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Myocardial ischemia and glucose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937442/orally-active-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-analogs
#1
William B Campbell, John D Imig, James M Schmitz, John R Falck
Biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases of endothelial, myocardial, and renal tubular cells. EETs relax vascular smooth muscle and decrease inflammatory cell adhesion and cytokine release. Renal EETs promote sodium excretion and vasodilation to decrease hypertension. Cardiac EETs reduce infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion injury and decrease fibrosis and inflammation in heart failure. In diabetes, EETs improve insulin sensitivity, increase glucose tolerance, and reduce the renal injury...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934276/enhanced-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-activity-improves-cardiac-outcomes-in-a-murine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#2
Lin Piao, Yong-Hu Fang, Manfred M Kubler, Michael W Donnino, Willard W Sharp
RATIONALE: Post-ischemic changes in cellular metabolism alter myocardial and neurological function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the limiting step in mitochondrial glucose oxidation, is inhibited by increased expression of PDH kinase (PDK) during ischemia/reperfusion injury. This results in decreased utilization of glucose to generate cellular ATP. Post-cardiac arrest (CA) hypothermia improves outcomes and alters metabolism, but its influence on PDH and PDK activity following CA are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903365/protective-effects-of-circulating-microvesicles-derived-from-myocardial-ischemic-rats-on-apoptosis-of-cardiomyocytes-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#3
Yao Wang, Su Wei, Yi-Lu Wang, Miao Liu, Man Shang, Qi Zhang, Yan-Na Wu, Ming-Lin Liu, Jun-Qiu Song, Yan-Xia Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of circulating microvesicles derived from myocardial ischemia (I-MVs) on apoptosis in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: I-MVs from rats undergoing myocardial left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation were isolated by ultracentrifugation from circulating blood and characterized by flow cytometry. I-MVs were administered intravenously (4.8 mg/kg) at 5 min before reperfusion procedure in I/R injury model which was induced by 30-min of ischemia and 120-min of reperfusion of LAD in rats...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894025/attenuation-of-mir-34a-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-hypoxic-stress-through-maintenance-of-glycolysis
#4
Ying Zhang, Gang Liu, Xiaogang Gao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, short single-stranded non-coding RNAs, which are tightly linked to cardiac disorders such as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. MiR-34a is known to be involved in the hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we demonstrate under low glucose supply, rat cardiomyocytes are susceptive to hypoxia. Under short time hypoxia, cellular glucose uptake and lactate product are induced but under long time hypoxia, the cellular glucose metabolism are suppressed...
September 11, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876386/a-possible-relationship-between-gluconeogenesis-and-glycogen-metabolism-in-rabbits-during-myocardial-ischemia
#5
Raquel R DE Aguiar, Daniela F Vale, Renato M DA Silva, Yolanda P Muniz, Fernanda Antunes, Carlos Logullo, André L A Oliveira, Adriana J DE Almeida
Ischemia is responsible for many metabolic abnormalities in the heart, causing changes in organ function. One of modifications occurring in the ischemic cell is changing from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. This change causes the predominance of the use of carbohydrates as an energy substrate instead of lipids. In this case, the glycogen is essential to the maintenance of heart energy intake, being an important reserve to resist the stress caused by hypoxia, using glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. In order to study the glucose anaerobic pathways utilization and understand the metabolic adaptations, New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to ischemia caused by Inflow occlusion technique...
August 31, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867579/socs2-exacerbates-myocardial-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-diabetic-mice-and-h9c2-cells-through-inhibiting-the-jak-stat-igf-1-pathway
#6
Mengting Sheng, Zirui Huang, Liming Pan, Min Yu, Cai Yi, Lin Teng, Ling He, Chen Gu, Chunli Xu, Junming Li
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate potential candidates and molecular mechanisms of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (MIRI) in type 2 diabetes mellitus. MAIN METHODS: Type 2 diabetic and myocardial I/R mouse models were established with a high fat-diet (HFD) for 24weeks and subjecting to global ischemia/reperfusion for 1h/3h, respectively. Microarray analysis was applied to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hearts of these mice. Moreover, H9c2 cells were treated with high glucose (HG) and/or hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R)...
August 31, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860710/alginate-oligosaccharide-alleviates-myocardial-reperfusion-injury-by-inhibiting-nitrative-and-oxidative-stress-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis
#7
Jun-Jie Guo, Feng-Qiang Xu, Yong-Hong Li, Jian Li, Xin Liu, Xiao-Fan Wang, Long-Gang Hu, Yi An
Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) has recently demonstrated the ability to protect against acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders by inhibiting oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis, which are both involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In the present study, we investigated whether pretreatment with AOS protects against myocardial I/R injury in mice and explored potential cardioprotective mechanisms. AOS pretreatment significantly decreased the infarct size, reduced the cardiac troponin-I concentration, and ameliorated the cardiac dysfunction...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851567/association-of-down-regulation-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-substance-p-with-increase-of-myocardial-vulnerability-in-diabetic-neuropathic-rats
#8
Tu-Ping Li, Zheng Guo, Chao-Jie Liu, Tao Sun, Lu Chen, Xin Zhao
Diabetic patients present high co-morbidities of neuropathy and severer consequences of coronary heart disease. But the pathological mechanism is still unclear. Here we investigated a potential association of diabetic impairment of sensory nerves with increase of vulnerability of myocardium in acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. A rat model of diabetes mellitus was induced by high fat and sugar diet plus a small dose of streptozotocin. Impairment of sensory nerves was evaluated by measurement of changes in tail flick latency to noxious thermal stimulation and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the myocardium of the heart were examined...
August 26, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846567/chronic-kidney-disease-exacerbates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis
#9
Junjie Guo, Jianbing Zhu, Leilei Ma, Hongtao Shi, Jiachang Hu, Shuning Zhang, Lei Hou, Fengqiang Xu, Yi An, Haichu Yu, Junbo Ge
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to exacerbate myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. Despite various strategies for cardioprotection, limited studies have been focused on the prevention of CKD-induced myocardial susceptibility to IR injury. Here, we hypothesized that excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis involved in myocardial IR injury in CKD mice and pretreatment with chemical ER chaperone rendered the heart resistant to myocardial IR injury in the setting of CKD...
August 25, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841143/extract-of-sheng-mai-san-ameliorates-myocardial-ischemia-induced-heart-failure-by-modulating-ca-2-calcineurin-mediated-drp1-signaling-pathways
#10
Ye Yang, Yushan Tian, Siyao Hu, Suxia Bi, Suxia Li, Yuanjia Hu, Junping Kou, Jin Qi, Boyang Yu
Sheng-Mai-San (SMS) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) complex prescription used to treat heart failure (HF) and angina in clinic. However, its potential therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. The present study evaluated the cardioprotection of extract of SMS (ESMS) on myocardial ischemia (MI)-induced HF, and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that ESMS (728.0 mg/kg) significantly attenuated MI injury-induced HF by improving cardiac function and pathological changes, decreasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) activities, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels; increasing ATPase activity; and reducing intracellular Ca(2+) levels in MI-induced HF mice model...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835357/activation-of-%C3%AE-2-ampk-suppresses-ribosome-biogenesis-and-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Yang Cao, Naveen Bojjireddy, Maengjo Kim, Tao Li, Peiyong Zhai, Narayani Nagarajan, Junichi Sadoshima, Richard D Palmiter, Rong Tian
Rationale: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein that plays an important role in energy homeostasis and cardioprotection. Two isoforms of each subunit are expressed in the heart but the isoform-specific function of AMPK remains unclear. Objective: We sought to determine the role of γ2-AMPK in cardiac stress response using bioengineered cell lines and mouse models containing either isoform of the γ-subunit in the heart. Methods and Results: We found that γ2 but not γ1 or γ3 subunit translocated into nucleus upon AMPK activation...
August 23, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832637/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-protective-effects-of-metformin-in-experimental-myocardial-infarction
#12
Nienke A Hesen, Niels P Riksen, Bart Aalders, Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga, Saloua El Messaoudi, Kimberley E Wever
Metformin improves cardiovascular prognosis in patients with diabetes mellitus, compared to alternative glucose-lowering drugs, despite similar glycemic control. Direct cardiovascular protective properties have therefore been proposed, and studied in preclinical models of myocardial infarction. We now aim to critically assess the quality and outcome of these studies. We present a systematic review, quality assessment and meta-analysis of the effect of metformin in animal studies of experimental myocardial infarction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830813/nobiletin-attenuates-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-rats-via-restoring-autophagy-flux
#13
Xiaoqian Wu, Dechong Zheng, Yuyan Qin, Zumei Liu, Guiping Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhu, Lihuan Zeng, Zhenye Liang
Our previous study showed that autophagy flux was impaired with sustained heart ischemia, which exacerbated adverse cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Here we investigated whether Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxylated flavonoids, could restore the autophagy flux and improve cardiac prognosis after AMI. AMI was induced by ligating left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in rats. Nobiletin improved the post-infarct cardiac dysfunction significantly and attenuated adverse cardiac remodeling...
October 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821850/comparative-metabonomics-of-wenxin-keli-and-verapamil-reveals-differential-roles-of-gluconeogenesis-and-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-myocardial-injury-protection
#14
Miaomiao Jiang, Qiuying Wang, Jingrui Chen, Yanan Wang, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Metabonomics/metabolomics is a rapid technology for comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, the application of which has led to understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiometabolic diseases, defining predictive biomarkers for those diseases, and also assessing the efficacious effects of incident drugs. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was employed to identify the metabolic changes in rat plasma caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and to compare the metabolic regulatory differences between traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli (WXKL) and Western medicine verapamil...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810591/dual-character-of-flavonoids-in-attenuating-and-aggravating-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-myocardial-injury
#15
Wenqiang Li, Yun Li, Ruifang Sun, Sumei Zhou, Meifeng Li, Mingchen Feng, Yingguang Xie
The concept that flavonoids exert cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has been acknowledged by a large body of evidence. However, recent studies reported cardiotoxic effects of certain flavonoids, while the underlying mechanisms have remained largely elusive. Flavonoids have been demonstrated to activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), which is implicated in an array of cell signaling processes. The present study examined the cardioprotective roles of quercetin (Qu) and β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) against I/R injury and explored whether the underlying mechanism proceeds via molecular signaling downstream of Ahr...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780351/down-regulation-of-lncrna-kcnq1ot1-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-following-acute-myocardial-infarction
#16
Xin Li, Yingnan Dai, Shujun Yan, Yanli Shi, Baihe Han, Jingxiu Li, Li Cha, Jianjun Mu
This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of long non-coding RNA KCNQ1OT1 against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury following acute myocardial infarction, as well as its regulatory mechanism. We used the cardiac muscle H9c2 cells under condition of oxygen glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R) to induce myocardial I/R injury. Then H9C2 cells were transfected with si-NC, si-KCNQ1OT1, pc-NC, pc-KCNQ1OT1, si-AdipoR1 and si-AdipoR2, respectively. The myocardial cell viability and apoptosis were respectively detected...
September 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765969/ampk-activation-restores-ischemic-post%C3%A2-conditioning-cardioprotection-in-stz%C3%A2-induced-type-1-diabetic-rats-role-of-autophagy
#17
Bin Zhou, Yan Leng, Shao-Qing Lei, Zhong-Yuan Xia
Although the mechanism remains unclear, ischemic post‑conditioning (IPO) is a promising approach to combat myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury; however, it has been proven ineffective in diabetes. The present study aimed to identify whether hyperglycemia‑induced AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition contributes to the ineffectiveness of IPO via autophagy attenuation in diabetic hearts. Diabetic and non‑diabetic rats were subjected to myocardial IR and/or IPO with/without treatment with the AMPK activator A‑769662 and/or autophagy inhibitor 3‑methyladenine (3‑MA)...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765953/atorvastatin-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-ogd-r%C3%A2-induced-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-mir%C3%A2-199a%C3%A2-5p
#18
Yong Li, Ting Jiang, Xingli Fu, Hao Xu, Jianguo Ji
The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of atorvastatin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in cardiomyocytes and its underlying mechanisms. The direct cytotoxic effects of oxygen‑glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) on cardiomyocytes with and without atorvastatin pretreatment were evaluated. The effects of atorvastatin on the expression of glycogen synthase kinase‑3β (GSK‑3β) and microRNA (miR)‑199a‑5p were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analyses...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740585/testosterone-and-the-heart
#19
Travis Goodale, Archana Sadhu, Steven Petak, Richard Robbins
Testosterone (T) has a number of important effects on the cardiovascular system. In men, T levels begin to decrease after age 40, and this decrease has been associated with an increase in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) risk. Low T levels in men may increase their risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Reduced T levels in men with congestive heart failure (CHF) portends a poor prognosis and is associated with increased mortality. Studies have reported a reduced CV risk with higher endogenous T concentration, improvement of known CV risk factors with T therapy, and reduced mortality in T-deficient men who underwent T replacement therapy versus untreated men...
April 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715805/an-alternative-promoter-in-intron1-of-the-renin-gene-is-regulated-by-glucose-starvation-via-serum-response-factor
#20
Philipp Lutze, Heike Wanka, Inga Bäumgen, Doreen Staar, Bianka Grunow, Jörg Peters
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renin is known as a secretory glycoprotein that ultimately leads to angiotensin II generation. In this way renin exerts pro-inflammatory effects and promotes cardiac injury. Additional transcripts have been identified encoding for a cytosolic renin isoform that - in contrast to secretory renin - exhibits cardioprotective effects under ischemic conditions. The promoter of these transcripts is unknown. METHODS: Using qRT-PCR and dual-luciferase reporter assay we examined the expression and promotor activity of cytosolic renin as well as the regulation by glucose starvation in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts...
July 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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