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Acid base disturbance

Karl Gatterdam, Eike F Joest, Marina S Dietz, Mike Heilemann, Robert Tampé
Live-cell labeling, super-resolution microscopy, single-molecule applications, protein localization or chemically induced assembly are emerging approaches, which require specific and very small interaction pairs. The minimal disturbance of protein function is essential to derive unbiased insights into cellular processes. Here, we define a new class of hexavalent N-nitrilotriacetic acid (hexaNTA) chelators, displaying the highest affinity and stability of all NTA-based small interaction pairs described so far...
February 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Dong-En Wang, Jiahang Yan, Jingjing Jiang, Xiang Liu, Chang Tian, Juan Xu, Mao-Sen Yuan, Xiang Han, Jinyi Wang
Sialic acid (SA) located at the terminal end of glycans on cell membranes has been shown to play an important yet distinctive role in various biological and pathological processes. Effective methods for the facile, sensitive and in situ analysis of SA on living cell surfaces are of great significance in terms of clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. Here, a new polydiacetylene (PDA) liposome-based sensor system bearing phenylboronic acid (PBA) and 1,8-naphthalimide derived fluorophore moieties was developed as a fluorescence turn-on sensor for the detection of free SA in aqueous solution and the in situ imaging of SA-terminated glycans on living cell surfaces...
February 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Hanna Iribe, Kengo Miyamoto, Tomoko Takahashi, Yoshiaki Kobayashi, Jastina Leo, Misako Aida, Kumiko Ui-Tei
Chemical modifications of 2'-O-methyl (2'-OMe) and locked nucleic acid (LNA) of the nucleotides in the seed region (positions 2-8) of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) guide strand significantly reduced seed-matched (SM) off-target effects. The siRNA with 2'-OMe modifications inhibited the expression of a completely-matched (CM) target gene, whereas that with LNA modifications did not inhibit the expression of the CM target. By computational predictions of conformational changes of siRNA by these modifications, we revealed that both modifications in the siRNA seed region reduce SM off-target effects by steric hindrance to base-pairing with target transcripts but LNA modifications also disturb the association of the siRNA guide strand with the Argonaute (AGO) protein by altering RNA conformation...
May 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Ju Li, Nan Che, Lingxiao Xu, Qian Zhang, Qi Wang, Wenfeng Tan, Miaojia Zhang
Metabolomics has been applied to explore altered metabolite profiles in disease and identify unique metabolic signatures in recent years. We aim to characterize the metabolic profile of rheumatoid arthritis patients and explore its underlying pathological processes using metabolomics approach. Serum samples from 30 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 30 primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) patients, and 32 healthy controls (HC) were collected. The sample was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS)...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Xiaojiao Yi, Junfeng Zhu, Jinghui Zhang, Yun Gao, Zhongjian Chen, Shihai Lu, Zongwei Cai, Yanjun Hong, Yongjiang Wu
Although Danhong injection (DHI) has been clearly shown to attenuate ischemic myocardial injury and improve heart function, there is no research regarding its role in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the reverse effect of DHI on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells. The results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay demonstrated that DHI had no cytotoxicity towards the relevant cell line unless the concentration was as high as 50 μL/mL...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Davide Capauto, Alessio Colantoni, Lei Lu, Tiziana Santini, Giovanna Peruzzi, Silvia Biscarini, Mariangela Morlando, Neil A Shneider, Elisa Caffarelli, Pietro Laneve, Irene Bozzoni
Mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). FUS is a multifunctional protein involved in the biogenesis and activity of several types of RNAs, and its role in the pathogenesis of ALS may involve both direct effects of disease-associated mutations through gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms and indirect effects due to the cross talk between different classes of FUS-dependent RNAs. To explore how FUS mutations impinge on motor neuron-specific RNA-based circuitries, we performed transcriptome profiling of small and long RNAs of motor neurons (MNs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells carrying a FUS-P517L knock-in mutation, which is equivalent to human FUS-P525L, associated with a severe and juvenile-onset form of ALS...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Laura S Stapp, Laura M Parker, Wayne A O'Connor, Christian Bock, Pauline M Ross, Hans O Pörtner, G Lannig
Understanding mechanisms of intraspecific variation in resilience to environmental drivers is key to predict species' adaptive potential. Recent studies show a higher CO2 resilience of Sydney rock oysters selectively bred for increased growth and disease resistance ('selected oysters') compared to the wild population. We tested whether the higher resilience of selected oysters correlates with an increased ability to compensate for CO2-induced acid-base disturbances. After 7 weeks of exposure to elevated seawater PCO2 (1100 μatm), wild oysters had a lower extracellular pH (pHe = 7...
December 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Arnulf H Koeppen
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA-3)/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), the most common autosomal dominant ataxia, affects many regions of the brain and spinal cord. Similar to SCA-1, SCA-2, SCA-6, SCA-7, and SCA-17, the mutation consists of a pathogenic translated cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion. Almost invariably, the substantia nigra and the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum bear the brunt of the disease, and these lesions account for the Parkinsonian and ataxic phenotypes. Lesions of motor nuclei in the brain stem cause the complex disturbance of ocular motility and weakness of the tongue...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mai O Kadry, Rehab Abdel Megeed
Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant that causes a variety of disturbances in biological systems, including brain dysfunction and testicular tissue degeneration. On the other hand, it is supposed that beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus and Acidobacillus) are related to their capacity to adhere or bind different targets, thus leading to improved intestinal microbial balance and other benefits to the host. Bearing aforementioned in mind, the present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of probiotic supplementation against cadmium chloride-induced brain and testis toxicity in mice model...
February 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Hansjörg Baurecht, Malte C Rühlemann, Elke Rodríguez, Frederieke Thielking, Inken Harder, Anna-Sophie Erkens, Dora Stölzl, Eva Ellinghaus, Melanie Hotze, Wolfgang Lieb, Sheng Wang, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Stephan Weidinger
BACKGROUND: Genomic approaches have revealed characteristic site-specificities of skin bacterial community structures. In addition, in children with atopic dermatitis (AD), characteristic shifts were described at creases and in particular during flares, which have been postulated to mirror the disturbed skin barrier function and/or cutaneous inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to comprehensively analyse microbial configurations in AD across body sites, and to explore the impact of distinct abnormalities of epidermal barrier function...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Michael A Puskarich, Charles R Evans, Alla Karnovsky, Arun K Das, Alan E Jones, Kathleen A Stringer
INTRODUCTION: Sepsis-induced metabolic disturbances include hyperlactatemia, disruption of glycolysis, protein catabolism, and altered fatty acid metabolism. It may also lower serum L-carnitine which supports the use of L-carnitine supplementation as a treatment to ameliorate several of these metabolic consequences. METHODS: To further understand the association between L-carnitine-induced changes in serum acylcarnitines, fatty acid metabolism and survival, serum samples from (T0), 12 hours following completion (T24) of L-carnitine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 15) administration, and 48 hours (T48) after enrollment from patients with septic shock enrolled in a randomized control trial were assayed for acylcarnitines, free fatty acids and insulin...
September 20, 2017: Shock
Zuzana Dvoráková, Daniel Renciuk, Iva Kejnovská, Petra Školáková, Klára Bednárová, Janos Sagi, Michaela Vorlícková
i-Motif (iM) is a four stranded DNA structure formed by cytosine-rich sequences, which are often present in functionally important parts of the genome such as promoters of genes and telomeres. Using electronic circular dichroism and UV absorption spectroscopies and electrophoretic methods, we examined the effect of four naturally occurring DNA base lesions on the folding and stability of the iM formed by the human telomere DNA sequence (C3TAA)3C3T. The results demonstrate that the TAA loop lesions, the apurinic site and 8-oxoadenine substituting for adenine, and the 5-hydroxymethyluracil substituting for thymine only marginally disturb the formation of iM...
January 25, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Claudio Iacobucci, Michael Goetze, Christine Piotrowski, Christian Arlt, Anne Rehkamp, Christian H Ihling, Christoph Hage, Andrea Sinz
A major challenge in cross-linking/mass spectrometry (MS) is targeting carboxyl functions in proteins under physiological conditions that do not disturb the protein's conformation. Cross-linking of glutamic acid and aspartic acid residues in proteins will greatly expand the scope of structural mass spectrometry. We discovered that carboxyl-reactive cross-linkers have already been employed for many years in cross-linking/MS studies - yet in a completely different context. Diazirine-based cross-linkers, such as photo-methionine and succin-imidyldiazirine cross-linkers, are currently considered to react non-specifically upon UV-A photoactivation with all 20 proteinogenic amino acids through a reactive carbene that inserts mainly into C-H bonds...
January 27, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yan-Lin Guo, Pei Wu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Jun Jiang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of dietary iron on immune function and structural integrity in gill of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 630 grass carp (242.32 ± 0.58 g) were fed diets containing graded levels of iron at 12.15 (basal diet), 35.38, 63.47, 86.43, 111.09, 136.37 and 73.50 mg/kg for 60 days. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by infection with Flavobacterium columnare to investigate the effects of dietary iron on gill immune function and structural integrity in young grass carp...
January 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Gertrud K Nürnberg, Rachele Fischer, Andrew M Paterson
Formerly acidified lakes and watersheds can become more productive when recovering from acidity, especially when exposed to anthropogenic disturbance and increased nutrient loading. Occasional toxic cyanobacterial blooms and other signs of eutrophication have been observed for a decade in lakes located in the Sudbury, Ontario, mining area that was severely affected by acid deposition before the start of smelter emission reductions in the 1970s. Oligotrophic Long Lake and its upstream lakes have been exposed to waste water input and development impacts from the City of Greater Sudbury and likely have a legacy of nutrient enrichment in their sediment...
January 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Eliezer Zachary Nussbaum, Mark A Perazella
Anticancer drug-induced kidney disease is a problem commonly encountered by nephrologists. The number of medications employed by oncologists causing acute and chronic kidney injury as well as electrolyte and acid-base disturbances has increased significantly over the past several decades. While conventional chemotherapeutic drugs induce a number of kidney lesions, emergence of very effective and well-tolerated targeted therapies and novel immunotherapies has increased the occurrence of drug-induced acute and chronic kidney injury in cancer patients...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Pei Wu, Xin Zheng, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Lin Feng
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dietary pyridoxine (PN) deficiency on intestinal antioxidant capacity, cell apoptosis and intercellular tight junction in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (231.85 ± 0.63 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of PN (0.12-7.48 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 2 weeks. The results showed that compared with the optimal PN level, PN deficiency (1) increased the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC), decreased the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes such as copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) (P < ...
January 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhipeng Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Quanli Liu, Linjia Sun, Mingming Lv, Peipei Yu, Xiaohui Chen
1. To investigate Genkwa Flos hepatotoxicity, a cell metabolomics strategy combined with serum pharmacology was performed on human HL-7702 liver cells in this study. 2. Firstly, cell viability and biochemical indicators were determined and the cell morphology was observed to confirm the cell injury and develop a cell hepatotoxicity model. Then, with the help of cell metabolomics based on UPLC-MS, the Genkwa Flos group samples were completely separated from the blank group samples in the score plots and seven upregulated as well as two down-regulated putative biomarkers in the loading plot were identified and confirmed...
January 11, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Yazhou Zhao, Jianmei Zhang, Yanping Chen, Zhiguo Li, Hongyi Nie, Wenjun Peng, Songkun Su
To improve our understanding of the disturbed metabolic pathways and cellular responses triggered by honeybee venom stimulation, we compared the changes in serum metabolites rats, either stimulated or not by honeybee venom by performing 1H NMR spectrometry-based metabonomics to identify potential biomarkers. In this study, 65 metabolites were structurally confirmed and quantified and the following results were obtained. Firstly, by pattern recognition analysis, 14 metabolites were selected as potential biomarkers 3 hrs after venom stimulation...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Limei Zhu, Na Gao, Ruifang Wang, Li Zhang
Ammonia is both a highly toxic environmental pollutant and the major nitrogenous waste produced by ammoniotelic teleosts. Although the acute toxic effects of ammonia have been widely studied in fish, the biochemical mechanisms of its toxicity have not been understood comprehensively. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis between ammonia-challenged (1.2 and 2.6 mmol L-1 NH4Cl for 96 h) and control groups of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) to identify changes of the metabolite and protein profiles in response to ammonia stress...
January 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
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