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Adaptive optics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220868/image-based-adaptive-optics-for-in-vivo-imaging-in-the-hippocampus
#1
D Champelovier, J Teixeira, J-M Conan, N Balla, L M Mugnier, T Tressard, S Reichinnek, S Meimon, R Cossart, H Rigneault, S Monneret, A Malvache
Adaptive optics is a promising technique for the improvement of microscopy in tissues. A large palette of indirect and direct wavefront sensing methods has been proposed for in vivo imaging in experimental animal models. Application of most of these methods to complex samples suffers from either intrinsic and/or practical difficulties. Here we show a theoretically optimized wavefront correction method for inhomogeneously labeled biological samples. We demonstrate its performance at a depth of 200 μm in brain tissue within a sparsely labeled region such as the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, with cells expressing GCamP6...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212982/vision-science-and-adaptive-optics-the-state-of-the-field
#2
Susana Marcos, John S Werner, Stephen A Burns, William H Merigan, Pablo Artal, David A Atchison, Karen M Hampson, Richard Legras, Linda Lundstrom, Geungyoung Yoon, Joseph Carroll, Stacey S Choi, Nathan Doble, Adam M Dubis, Alfredo Dubra, Ann Elsner, Ravi Jonnal, Donald T Miller, Michel Paques, Hannah E Smithson, Laura K Young, Yuhua Zhang, Melanie Campbell, Jennifer Hunter, Andrew Metha, Grazyna Palczewska, Jesse Schallek, Lawrence C Sincich
Adaptive optics is a relatively new field, yet it is spreading rapidly and allows new questions to be asked about how the visual system is organized. The editors of this feature issue have posed a series of question to scientists involved in using adaptive optics in vision science. The questions are focused on three main areas. In the first we investigate the use of adaptive optics for psychophysical measurements of visual system function and for improving the optics of the eye. In the second, we look at the applications and impact of adaptive optics on retinal imaging and its promise for basic and applied research...
February 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208231/fast-left-ventricle-tracking-using-localized-anatomical-affine-optical-flow
#3
Sandro Queirós, João L Vilaça, Pedro Morais, Jaime C Fonseca, Jan D'hooge, Daniel Barbosa
In daily clinical cardiology practice, left ventricle (LV) global and regional function assessment is crucial for disease diagnosis, therapy selection and patient follow-up. Currently, this is still a time-consuming task, spending valuable human resources. In this work, a novel fast methodology for automatic LV tracking is proposed based on localized anatomically constrained affine optical flow. This novel method can be combined to previously proposed segmentation frameworks or manually delineated surfaces at an initial frame to obtain fully delineated datasets and, thus, assess both global and regional myocardial function...
February 16, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199410/ultrasensitive-detection-of-hiv-1-p24-antigen-by-a-hybrid-nanomechanical-optoplasmonic-platform-with-potential-for-detecting-hiv-1-at-first-week-after-infection
#4
Priscila M Kosaka, Valerio Pini, Montserrat Calleja, Javier Tamayo
Early detection of HIV infection is the best way to prevent spread of the disease and to improve the efficiency of the antiretroviral therapy. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have become the gold-standard for detecting low-concentrations of the virus in blood. However, these methods are technically demanding and cost-prohibitive in developing countries. Immunoassays are more affordable and can be more easily adapted for point-of-care diagnosis. However, the sensitivity so far of these methods has been too low...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198734/new-frontiers-in-intravital-microscopy-of-the-kidney
#5
Andrew M Hall, Claus D Schuh, Dominik Haenni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravital imaging with multiphoton microscopy enables the detailed study of dynamic cellular processes within functioning organs in living animals, in ways that would not otherwise be possible. It therefore represents a powerful tool in translational kidney research. In this article, we will discuss several new technical developments that have significantly increased the capabilities of kidney imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Important contemporary advances in biomedical imaging technology include longer wavelength excitation lasers, far-red emitting fluorescent reporters, highly sensitive detectors, fluorescence lifetime measurements, adaptive optics, microendoscopes, high-throughput automated analysis algorithms and tissue clearing techniques...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197754/differences-in-ocular-findings-in-two-siblings-one-with-complete-and-other-with-incomplete-achromatopsia
#6
Shinji Ueno, Ayami Nakanishi, Akira Sayo, Taro Kominami, Yasuki Ito, Takaaki Hayashi, Kazushige Tsunoda, Takeshi Iwata, Hiroko Terasaki
PURPOSE: Patients with complete achromatopsia (ACHM) lack cone function, and patients with incomplete ACHM have relatively good visual acuity with residual color vision. The pathological mechanism(s) underlying incomplete ACHM has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathophysiology of ACHM in two siblings: one with complete ACHM and the other with incomplete ACHM. METHODS: The medical charts of the two siblings were reviewed. RESULTS: The sibling with incomplete ACHM had decimal visual acuities that ranged from 0...
February 14, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196054/dynamism-of-dot-subretinal-drusenoid-deposits-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-demonstrated-with-adaptive-optics-imaging
#7
Yuhua Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Pooja Godara, Tianjiao Zhang, Mark E Clark, C Douglas Witherspoon, Richard F Spaide, Cynthia Owsley, Christine A Curcio
PURPOSE: To investigate the natural history of dot subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) in age-related macular degeneration, using high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. METHODS: Six eyes of four patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration were studied at baseline and 1 year later. Individual dot SDD within the central 30° retina were examined with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography...
February 10, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195612/relationships-between-spatial-contrast-sensitivity-and-parafoveal-cone-density-in-normal-subjects-and-patients-with-retinal-degeneration
#8
Masakazu Hirota, Takeshi Morimoto, Hiroyuki Kanda, Tibor Karl Lohmann, Suguru Miyagawa, Takao Endo, Tomomitsu Miyoshi, Takashi Fujikado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between spatial contrast sensitivity (CS) and parafoveal cone density (PCD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy individuals (mean age: 26.1 years ± 4.5 years) and nine patients with hereditary retinal degeneration (mean age: 31.6 years ± 13.4 years) without media opacities were studied. The CS was measured by CSV-1000 (VectorVision, Greenville, OH). The cone mosaic was photographed with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) with a 1° × 1° field of view centered on the fovea...
February 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195329/the-composition-of-cell-walls-from-grape-skin-in-vitis-vinifera-intraspecific-hybrids
#9
Rafael Apolinar-Valiente, Encarna Gómez-Plaza, Nancy Terrier, Thierry Doco, José María Ros-García
BACKGROUND: Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia (S.E. Spain). Their berries seem characterized by rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in our region, due to its high phenolic content with high extractability. Our study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194486/-technical-principles-of-adaptive-optics-in-ophthalmology
#10
J L Reiniger, N Domdei, F G Holz, W M Harmening
During the last 25 years ophthalmic imaging has undergone a revolution. This review gives an overview of the possibilities of adaptive optics (AO) for ophthalmic imaging technologies and their development and illustrates that the role of ophthalmic imaging changed from the documentation of obvious abnormalities to the detection of microscopic yet significant conspicuities. This enables earlier and more precise diagnoses. The implementation of AO for imaging systems like fundus cameras, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography has gained in importance...
February 13, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193871/optimizing-virtual-reality-for-all-users-through-gaze-contingent-and-adaptive-focus-displays
#11
Nitish Padmanaban, Robert Konrad, Tal Stramer, Emily A Cooper, Gordon Wetzstein
From the desktop to the laptop to the mobile device, personal computing platforms evolve over time. Moving forward, wearable computing is widely expected to be integral to consumer electronics and beyond. The primary interface between a wearable computer and a user is often a near-eye display. However, current generation near-eye displays suffer from multiple limitations: they are unable to provide fully natural visual cues and comfortable viewing experiences for all users. At their core, many of the issues with near-eye displays are caused by limitations in conventional optics...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193048/lifetime-of-phosphorescence-from-nanoparticles-yields-accurate-measurement-of-concentration-of-oxygen-in-microdroplets-allowing-one-to-monitor-the-metabolism-of-bacteria
#12
Michał Horka, Shiwen Sun, Artur Ruszczak, Piotr Garstecki, Torsten Mayr
A method to monitor the level of oxygen in microdroplets is presented. Optical sensor nanoparticles are dispersed in the aqueous phase of the microfluidic droplets for culturing bacteria. The oxygen sensor nanoparticles consist of phosphorescent indicator dye embedded in poly(styrene-block-vinylpyrrolidone) nanobeads. The nanoparticles are excitable by red light and emit in the near-infrared spectra region which minimizes background fluorescence from biological matter. The biocompatibility of the nanoparticles was proven...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188622/the-optic-nerve-superior-colliculus-visual-thalamus-and-primary-visual-cortex-of-the-northern-elephant-seal-mirounga-angustirostris-and-california-sea-lion-zalophus-californianus
#13
Emily C Turner, Eva K Sawyer, Jon H Kaas
The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) are members of a diverse clade of carnivorous mammals known as pinnipeds. Pinnipeds are notable for their large, ape-sized brains, yet little is known about their central nervous system. Both the northern elephant seal and California sea lion spend most of their lives at sea, but each also spends time on land to breed and give birth. These unique coastal niches may be reflected in specific evolutionary adaptations to their sensory systems...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182429/in-plane-plasmonic-antenna-arrays-with-surface-nanogaps-for-giant-fluorescence-enhancement
#14
Valentin Flauraud, Raju Regmi, Pamina Martina Winkler, Duncan T L Alexander, Herve Rigneault, Niek F van Hulst, Maria F Garcia-Parajo, Jerome Wenger, Juergen Brugger
Optical nanoantennas have a great potential for enhancing light-matter interactions at the nanometer scale, yet fabrication accuracy and lack of scalability currently limit ultimate antenna performance and applications. In most designs, the region of maximum field localization and enhancement (i.e., hotspot) is not readily accessible to the sample since it is buried into the nanostructure. Moreover, current large-scale fabrication techniques lack reproducible geometrical control below 20 nm. Here, we describe a new nanofabrication technique that applies planarization, etch back and template stripping to expose the excitation hotspot at the surface, providing a major improvement over conventional electron beam lithography methods...
February 9, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181780/diagnosis-treatment-clinical-course-and-prognosis-of-childhood-onset-craniopharyngioma-patients
#15
Hermann L Müller
CONTEXT: For decades gross-total resection was the preferred treatment option in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma, assuming that radical strategies at the time of initial diagnosis and treatment would result in cure. Recent reports on long-term prognosis, novel treatment approaches, and molecular genetics provide new insights into more risk-adapted treatment strategies in order to prevent sequelae such as hypothalamic syndrome. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search for original articles published between 2000 and 2016 was performed in PubMed, Science Citation Index Expanded, EMBASE and Scopus...
February 9, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176823/volumetric-spatial-correlations-of-neurovascular-coupling-studied-using-single-pulse-opto-fmri
#16
Isabel N Christie, Jack A Wells, Sergey Kasparov, Alexander V Gourine, Mark F Lythgoe
Neurovascular coupling describes the link between neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow. This relationship has been the subject of intense scrutiny, with most previous work seeking to understand temporal correlations that describe neurovascular coupling. However, to date, the study of spatial correlations has been limited to two-dimensional mapping of neuronal or vascular derived signals emanating from the brain's surface, using optical imaging techniques. Here, we investigate spatial correlations of neurovascular coupling in three dimensions, by applying a single 10 ms pulse of light to trigger optogenetic activation of cortical neurons transduced to express channelrhodopsin2, with concurrent fMRI...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174676/a-digital-staining-algorithm-for-optical-coherence-tomography-images-of-the-optic-nerve-head
#17
Jean-Martial Mari, Tin Aung, Ching-Yu Cheng, Nicholas G Strouthidis, Michaël J A Girard
PURPOSE: To digitally stain spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the optic nerve head (ONH), and highlight either connective or neural tissues. METHODS: OCT volumes of the ONH were acquired from one eye of 10 healthy subjects. We processed all volumes with adaptive compensation to remove shadows and enhance deep tissue visibility. For each ONH, we identified the four most dissimilar pixel-intensity histograms, each of which was assumed to represent a tissue group...
February 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169527/molecular-biodynamers-dynamic-covalent-analogues-of-biopolymers
#18
Yun Liu, Jean-Marie Lehn, Anna K H Hirsch
Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials...
February 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166161/characterizing-photoreceptor-changes-in-acute-posterior-multifocal-placoid-pigment-epitheliopathy-using-adaptive-optics
#19
Philipp K Roberts, Peter L Nesper, Alex C Onishi, Dimitra Skondra, Lee M Jampol, Amani A Fawzi
PURPOSE: To characterize lesions of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) by multimodal imaging including adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). METHODS: We included patients with APMPPE at different stages of evolution of the placoid lesions. Color fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, and AOSLO images were obtained and registered to correlate microstructural changes...
February 3, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158121/multiwavelength-stabilization-control-of-a-thermo-optic-system-with-adaptive-reconfiguration
#20
Andri Mahendra, Chunle Xiong, Xiang Zhang, Benjamin J Eggleton, Philip H W Leong
Accurate temperature control is crucial for the reliable operation of photonic integrated circuits in the presence of internal thermal crosstalk or external thermal disturbance. We propose an adaptive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) control scheme to stabilize the operation wavelength of on-chip wavelength demultiplexers that have many applications in photonic-chip-based optical signal processing. Using the MIMO control scheme, the wavelength drift is reduced from 0.5 to 0.1 nm when internal and external thermal disturbances occur...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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