient system stability are two key problems in all-fiber current sensor (AFCS) studies. In order to solve the two problems, a novel AFCS combining single-polarization single-mode (SPSM) couplers and a loop structure is presented in this paper with a design that incorporates the advantages of both SPSM couplers and a loop structure. SPSM couplers are shown to simplify the AFCS system and reduce the risk of interference, and the loop structure can enhance the current sensitivity...
November 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156564/wireless-monitoring-of-induction-machine-rotor-physical-variables
#14
Jefferson Doolan Fernandes, Francisco Elvis Carvalho Souza, Glauco George Cipriano Maniçoba, Andrés Ortiz Salazar, José Alvaro de Paiva
With the widespread use of electric machines, there is a growing need to extract information from the machines to improve their control systems and maintenance management. The present work shows the development of an embedded system to perform the monitoring of the rotor physical variables of a squirrel cage induction motor. The system is comprised of: a circuit to acquire desirable rotor variable(s) and value(s) that send it to the computer; a rectifier and power storage circuit that converts an alternating current in a continuous current but also stores energy for a certain amount of time to wait for the motor's shutdown; and a magnetic generator that harvests energy from the rotating field to power the circuits mentioned above...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156300/attenuation-estimation-by-repeatedly-solving-the-forward-scattering-problem
#15
Natalia Ilyina, Jeroen Hermans, Erik Verboven, Koen Van Den Abeele, Emiliano D'Agostino, Jan D'hooge
Estimation of the attenuation is important in medical ultrasound not only for correct time-gain compensation but also for tissue characterization. In this paper, the feasibility of a new method for attenuation estimation is tested. The proposed method estimates the attenuation by repeatedly solving the forward wave propagation problem and matching the simulated signals to the measured ones. This approach allows avoiding common assumptions made by other methodologies and potentially allows to account and correct for other acoustic effects that may bias the attenuation estimate...
October 10, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156277/quantification-of-proportions-of-different-water-sources-in-a-mining-operation
#16
Laura Scheiber, Carlos Ayora, Enric Vázquez-Suñé
The water drained in mining operations (galleries, shafts, open pits) usually comes from different sources. Evaluating the contribution of these sources is very often necessary for water management. To determine mixing ratios, a conventional mass balance is often used. However, the presence of more than two sources creates uncertainties in mass balance applications. Moreover, the composition of the end-members is not commonly known with certainty and/or can vary in space and time. In this paper, we propose a powerful tool for solving such problems and managing groundwater in mining sites based on multivariate statistical analysis...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156247/humor-doesn-t-retire-improvisation-as-a-health-promoting-intervention-for-older-adults
#17
Lucy A Morse, Linda Xiong, Vanessa Ramirez-Zohfeld, Seltzer Anne, Becca Barish, Lee A Lindquist
As our population ages and aging in place continues to remain a priority of older adults, identifying novel ways to promote the wellbeing of older adults and reduce isolation is of the utmost importance. The Second City is a Chicago-based comedy improvisation organization that provides training in improvisation. One of their training courses, Humor Doesn't Retire, specifically teaches adults 55 and over, on improvisation. This study sought to explore the experiences of older adults enrolled in Humor Doesn't Retire, and to characterize any benefits that older adult participants perceived following participation in the comedy improvisation course...
October 28, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155811/an-efficient-moments-based-inference-method-for-within-host-bacterial-infection-dynamics
#18
David J Price, Alexandre Breuzé, Richard Dybowski, Piero Mastroeni, Olivier Restif
Over the last ten years, isogenic tagging (IT) has revolutionised the study of bacterial infection dynamics in laboratory animal models. However, quantitative analysis of IT data has been hindered by the piecemeal development of relevant statistical models. The most promising approach relies on stochastic Markovian models of bacterial population dynamics within and among organs. Here we present an efficient numerical method to fit such stochastic dynamic models to in vivo experimental IT data. A common approach to statistical inference with stochastic dynamic models relies on producing large numbers of simulations, but this remains a slow and inefficient method for all but simple problems, especially when tracking bacteria in multiple locations simultaneously...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155621/science-to-practice-enhancing-photothermal-ablation-of-colorectal-liver-metastases-with-targeted-hybrid-nanoparticles
#19
Xiaoming Yang
Image-guided percutaneous thermal ablation has been one of the principal tools in management of unresectable liver malignancies, including colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) ( 1 ). Currently, however, this technique is suitable mainly for tumors less than 4-5 cm in diameter and also results in incomplete ablation at tumor margins ( 2 ). To solve these problems, efforts have been made to combine thermal ablation with other treatment options, such as systemic and intra-arterial administration of therapeutics ( 3 - 5 )...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155588/determination-of-equilibrium-constant-and-relative-brightness-in-fret-fcs-by-including-the-third-order-correlations
#20
Lingyi Meng, Shanshan He, Xin Sheng Zhao
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) encodes the information of the equilibrium constant (K), the relative fluorescence brightness of fluorophore (Q), and the forward and backward reaction rate constants (k+ and k-) on a physical or chemical relaxation. However, it has been a long-standing problem to completely resolve the FCS data to get the thermodynamic and kinetic information. Recently, we have solved the problem for fluorescence auto-correlation spectroscopy (FACS). Here, we extend the method to fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), which appears when FCS is coupled with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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