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Adaptive optics

Po C Liu, Yi T Lee, Chun Y Wang, Ya-Tang Yang
We describe a low cost, configurable morbidostat for characterizing the evolutionary pathway of antibiotic resistance. The morbidostat is a bacterial culture device that continuously monitors bacterial growth and dynamically adjusts the drug concentration to constantly challenge the bacteria as they evolve to acquire drug resistance. The device features a working volume of ~10 ml and is fully automated and equipped with optical density measurement and micro-pumps for medium and drug delivery. To validate the platform, we measured the stepwise acquisition of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli MG 1655, and integrated the device with a multiplexed microfluidic platform to investigate cell morphology and antibiotic susceptibility...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alexander Dima, Vasilis Ntziachristos
We interrogated the application and imaging features obtained by non-invasive and handheld optoacoustic imaging of the thyroid in-vivo. Optoacoustics can offer complementary contrast to ultrasound, by resolving optical absorption-based and offering speckle-free imaging. In particular we inquired whether vascular structures could be better resolved using optoacoustics. For this reason we developed a compact handheld version of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) using a detector adapted to the dimensions and overall geometry of the human neck...
June 2016: Photoacoustics
Veysi Öner, Asker Bulut
PURPOSE: Recent studies have found a choroidal thickening in amblyopic eyes and suggested that there might be a relationship between the choroid and amblyopia. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a six-month treatment of amblyopia on choroidal thickness in anisometropic hyperopic amblyopic children. METHODS: Thirty-two anisometropic hyperopic children with unilateral amblyopia were included in this prospective study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured as the distance between the retinal pigment epithelium and the chorioscleral edge, by using spectral domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography...
October 18, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Marcus Ang, Yijun Cai, Anna C S Tan
Purpose. To describe a novel technique of adapting a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) to image corneal vascularization. Methods. In this pilot cross-sectional study, we obtained 3 × 3 mm scans, where 100,000 A-scans are acquired per second with optical axial resolution of 8 μm and lateral resolution of 20 μm. This was performed with manual "XYZ" focus without the anterior segment lens, until the focus of the corneoscleral surface was clearly seen and the vessels of interest were in focus on the corresponding red-free image...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Meng Liao, Haoxing Zhao, Longqian Liu, Qian Li, Yun Dai, Yudong Zhang, Yifeng Zhou
Perceptual learning is considered a potential treatment for amblyopia even in adult patients who have progressed beyond the critical period of visual development because adult amblyopes retain sufficient visual plasticity. When perceptual learning is performed with the correction of high-order aberrations (HOAs), a greater degree of neural plasticity is present in normal adults and those with highly aberrated keratoconic eyes. Because amblyopic eyes show more severe HOAs than normal eyes, it is interesting to study the effects of HOA-corrected visual perceptual learning in amblyopia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rachel A Johnston, Kristina L Paxton, Frank R Moore, Robert K Wayne, Thomas B Smith
The annual migration of a bird can involve thousands of kilometers of non-stop flight, requiring accurately timed seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling this endogenous programme can provide functional and evolutionary insights into the circannual biological clock and the potential of migratory species to adapt to changing environments. Under naturally-timed photoperiod conditions, we maintained captive Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the ventral hypothalamus and optic chiasma to evaluate transcriptome-wide gene expression changes of individuals in migratory condition...
October 16, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Lucas Borin Moura, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini Gabrielli, Mario Francisco Real Gabrielli, Valfrido Antonio Pereira Filho
PURPOSE: The goal of orbital reconstruction is to restore anatomy, volume, and function. In extensive orbital floor defects, the visualization of the posterior area is limited through inferior eyelid incisions. The use of endoscope may improve the treatment; however, it is a high-sensitivity technique. The aim of this case series is to describe the combination of inferior eyelid incision with transantral endoscopy for treatment of extensive orbital floor defects. METHODS: Three patients were submitted to orbital reconstruction, and the postoperative CT scans were evaluated to analyze the orbital volume and anteroposterior globe position...
October 14, 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Marc R Reinig, Samuel W Novak, Xiaodong Tao, Laurent A Bentolila, Dustin G Roberts, Allan MacKenzie-Graham, Sirie E Godshalk, Mary A Raven, David W Knowles, Joel Kubby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
José A Rodrigo, Tatiana Alieva
Laser radiation pressure is a basis of numerous applications in science and technology such as atom cooling, particle manipulation, material processing, etc. This light force for the case of scalar beams is proportional to the intensity-weighted wavevector known as optical current. The ability to design the optical current according to the considered application brings new promising perspectives to exploit the radiation pressure. However, this is a challenging problem because it often requires confinement of the optical current within tight light curves (circuits) and adapting its local value for a particular task...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hadas Newman, Sergiu C Blumen, Itzhak Braverman, Rana Hanna, Beatrice Tiosano, Ido Perlman, Tamar Ben-Yosef
Purpose: To investigate the genetic basis for severe visual complaints by Bukharan Jewish patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Methods: Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing were used to test for NRL, PABPN1, and NR2E3 mutations. Complete ophthalmic examination included best-corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopic examination, optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence. Detailed electroretinography (ERG) testing was conducted including expanded International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision protocol for light-adapted and dark-adapted conditions, measurements of S-cone function, and ON-OFF light-adapted ERG...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Bao-Hua Liu, Andrew D Huberman, Massimo Scanziani
The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Neila Ben Sassi, Xavier Averós, Inma Estevez
Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers' demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined...
October 11, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Yijun Cai, Jorge L Alio Del Barrio, Mark R Wilkins, Marcus Ang
PURPOSE: Recently, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has been used to successfully delineate vessels within the retina. This current study aims to assess corneal vascularization secondary to herpetic keratitis pre- and post-treatment using serial OCTA imaging adapted for the anterior segment. METHODS: All eyes were scanned using the split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm on the AngioVue OCTA system (Optovue Inc. Fremont, CA, USA) with an anterior segment lens adapter...
October 8, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Su-Yeon Kang, Youngsub Eom, Jay Won Rhim, Jong Suk Song, Hyo Myung Kim
PURPOSE: To report a case of intraocular lens (IOL) glistening after uneventful cataract surgery and in-the-bag implantation of an enVista MX60 IOL (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 76-year-old woman with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification with in-the-bag implantation of an enVista MX60 IOL. After 6 months, glistening formation within the IOL optic was observed...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Esben Ravn Andresen, Siddharth Sivankutty, Viktor Tsvirkun, Géraud Bouwmans, Hervé Rigneault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Liam Wilbraham, François-Xavier Coudert, Ilaria Ciofini
Design of optical properties within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is a subject of ever increasing attention in recent years with theoretical approaches poised to play a key role alongside experiment in both the understanding of fundamental mechanisms and the further development of high performance materials. We have developed and applied a simple and computationally affordable protocol rooted in density functional theory (DFT) and its time dependent counterpart (TD-DFT) to two isostructural MOFs based on a 4,4'-bis((3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methyl)-biphenyl (H2DMPMB) linker...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jingjing Deng, Guoyue Shi, Tianshu Zhou
This study demonstrates a new strategy for colorimetric detection of alcoholic strength (AS) in spirit samples based on dual-responsive lanthanide infinite coordination polymer (Ln-ICP) particles with ratiometric fluorescence. The ICP used in this study are composed of two components: one is the supramolecular Ln-ICP network formed by the coordination between the ligand 2,2'-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and central metal ion Eu(3+); and the other is a fluorescent dye, i.e., coumarin 343 (C343), both as the cofactor ligand and as the sensitizer, doped into the Ln-ICP network through self-adaptive chemistry...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Quinton M Dowling, Ryan M Kramer
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for process monitoring, compositional quantification, and characterization of critical quality attributes in complex mixtures. Advantages over other spectroscopic measurements include ease of sample preparation, quantification of multiple components from a single measurement, and the ability to quantify optically opaque samples. This method describes the use of a multivariate model for quantifying a TLR4 agonist (GLA) adsorbed onto aluminum oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel(®)) using FTIR spectroscopy that may be adapted to quantify other complex aluminum based adjuvant mixtures...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shinji Ueno, Ayami Nakanishi, Taro Kominami, Yasuki Ito, Takaaki Hayashi, Kazutoshi Yoshitake, Yuichi Kawamura, Kazushige Tsunoda, Takeshi Iwata, Hiroko Terasaki
PURPOSE: The 2 most common causative genes for achromatopsia (ACHM) are CNGA3 and CNGB3; other genes including GNAT2 account for only a small portion of ACHM cases. The cone mosaics in eyes with CNGA3 and CNGB3 variants are severely disrupted; the cone mosaics in patients with GNAT2-associated ACHM; however, have been reported to show a contiguous pattern in adaptive optics (AO) retinal images. The purpose of this study was to analyze the cone mosaic of another case of GNAT2-associated ACHM...
October 7, 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Saraí M Torres Delgado, David J Kinahan, Fralett Suárez Sandoval, Lourdes Albina Nirupa Julius, Niamh A Kilcawley, Jens Ducrée, Dario Mager
Typical Lab-on-a-Disc (LoaD) platforms cannot make a continuous measurement while the disc is spinning; this drawback means that the disc usually must be stopped and aligned with a sensor. This can result in measurement errors in time-dependent assays along with inaccuracies due to liquid displacement and bubble formation in the absence of a stabilising centrifugal field. This paper presents a novel concept for a wirelessly electrified-Lab-on-a-Disc (eLoaD) platform that allows continuous measurement of experimental parameters while the disc is spinning...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
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