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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793048/dna-methylation-differences-at-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-in-depression-are-related-to-functional-alterations-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-and-to-early-life-emotional-abuse
#1
Chloё Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Niamh O' Leary, Chaitra Jairaj, Darren Roddy, Leonardo Tozzi, Derek Morris, Andrew Harkin, Thomas Frodl, Zsófia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf, Linda Booij, Veronica O'Keane
Depression is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. A proposed mechanism to explain these alterations are changes in DNA methylation levels, secondary to early life adversity (ELA), at stress-related genes. Two gene regions that have been implicated in the literature, the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) exon 1F and the FKBP5 gene intron 7 were examined in 67 individuals (33 depressed patients and 34 controls). We investigated whether cortisol concentrations, evaluated in 25 depressed patients and 20 controls, and measures of ELA were associated with the degree of methylation at these candidate gene regions...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790822/the-serotonin-transporter-polymorphism-5-httlpr-and-cortisol-stress-responsiveness-preliminary-evidence-for-a-modulating-role-for-sleep-quality
#2
Jens H van Dalfsen, C Rob Markus
The short (S) allele of a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is found to predispose the risk for stress-related affective disorders relative to the long (L) allele. Evidence suggests that elevated stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis might underlie this association although there is little understanding about the origin of inconsistent findings. Since inadequate sleep is commonly known to promote HPA stress reactivity, it might well play an important modulating role...
May 23, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783163/maternal-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-system-activity-and-stress-during-pregnancy-effects-on-gestational-age-and-infant-s-anthropometric-measures-at-birth
#3
Maria Gilles, Henrike Otto, Isabell A C Wolf, Barbara Scharnholz, Verena Peus, Michael Schredl, Marc W Sütterlin, Stephanie H Witt, Marcella Rietschel, Manfred Laucht, Michael Deuschle
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal stress might be a risk for the developing fetus and may have long-lasting effects on child and adult vulnerability to somatic and psychiatric disease. Over-exposure of the unborn to excess glucocorticoids and subsequent alteration of fetal development is hypothesized to be one of the key mechanisms linking prenatal stress with negative child outcome. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers-to-be (n = 405) in late pregnancy (36...
April 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782839/different-regulation-of-cortisol-and-corticosterone-in-the-subterranean-rodent-ctenomys-talarum-responses-to-dexamethasone-angiotensin-ii-potassium-and-diet
#4
Federico Vera, C Daniel Antenucci, Roxana R Zenuto
When harmful environmental stimuli occur, glucocorticoids (GCs), cortisol and corticosterone are currently used to evaluate stress status in vertebrates, since their secretions are primarily associated to an increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To advance in our comprehension about GCs regulation, we evaluated the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum to assess cortisol and corticosterone response to (1) the negative feedback of the HPA axis using the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test, (2) angiotensin II (Ang II), (3) potassium (K+ ) intake, and (4) different diets (vegetables, grasses, acute fasting)...
May 18, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776641/cortisol-awakening-response-is-decreased-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-and-increased-in-healthy-controls-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-abuse
#5
Simone Ciufolini, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Helen L Fisher, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Marta Di Forti, Patricia Zunszain, Craig Morgan, Robin M Murray, Carmine M Pariante, Paola Dazzan, Valeria Mondelli
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is highly prevalent in psychosis patients, but whether/how it affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the onset of psychosis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of severity of childhood abuse on HPA axis activity, in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. METHODS: We recruited 169 FEP patients and 133 controls with different degrees of childhood physical and sexual abuse (i.e. no abuse exposure, non-severe abuse exposure, and severe abuse exposure)...
May 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775916/cortisol-trajectory-melancholia-and-response-to-electroconvulsive-therapy
#6
Brian J Mickey, Yarden Ginsburg, Adam F Sitzmann, Clara Grayhack, Srijan Sen, Clemens Kirschbaum, Daniel F Maixner, James L Abelson
While biomarkers have been used to define pathophysiological types and to optimize treatment in many areas of medicine, in psychiatry such biomarkers remain elusive. Based on previously described abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in severe forms of depression, we hypothesized that the temporal trajectory of basal cortisol levels would vary among individuals with depression due to heterogeneity in pathophysiology, and that cortisol trajectories that reflect elevated or increasing HPA activity would predict better response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775885/clinical-correlates-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-measures-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis-and-with-first-episode-psychosis
#7
Javier Labad, Antonio Armario, Roser Nadal, Montse Solé, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Itziar Montalvo, Lorena Moreno-Samaniego, Lourdes Martorell, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations in at-risk mental states (ARMS) resemble those observed in established psychosis but are less consistent. We aimed to explore HPA axis abnormalities in both first-episode psychosis (FEP) and ARMS patients, while controlling for psychopathological symptoms. We studied 21 ARMS, 34 FEP patients and 34 healthy subjects. Clinical assessment included psychopathological symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressive symptoms) and stress measures...
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775877/communication-and-social-interaction-anxiety-enhance-interleukin-1-beta-and-cortisol-reactivity-during-high-stakes-public-speaking
#8
Brandon J Auer, Jessica L Calvi, Nicolas M Jordan, David Schrader, Jennifer Byrd-Craven
BACKGROUND: Worry or fear related to speaking in front of others, or more broadly, communicating and interacting with others, is common. At elevated levels, however, it may contribute to heightened stress reactivity during acute speaking challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine multi-system physiological stress reactivity in the context of high-stakes public speaking while considering the impact of hypothesized individual difference risk factors. METHODS: University student participants (n = 95) delivering speeches as a heavily-weighted component of their final grade had saliva samples collected immediately prior to speaking, immediately after, and 20 min after speech completion...
May 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774962/maternal-regulation-of-the-infant-s-hpa-axis-stress-response-seymour-gig-levine-s-legacy-to-neuroendocrinology
#9
REVIEW
Deborah Suchecki
Thirty years ago, Seymour 'Gig' Levine published a serendipitous, yet, seminal finding on the regulatory role of maternal presence on the corticosterone stress response of neonatal rats, during the developmental period know as stress hyporesponsive period. At the same time, his group of students also studied the stress response of infant monkeys to maternal separation, as a means to understand the stressful nature of disruptions of attachment to the primary caregiver. Gig and his group of students and collaborators, mainly in the USA and the Netherlands, investigated how initial social relationships buffer the stress response of non-human primate and rodent infants...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773855/the-anxiolytic-like-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg3-on-chronic-unpredictable-stress-in-rats
#10
Jia-Ning Xu, Li-Fang Chen, Jun Su, Zhi-Li Liu, Jie Chen, Qing-Fen Lin, Wei-Dong Mao, Dong Shen
The present study is to evaluate the anxiolytic-like activities underlying ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3). The anxiolytic-like activities were induced by GRg3 (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.g), evidenced by blocking the decreased time and entries in the open arms in elevated plus maze test and by reversing the increased latency to feed in novelty-suppressed feeding test. In addition, the decreased levels on progesterone, allopregnanolone, serotonin (5-HT) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) were blocked by GRg3 (20 and 40 mg/kg, i...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772083/effects-of-prenatal-stress-on-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behaviors-are-sex-specific-in-prepubertal-rats
#11
Ann Mary Iturra-Mena, Marcia Arriagada-Solimano, Ariane Luttecke-Anders, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764284/role-of-glucocorticoid-negative-feedback-in-the-regulation-of-hpa-axis-pulsatility
#12
Julia K Gjerstad, Stafford L Lightman, Francesca Spiga
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the major neuroendocrine axis regulating homeostasis in mammals. Glucocorticoid hormones are rapidly synthesized and secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. In addition, under basal conditions glucocorticoids are released rhythmically with both a circadian and an ultradian (pulsatile) pattern. These rhythms are important not only for normal function of glucocorticoid target organs, but also for the HPA axis responses to stress. Several studies have shown that disruption of glucocorticoid rhythms is associated with disease both in humans and in rodents...
May 15, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763645/agmatine-potentiates-neuroprotective-effects-of-subthreshold-concentrations-of-ketamine-via-mtor-s6-kinase-signaling-pathway
#13
Mauren K Tavares, Suellen Dos Reis, Nicolle Platt, Isabella A Heinrich, Ingrid A V Wolin, Rodrigo B Leal, Manuella P Kaster, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Andiara E Freitas
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most robust neurobiological findings in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) over the last 40 years. The persistent increase in glucocorticoids levels induces morphological and anatomical changes in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. Ketamine represents a major advance for the treatment of MDD, however the psychotomimetic effects of this compound limit its widespread use. Agmatine is a neuromodulator that has been shown to be a putative novel and well-tolerated antidepressant/augmenter drug...
May 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758940/self-reported-physical-activity-is-associated-with-tau-burden-measured-by-positron-emission-tomography
#14
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Vincent Dore, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Samantha C Burnham, Simon M Laws, Kevin Taddei, David Ames, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe, Ralph N Martins, Victor L Villemagne
Numerous animal studies have reported exercise reduces the accumulation of Alzheimer's disease pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau. Furthermore, we previously reported a relationship between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and lower brain Aβ burden in a human population. The recent advent of tau positron emission tomography (PET) tracers enables us to extend our investigations into the evaluation of the relationship between PA and brain tau burden. Utilizing data from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study, we have examined the cross-sectional relationship between habitual PA and PET-quantified tau burden...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757463/depression-related-behavioural-and-neuroendocrine-changes-in-the-spontaneously-diabetic-torii-sdt-fatty-rat-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Katsuya Sakimura, Tatsuya Maekawa, Kazuo Sasagawa, Yukihito Ishii, Shin-Ichi Kume, Takeshi Ohta
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric diseases and is commonly comorbid with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the pathophysiology underlying the depressive state in DM remains poorly understood. Animal models are useful tools to investigate the association between depression and DM. In the present study we investigated whether the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat, a novel animal model of type 2 DM, shows depression-related features. We assessed depression-like behaviour, hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and neurotransmitter levels in the brain...
May 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755397/stress-axis-regulation-by-vitamin-d-3-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Linda Rolf, Jan Damoiseaux, Inge Huitinga, Dorien Kimenai, Jody van den Ouweland, Raymond Hupperts, Joost Smolders
Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with both a poor vitamin D status and hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Since nuclear receptor ligands may regulate each other, we explored the association of vitamin D3 supplements with circadian cortisol levels in a double-blind and placebo-controlled supplementation study. Methods: Female patients with relapsing-remitting MS received vitamin D3 supplements (4,000 IU/day; n  = 22) or placebo ( n  = 19) during 16 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755375/influence-of-crhr1-polymorphisms-and-childhood-abuse-on-suicide-attempts-in-affective-disorders-a-gxe-approach
#17
Birgit Ludwig, Klemens Kienesberger, Laura Carlberg, Patrick Swoboda, Alexandra Bernegger, Romina Koller, Qingzhong Wang, Michelle Inaner, Melanie Zotter, Nestor D Kapusta, Helmuth Haslacher, Martin Aigner, Siegfried Kasper, Alexandra Schosser
Background: Previous studies have shown that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) is closely involved in the development of affective disorders. Given that early life events are also linked to dysregulation of the same system, there might be an association between childhood adversities and suicidal behavior in affective disorders, moderated by HPA-axis genes. We aimed to investigate a potential association between childhood trauma and previous suicide attempts in affective disorder patients, moderated by variants of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755146/stigma-consciousness-modulates-cortisol-reactivity-to-social-stress-in-women
#18
David Matthew Doyle, Lisa Molix
The aim of the current study was to examine whether stigma consciousness shapes cortisol responses to social stress among women in the lab. Undergraduate women ( N = 45) completed background measures and then participated in a public speaking task, with assessments of cortisol prior to the stressor as well as 20- and 40-minutes post stressor onset. Results from multilevel models revealed that women higher in stigma consciousness evidenced blunted cortisol reactivity following social stress across the study session compared to women lower in stigma consciousness...
March 2018: European Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754704/genetic-advances-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#19
Hernan Felipe Guillén-Burgos, Karol Gutiérrez-Ruiz
Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a condition that affects a subgroup of individuals that have suffered a previous traumatic event capable of generating changes at a psychological and behavioural level. These changes affect the personal, family, and social environment of those who suffer from this condition. Different genes have been identified as risk markers for development of this disorder. The population heterogeneity and individual differences (genetic and environmental) of each subject have made it difficult to identify valid markers in previous studies...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754003/stress-induced-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-concentrations-in-panic-disorder-patients
#20
Katja Petrowski, Susann Wichmann, Clemens Kirschbaum
BACKGROUND: An attenuated responsivity of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HPA) axis upon challenge and an increased risk for cardiac events are relatively consistent findings in panic disorder (PD) patients. Due to cytokine-HPA interactions, an altered HPA-axis responsivity may be accompanied by altered cytokine concentrations. Immunological reactions under stress might be considered the missing link for explaining an increased cardiac risk. This study analyzed stress-induced cytokine levels in PD patients...
May 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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