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Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
October 13, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Gerwyn Morris, George Anderson, Michael Maes
There is evidence that immune-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways play a role in the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). There is also evidence that these neuroimmune diseases are accompanied by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypoactivity as indicated by lowered baseline glucocorticoid levels. This paper aims to review the bidirectional communications between immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways and HPA axis hypoactivity in ME/CFS, considering two possibilities: (a) Activation of immune-inflammatory pathways is secondary to HPA axis hypofunction via attenuated negative feedback mechanisms, or (b) chronic activated immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways play a causative role in HPA axis hypoactivity...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Amanda R de Oliveira, Adriano E Reimer, Fernando M C V Reis, Marcus L Brandão
Considering the complexity of aversive information processing and defensive response expression, a combined action of stress modulators may be required for an optimal performance during threatening situations. Dopamine is now recognized as one of the most active modulators underlying states of fear and anxiety. On the other hand, activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which leads to the release of corticosterone in rodents, has been considered a key part of the stress response. The current study is an extension of prior work investigating modulatory effects of dopamine and corticosterone on conditioned fear expression...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Mitsuhiro Denda
It has long been suggested that climate, especially atmospheric pressure change, can cause health problems ranging from migraine to myocardial infarction. Here, I hypothesize that the sensory system of epidermal keratinocytes mediates the influence of atmospheric pressure change on the human physiological condition. We previously demonstrated that even subtle changes of atmospheric pressure (5-20 hPa) induce elevation of intracellular calcium level in cultured human keratinocytes (excitation of keratinocytes)...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Marta Ferro, Hada C Macher, Pilar Noguerol, Pilar Jimenez-Arriscado, Patrocinio Molinero, Juan M Guerrero, Amalia Rubio
Fetal and Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a condition which could occur when pregnant women develop an alloimmunization against paternally inherited antigens of the fetal platelets. Approximately 80 % of FNAIT cases are caused by anti-HPA-1a, about 15 % by anti-HPA-5b and 5 % by other HPA antibodies. Only 2 % of the total population is HPA-1a negative (HPA-1b1b). The HPA-1a allele differs by one single nucleotide from HPA-1b allele, yet it represents around 27 % of total severe thrombocytopenias...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiao-Fan Zhang, Wei Zou, Yuan Yang
Depression is an important post-stroke sequela with negative impact on mortality, functional outcome and quality of life. Changes in cytokines have been hypothesized to be associated with the etiology of post-stroke depression (PSD). The altere dhypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning is associated with the onset of depression. The activity of HPA could induce the fluctuations of cortisol levels. In this study, we prospectively checked interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cortisol levels in patients with early ischemic stroke...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi, Nora Kogelnik, Eleonore Fröhlich, Wolfgang Sattler, Peter Holzer
Microbial metabolites are known to affect immune system, brain, and behavior via activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Unlike the effect of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the role of other TLR agonists in immune-brain communication is insufficiently understood. We therefore hypothesized that the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) causes immune activation in the periphery and brain, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and emotional behavior...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Sophie E Walker, Aurélie Papilloud, Damien Huzard, Carmen Sandi
Aggressive behavior is not uniform, including proactive and reactive forms of aggression. Aberrant functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is frequently associated with abnormal aggression. Here, we review the rodent literature in order to assess whether developmental abnormalities in the HPA axis can be causally linked with the emergence of abnormal aggression. We examine studies that involve genetic models and life challenges (e.g., early life stress, drug exposure) that course with developmental alterations in the HPA axis...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Joshua J Joseph, Sherita H Golden
Controversy exists over the role of stress and depression in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression has been shown to increase the risk for progressive insulin resistance and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple studies, whereas the association of stress with diabetes is less clear, owing to differences in study designs and in forms and ascertainment of stress. The biological systems involved in adaptation that mediate the link between stress and physiological functions include the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous and immune systems...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Susanna Sainio, Kaija Javela, Jarno Tuimala, Katri Haimila
Lack of reliable laboratory parameters is the main challenge in the management of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). Despite the long-known association between the HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele and human platelet antigen 1a (HPA-1a) alloimmunisation, maternal human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing has been of little clinical value. Recently, other DRB3 allele variants have been suggested to predict the severity of FNAIT. In this nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study, we performed extensive HLA typing of 96 women, accounting for 87% of our cohort of 110 families with confirmed or possible HPA-1a-immunisation...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Kuo Zhang, Jingyu Yang, Fang Wang, Xing Pan, Jian Liu, Lijuan Wang, Guanyue Su, Jie Ma, Yinxu Dong, Zhili Xiong, Chufu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often observed in the pathophysiology of depression. Antidepressant therapy can restore hippocampal neurogenesis to rescue the HPA axis regulation defects. Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), a famous Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically in depressive disorders in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated XCHT improved depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat, but the underlying mechanisms of XCHT on hippocampal neurogenesis and the HPA axis were still unclear...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Rosario Montirosso, Livio Provenzi, Daniela Tavian, Sara Missaglia, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Renato Borgatti
Individual variability exists in infants' socio-emotional stress regulation, in terms of behavioral response (i.e., negative emotionality) as well as magnitude and direction (i.e., increase or decrease) of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol post-stress concentration). The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism at codon 158 (COMTval158met) associates with stress regulation, but no evidence exists for infants. This study aimed to assess the association between COMTval158met and both negative emotionality and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 4-month-old infants...
October 12, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
Maria Bruzelius, Maria Jesus Iglesias, Mun-Gwan Hong, Laura Sanchez-Rivera, Beata Gyorgy, Juan Carlos Souto, Mattias Frånberg, Claudia Fredolini, Rona J Strawbridge, Margareta Holmström, Anders Hamsten, Mathias Uhlén, Angela Silveira, Jose Manuel Soria, David M Smadja, Lynn M Butler, Jochen M Schwenk, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Jacob Odeberg
There is a clear clinical need for high specificity plasma biomarkers for predicting risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but thus far such markers have remained elusive. Utilising affinity reagents from the human protein atlas (HPA) project and multiplexed immuoassays we extensively analysed plasma samples from two individual cohorts to identify candidate protein markers associated with VTE risk. We screened plasma samples from 88 VTE cases and 85 matched controls, collected as part of the Swedish 'Venous Thromboembolism Biomarker Study' (VEBIOS), using suspension bead arrays composed of 755 antibodies targeting 408 candidate proteins...
October 14, 2016: Blood
Laura Arroyo, Ricard Carreras, Daniel Valent, Raquel Peña, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Josefa Sabrià, Anna Bassols
Chemical neurotransmitters (NT) are principal actors in all neuronal networks of animals. The central nervous system plays an important role in stress susceptibility and organizes the response to a stressful situation through the interaction of the dopaminergic and the serotonergic pathways, leading to the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). This study was designed to investigate: a) the effects of stressful handling of pigs at the slaughterhouse on the neurotransmitter profile in four brain areas: amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and hypothalamus, and b) whether the alterations in the brain NT profile after stressful handling were associated with fear, determined by the tonic immobility (TI) test...
October 11, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Henry Reyer, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Ellen Kanitz, Ralf Pöhland, Klaus Wimmers, Eduard Murani
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a central player in the neuroendocrine stress response; it mediates feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and physiological actions of glucocorticoids in the periphery. Despite intensive investigations of GR in the context of receptor-ligand interaction, only recently the first naturally occurring gain-of-function substitution, Ala610Val, of the ligand binding domain was identified in mammals. We showed that this mutation underlies a major quantitative trait locus for HPA axis activity in pigs, reducing cortisol production by about 40-50 percent...
2016: PloS One
Nese Direk, Marieke J H J Dekker, Annemarie I Luik, Clemens Kirschbaum, Yolanda B de Rijke, Albert Hofman, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Henning Tiemeier
Determinants of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning are increasingly explored in population-based studies. However, functional tests measuring the negative feedback of the HPA axis cannot easily be implemented into large observational studies. Furthermore, high doses of dexamethasone often completely suppress the HPA axis in healthy persons. This study aimed to detect the effects of the health, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, psychiatric problems and cognitive functions on the negative feedback of the HPA axis using a very low-dose (0...
2016: PloS One
Dea Seidenfaden, Ulla Knorr, Mia Greisen Soendergaard, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Martin Balslev Jorgensen, Anders Jorgensen
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity is a well-established risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. In particular, there is evidence that childhood adversity increases the occurrence of positive symptoms, possibly through glucocorticoid influences on dopaminergic neurotransmission. AIMS: To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress...
September 24, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Ai-Ling Chen, Xi Sun, Wei Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Xin Zeng, Jing-Fan Qiu, Xin-Jian Liu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression has been described as a consequence of brain injury and infection by different mechanisms. Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause injury to the central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Both T cell and B cell immunity play an essential role in the resistance of the infection. However, whether brain injury caused by A. cantonensis infection can lead to immunosuppression is not clear. Therefore, the present study sought to observe the alteration of immune responses in mice infected with A...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Cinthia García-Luna, Paulina Soberanes-Chavez, Patricia de Gortari
Feeding patterns are important factors in obesity evolvement. Time-restricted feeding schedules (tRF) during resting phase change energy homeostasis regulation, disrupting the circadian release of metabolism-regulating hormones, such as leptin, insulin and corticosterone and promoting body weight gain. Thyroid (HPT) and adrenal (HPA) axes exhibit a circadian regulation and are involved in energy expenditure, thus studying their parameters in tRF paradigms will elucidate their role in energy homeostasis impairments under such conditions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
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