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Acid base disturbance

Yongbo Bao, Xiao Liu, Weiwei Zhang, Jianping Cao, Wei Li, Chenghua Li, Zhihua Lin
Clam, a filter-feeding lamellibranch mollusk, is capable to accumulate high levels of trace metals and has therefore become a model for investigation the mechanism of heavy metal toxification. In this study, the effects of cadmium were characterized in the gills of Tegillarca granosa during a 96-hour exposure course using integrated metabolomic and proteomic approaches. Neurotoxicity and disturbances in energy metabolism were implicated according to the metabolic responses after Cd exposure, and eventually affected the osmotic function of gill tissue...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ai Kawahara, Gi-Hong An, Sachie Miyakawa, Jun Sonoda, Tatsuhiro Ezawa
Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists...
2016: PloS One
Monique Mostert, Anthony Bonavia
BACKGROUND Besides providing anesthesia for surgery, the anesthesiologist's role is to optimize the patient for surgery and for post-surgical recovery. This involves timely identification and treatment of medical comorbidities and abnormal laboratory values that could complicate the patient's perioperative course. There are several potential causes of anion and non-anion gap metabolic acidosis in surgical patients, most of which could profoundly affect a patient's surgical outcome. Thus, the presence of an acute acid-base disturbance requires a thorough workup, the results of which will influence the patient's anesthetic management...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Jie Hao, Tongfang Xiao, Fei Wu, Ping Yu, Lanqun Mao
In vivo monitoring of pH in live brain remains very essential to understanding acid-base chemistry in various physiological processes. This study demonstrates a potentiometric method for in vivo monitoring of pH in the central nervous system with carbon fiber-based proton-selective electrodes (CF-H+ISEs) with high anti-fouling property. The CF-H+ISEs are prepared by formation of a H+-selective membrane (H+ISM) with polyvinyl chloride polymeric matrixes containing plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate, H+ ionophore tridodecylamine, and ion exchanger potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate onto carbon fiber electrodes (CFEs)...
October 14, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ahmad Arouri, Kira E Lauritsen, Henriette L Nielsen, Ole G Mouritsen
Because of the amphipathicity and conical molecular shape of fatty acids, they can efficiently incorporate into lipid membranes and disturb membrane integrity, chain packing, and lateral pressure profile. These phenomena affect both model membranes as well as biological membranes. We investigated the feasibility of exploiting fatty acids as permeability enhancers in drug delivery systems for enhancing drug release from liposomal carriers and drug uptake by target cells. Saturated fatty acids, with acyl chain length from C8 to C20, were tested using model drug delivery liposomes of 1,2- dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line as a model cell...
October 7, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Qurrat U Ain, Robert M Owen, Kiyoyuki Omoto, Rubben Torella, Krishna C Bulusu, David C Pryde, Robert C Glen, Julian E Fuchs, Andreas Bender
Selective modulators of the γ-amino butyric acid (GABAA) family of receptors have the potential to treat a range of disease states related to cognition, pain and anxiety. While the development of various α subunit-selective modulators is currently underway for the treatment of anxiety disorders, the mechanistic understanding of the correlation between their bioactivity and efficacy, based on ligand-target interactions, is currently still lacking. In order to alleviate this situation, in the current study we have analyzed, using ligand-based and structure-based methods, a dataset of 5,440 GABAA modulators...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Lutfu Hanoglu, Sultan Yildiz, Burcu Polat, Sema Demirci, Ahmet Mithat Tavli, Nesrin Yilmaz, Burak Yulug
BACKGROUND: Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is a rare clinical condition which is characterized with complex hallucinations by visually impaired patients. The pathophysiology of this disorder remains largely unknown, and there is still no proven treatment for this disease. In our study, we aimed to investigate the neural activity through Electroencephalography (EEG) power and evaluate the effect of rivastigmine in combination with alpha-lipoic acid on hallucination in two CBS patients with diabetic retinopathy...
October 3, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Stephanie L Austin, Andrew Chiou, Baodong Sun, Laura E Case, Kenny Govendrageloo, Perrin Hansen, Priya S Kishnani
OBJECTIVE: PRKAG2 syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by severe infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart rhythm disturbances to cases with a later presentation and a spectrum of manifestations including cardiac manifestations, myopathy and seizures. The cardiac features of PRKAG2 resemble the cardiac manifestations of Pompe disease. We present a patient who was initially diagnosed with Pompe disease and treated with alglucosidase-alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT); however, he was eventually diagnosed to carrying a PRKAG2 pathogenic gene mutation; he did not have Pompe disease instead he was a carrier for the common adult leaky splice site mutation in the GAA gene...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Katarzyna Zabłocka-Słowińska, Irena Porębska, Marcin Gołecki, Monika Kosacka, Konrad Pawełczyk, Lilla Pawlik-Sobecka, Katarzyna Zarębska, Halina Grajeta
AIM OF THE STUDY: Decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been reported in different neoplasms, including lung cancer. However, no study concerning the relationship between endogenous antioxidants, lifestyle factors, and TAC has been conducted among lung cancer patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations between endogenous antioxidants, severity of disease, lifestyle factors, and TAC in lung cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted among 59 lung cancer patients...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Annefleur M Koopen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The absolute burden of cardiovascular risk remains high despite currently available preventive and therapeutic options. In search for novel therapeutic leads, mounting evidence has linked the gut microbiota as well as their metabolites to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiota influences the host via different metabolic pathways as inducer of endotoxemia, formation of trimethylamine-N-oxide, production of short chain fatty acids, and is a regulator in intestinal bile acid metabolism...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Shruti Agrawal, Nandita Maitra
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate how the preeclampsia integrated estimate of risk (fullPIERS) model performs in the prediction of adverse maternal outcomes when the predictor variables are all obtained within 24-h of admission for preeclampsia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on 323 women who fulfilled definite inclusion and exclusion criteria was conducted. Subjects were monitored for clinical symptoms of preeclampsia, biochemical parameters, and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Dae Song Jang, Wenjuan Ye, Tian Guimei, Melani Solomon, Noel Southall, Xin Hu, Juan Marugan, Marc Ferrer, Gustavo H B Maegawa
Krabbe's disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme β-galactocerebrosidase (GALC), resulting in severe neurological manifestations related to demyelination secondary to elevated galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) with its subsequent cytotoxicity. The only available treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which delays disease onset but does not prevent long-term neurological manifestations. This article describes the identification of small molecules that enhance mutant GALC activity, identified by quantitative cell-based high-throughput screening (qHTS)...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
M Maegele
Based upon the results of CRASH-2, early administration of antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid (TXA) is recommended in bleeding trauma patients or trauma patients presumed to bleed. Many trauma centers and emergency medical services have adopted this practice into their routine algorithms. The pitfalls of CRASH-2 have been discussed in the literature, but the positive effects could sometimes not be reproduced in follow-up studies. The mechanism of action of TXA in trauma is still not clear and major knowledge gaps with TXA in the context of trauma have been identified...
September 14, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
Nichole Suzzanne Zuccarini, Tariq Yousuf, Daniel Wozniczka, Anis Abdul Rauf
Lactic acidosis is common and most often associated with disturbed acid-base balance. Rarely, it can be a life-threatening medication side effect. Hence, determining the etiology of lactic acidosis early in patients is paramount in choosing the correct therapeutic intervention. Although lactic acidosis as an adverse drug reaction of linezolid is a well-recognized and documented clinical entity, the occurrence of such mimicking an acute intracranial bleed has not been reported to our knowledge. The following case is presented as an example of such an occurrence...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Yong Fan, Yong Li, Yan Chen, Yi-Jing Zhao, Li-Wei Liu, Jin Li, Shi-Lei Wang, Raphael N Alolga, Yin Yin, Xiang-Ming Wang, Dong-Sheng Zhao, Jian-Hua Shen, Fan-Qi Meng, Xin Zhou, Hao Xu, Guo-Ping He, Mao-De Lai, Ping Li, Wei Zhu, Lian-Wen Qi
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis and diagnostic biomarkers for diseases can be discovered by metabolomic profiling of human fluids. If the various types of coronary artery disease (CAD) can be accurately characterized by metabolomics, effective treatment may be targeted without using unnecessary therapies and resources. OBJECTIVES: The authors studied disturbed metabolic pathways to assess the diagnostic value of metabolomics-based biomarkers in different types of CAD. METHODS: A cohort of 2,324 patients from 4 independent centers was studied...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Xinfeng Yan, Bo Feng, Peicheng Li, Zhaosheng Tang, Lin Wang
Background. Emerging evidences have shown a close interplay between obesity, diabetes, and intestinal flora disturbance. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exemplified by sitagliptin, is highly efficacious in treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM), yet little is known if sitagliptin exerts beneficial effects on microbiota associated with obesity and T2DM. We evaluated changes of gut microbiota following the induction of obesity and T2DM in a streptozotocin treated high fat/high carbohydrate fed (HF/HC-STZ) rat model and explored the effect of sitagliptin on gut microbiota for HF/HC-STZ rats...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Birgitta W van der Kolk, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W Jocken, Ellen E Blaak
INTRODUCTION/HYPOTHESIS: Disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) handling may contribute to the development and progression of whole-body insulin resistance (IR). In this study, we compared fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle FA handling in individuals with varying degrees of IR. METHODS: Seventy-four overweight/obese participants (62 men) were divided into two groups based on the HOMA-IR median (3.35). Fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle FA handling were determined by combining the forearm muscle balance technique with stable isotopes...
September 15, 2016: Diabetologia
Andrew C Preston, John F Taylor, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Tom Hansen, Hervé Migaud
The physiological effect of temperature on feed intake and haematological parameters after exhaustive swimming in diploid and triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta) was investigated. Trout were exposed to an incremental temperature challenge (2 °C/day) from ambient (6 °C) to either 10 or 19 °C. Feed intake profiles did not differ between ploidy at 10 °C; however, triploids had a significantly higher total feed intake at 19 °C. After 24 days, each temperature-ploidy group was exposed to exhaustive swimming for 10 min...
September 13, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
R M Heuer, M J Welch, J L Rummer, P L Munday, M Grosell
Neurosensory and behavioural disruptions are some of the most consistently reported responses upon exposure to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 levels, especially in coral reef fishes. The underlying cause of these disruptions is thought to be altered current across the GABAA receptor in neuronal cells due to changes in ion gradients (HCO3(-) and/or Cl(-)) that occur in the body following compensation for elevated ambient CO2. Despite these widely-documented behavioural disruptions, the present study is the first to pair a behavioural assay with measurements of relevant intracellular and extracellular acid-base parameters in a coral reef fish exposed to elevated CO2...
2016: Scientific Reports
Torsten P M Scheithauer, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: The twin pandemics of obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are a global challenge for health care systems. Changes in the environment, behavior, diet, and lifestyle during the last decades are considered the major causes. A Western diet, which is rich in saturated fat and simple sugars, may lead to changes in gut microbial composition and physiology, which have recently been linked to the development of metabolic diseases. METHODS: We will discuss evidence that demonstrates the influence of the small and large intestinal microbiota on weight regulation and the development of insulin resistance, based on literature search...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
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