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Parkinson AND synuclein AND Rho

Hanna Kim, Carles Calatayud, Sanjib Guha, Irene Fernández-Carasa, Laura Berkowitz, Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Mario Ezquerra, Rubén Fernández-Santiago, Pankaj Kapahi, Ángel Raya, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Jose Miguel Lizcano, Miquel Vila, Kim A Caldwell, Guy A Caldwell, Antonella Consiglio, Esther Dalfo
Parkinson's disease is associated with intracellular α-synuclein accumulation and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neuronal death in the Substantia Nigra of brain patients. The Rho GTPase pathway, mainly linking surface receptors to the organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, has been suggested to participate to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Nevertheless, its exact contribution remains obscure. To unveil the participation of the Rho GTPase family to the molecular pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, we first used C elegans to demonstrate the role of the small GTPase RAC1 (ced-10 in the worm) in maintaining dopaminergic function and survival in the presence of alpha-synuclein...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Liyan Hou, Xiuqi Bao, Caixia Zang, Hanyu Yang, Fuqiang Sun, Yuning Che, Xuefei Wu, Shao Li, Dan Zhang, Qingshan Wang
The activation of microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2) induced by α-synuclein has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. However, how α-synuclein activates NOX2 remains unclear. Previous study revealed that both toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and integrin play important roles in α-synuclein-induced microglial activation. In this study, we found that blocking CD11b, the α chain of integrin αM β2 , but not TLR2 attenuated α-synuclein-induced NOX2 activation in microglia. The involvement of CD11b in α-synuclein-induced activation of NOX2 was further confirmed in CD11b-/- microglia by showing reduced membrane translocation of NOX2 cytosolic subunit p47phox and superoxide production...
April 2018: Redox Biology
Shulin Li, Daiyan Wei, Zhuo Mao, Ligong Chen, Xilong Yan, Yang Li, Shengjie Dong, Donghua Wang
Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and function. Neuroprotective agents refer to substances that are capable of preserving brain function and structure. Currently, there are no neuroprotective agents available that can effectively relieve the progression of Parkinson's disease. In this work, five novel 4-aminopyridine derivatives, including three amides and two ureas, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated using the rat PC12 mice pheochromocytoma cell line as an in vitro model...
August 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
Lars Tatenhorst, Katrin Eckermann, Vivian Dambeck, Luis Fonseca-Ornelas, Hagen Walle, Tomás Lopes da Fonseca, Jan C Koch, Stefan Becker, Lars Tönges, Mathias Bähr, Tiago F Outeiro, Markus Zweckstetter, Paul Lingor
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, yet disease-modifying treatments do not currently exist. Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) was recently described as a novel neuroprotective target in PD. Since alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation is a major hallmark in the pathogenesis of PD, we aimed to evaluate the anti-aggregative potential of pharmacological ROCK inhibition using the isoquinoline derivative Fasudil, a small molecule inhibitor already approved for clinical use in humans...
April 22, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Feng-Tao Liu, Yu-Jie Yang, Jian-Jun Wu, Shan Li, Yi-Lin Tang, Jue Zhao, Zhen-Yang Liu, Bao-Guo Xiao, Ji Zuo, Wen Liu, Jian Wang
Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) is pivotally implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson׳s disease (PD), and enhancing its clearance might be a promising strategy in PD treatment. It has recently been shown that Rho kinase (ROCK) activation is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases, and some ROCK inhibitors might promote the degradation of abnormal protein aggregates. However, it is not known if fasudil, the only ROCK inhibitor available in clinical setting, could promote the degradation of α-syn, and ameliorate the α-syn induced neurotoxicity...
February 1, 2016: Brain Research
Qing He, Yan-hua Li, Si-si Guo, Ying Wang, Wei Lin, Qiong Zhang, Jian Wang, Cun-gen Ma, Bao-Guo Xiao
Microglia activation and inflammatory factors in brain microenvironment are associated with degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and various PD models. There is increasing evidence that the Rho/ROCK (Rho kinase) signalling pathway may play a critical role in the inflammatory response, and ROCK inhibitor has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective potential and possible mechanism of ROCK inhibitor Fasudil in an intranasal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD model...
January 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Matthew D Cykowski, Elizabeth A Coon, Suzanne Z Powell, Sarah M Jenkins, Eduardo E Benarroch, Phillip A Low, Ann M Schmeichel, Joseph E Parisi
Multiple system atrophy is a sporadic alpha-synucleinopathy that typically affects patients in their sixth decade of life and beyond. The defining clinical features of the disease include progressive autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia leading to significant disability. Pathologically, multiple system atrophy is characterized by glial cytoplasmic inclusions containing filamentous alpha-synuclein. Neuronal inclusions also have been reported but remain less well defined. This study aimed to further define the spectrum of neuronal pathology in 35 patients with multiple system atrophy (20 male, 15 female; mean age at death 64...
August 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Noa Liscovitch, Leon French
Expression patterns of the alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) were studied across anatomy, development, and disease to better characterize its role in the brain. In this postmortem study, negative spatial co-expression between SNCA and 73 interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling genes was observed across many brain regions. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ induces loss of dopamine neurons and nigrostriatal degeneration. This opposing pattern between SNCA and IFN-γ signaling genes increases with age (rho = -0...
2014: PloS One
Lynnae M Smith, Mya C Schiess, Mary P Coffey, Andrea C Klaver, David A Loeffler
α-synuclein is thought to play a key role in Parkinson's disease (PD) because it is the major protein in Lewy bodies, and because its gene mutations, duplication, and triplication are associated with early-onset PD. There are conflicting reports as to whether serum and plasma concentrations of α-synuclein and anti-α-synuclein antibodies differ between PD and control subjects. The objectives of this study were to compare the levels of α-synuclein and its antibodies between individuals with typical PD (n=14), atypical Parkinson syndromes (n=11), idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (n=10), and healthy controls (n=9), to assess the strength of association between these serum proteins, and to determine group sizes needed for a high probability (80% power) of detecting statistical significance for 25% or 50% differences between typical PD and control subjects for these measurements...
2012: PloS One
Byung Rho Lee, Yasuhiro Matsuo, Anil G Cashikar, Tetsu Kamitani
α-Synuclein, a protein central to Parkinson's disease, is frequently expressed in melanoma tissues, but not in non-melanocytic cutaneous carcinoma and normal skin. Thus, α-synuclein is not only related to Parkinson's disease, but also to melanoma. Recently, epidemiologists reported co-occurrence of melanoma and Parkinson's disease in patients, suggesting that these diseases could share common pathogenetic components and that α-synuclein might be one of these. In Parkinson's disease, phosphorylation of α-synuclein at Ser129 plays an important role in the pathobiology...
January 15, 2013: Journal of Cell Science
Byung Rho Lee, Tetsu Kamitani
α-Synuclein is a key molecule in understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease. Despite extensive research, however, its precise function remains unclear partly because of a difficulty in immunoblotting detection of endogenous α-synuclein. This difficulty has largely restricted the progress for α-synucleinopathy research. Here, we report that α-synuclein monomers tend to easily detach from blotted membranes, resulting in no or very poor detection. To prevent this detachment, a mild fixation of blotted membranes with paraformaldehyde was applied to the immunoblotting method...
2011: PloS One
Zhigang Zhou, Jeeyong Kim, Ryan Insolera, Xiangmin Peng, David J Fink, Marina Mata
Accumulation of α-synuclein (Asyn) in neuronal perikarya and dystrophic neurites is characteristic of idiopathic and familial Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated the relationship between α-synuclein expression and neurite outgrowth-maturation using MN9D dopaminergic cells and demonstrated key features of Asyn regulation in hippocampal neurons. Neurite elongation elicited by inhibition of Rho GTPase activity with C3 transferase or by db-cAMP treatment was associated with marked reduction of α-synuclein mRNA and protein expression...
September 2011: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Ha Nam Nguyen, Blake Byers, Branden Cord, Aleksandr Shcheglovitov, James Byrne, Prachi Gujar, Kehkooi Kee, Birgitt Schüle, Ricardo E Dolmetsch, William Langston, Theo D Palmer, Renee Reijo Pera
Studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been hindered by lack of access to affected human dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Here, we report generation of induced pluripotent stem cells that carry the p.G2019S mutation (G2019S-iPSCs) in the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene, the most common PD-related mutation, and their differentiation into DA neurons. The high penetrance of the LRRK2 mutation and its clinical resemblance to sporadic PD suggest that these cells could provide a valuable platform for disease analysis and drug development...
March 4, 2011: Cell Stem Cell
He-Jin Lee, Ji-Eun Suk, Christina Patrick, Eun-Jin Bae, Ji-Hoon Cho, Sangchul Rho, Daehee Hwang, Eliezer Masliah, Seung-Jae Lee
Abnormal neuronal aggregation of alpha-synuclein is implicated in the development of many neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Glial cells also show extensive alpha-synuclein pathology and may contribute to disease progression. However, the mechanism that produces the glial alpha-synuclein pathology and the interaction between neurons and glia in the disease-inflicted microenvironment remain unknown. Here, we show that alpha-synuclein proteins released from neuronal cells are taken up by astrocytes through endocytosis and form inclusion bodies...
March 19, 2010: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sabrina Büttner, Alessandro Bitto, Julia Ring, Manuela Augsten, Piotr Zabrocki, Tobias Eisenberg, Helmut Jungwirth, Sylvia Hutter, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Guido Kroemer, Joris Winderickx, Frank Madeo
alpha-Synuclein is one of the principal toxic triggers of Parkinson disease, an age-associated neurodegeneration. Using old yeast as a model of alpha-synuclein expression in post-mitotic cells, we show that alpha-synuclein toxicity depends on chronological aging and results in apoptosis as well as necrosis. Neither disruption of key components of the unfolded protein response nor deletion of proapoptotic key players (including the yeast caspase YCA1, the apoptosis-inducing factor AIF1, or the serine protease OMI) did prevent alpha-synuclein-induced cell killing...
March 21, 2008: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zhenquan Jia, Hara P Misra
Several epidemiological studies have suggested a role for environmental pesticide exposures in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides such as endosulfan and/or zineb during critical periods of postnatal development could result in neuronal dysfunction and enhance the impact of these pesticides during exposure as adults. C57BL/6 mice, exposed daily to each of the pesticides or their mixtures from postnatal days 5 to 19, exhibited insignificant changes in striatal dopamine, acetylcholinesterase and alpha-synuclein levels...
July 2007: Neurotoxicology
J M Jenco, A Rawlingson, B Daniels, A J Morris
Two widely expressed mammalian phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipases D (PLD), PLD1 and PLD2, have been identified. Recombinantly expressed PLD2 has high basal activity and is insensitive to GTP-binding protein activators of PLD1 [Colley, W. C., et al. (1997) Curr. Biol. 7, 191-201]. To investigate the regulation of PLD2 we isolated PLD2, from mouse brain by immunoaffinity chromatography. The native and recombinant proteins have indistinguishable properties: PLD2 is potently activated by phosphoinositides with a vicinal 4,5-phosphate pair but is not stimulated by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio triphosphate)-activated ADP-ribosylation factor-1, Rho family GTP-binding proteins, or protein kinases C-alpha, or -beta1...
April 7, 1998: Biochemistry
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