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Lrrk2 microglia

Elisa Greggio, Luigi Bubacco, Isabella Russo
Evidence indicates that leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) controls multiple processes in neurons and glia cells. Deregulated LRRK2 activity due to gene mutation represents the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated signaling is a key regulator of brain function. PKA-dependent pathways play an important role in brain homeostasis, neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, control of microglia activation and inflammation. On the other hand, a decline of PKA signaling was shown to contribute to the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases, including PD...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
Heyne Lee, William S James, Sally A Cowley
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are found in familial and idiopathic cases of Parkinson's disease (PD), but are also associated with immune-related disorders, notably Crohn's disease and leprosy. Although the physiological function of LRRK2 protein remains largely elusive, increasing evidence suggests that it plays a role in innate immunity, a process that also has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. Innate immunity involves macrophages and microglia, in which endogenous LRRK2 expression is precisely regulated and expression is strongly up-regulated upon cell activation...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
Dong Hwan Ho, Wongi Seol, Jin Hwan Eun, Il-Hong Son
Leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2), a major causal gene of Parkinson's disease (PD), functions as a kinase. The most prevalent mutation of LRRK2 is G2019S. It exhibits increased kinase activity compared to the wildtype LRRK2. Previous studies have shown that LRRK2 can phosphorylate p53 at T304 and T377 of threonine-X-arginine (TXR) motif in neurons. Reduction of LRRK2 expression or inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity has been shown to be able to alleviate LPS-induced neuroinflammation in microglia cells. In this study, we found that LRRK2 could also phosphorylate p53 in microglia model BV2 cells...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tatsunori Maekawa, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Sadahiro Azuma, Takafumi Ichikawa, Heather L Melrose, Matthew J Farrer, Fumiya Obata
BACKGROUND: α-Synuclein (αSYN) has been genetically implicated in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and is associated with disease susceptibility, progression and pathology. Excess amounts of αSYN are toxic to neurons. In the brain, microglial αSYN clearance is closely related to neuronal survival. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the one of the other genes implicated in familial and sporadic PD. While LRRK2 is known to be expressed in microglia, its true function remains to be elucidated...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
Bo Ma, Leyan Xu, Xiaodong Pan, Lixin Sun, Jinhui Ding, Chengsong Xie, Vassilis E Koliatsos, Huaibin Cai
Multiple missense mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common degenerative movement disorder. LRRK2 is expressed by both neurons and microglia, the residential immune cells in the brain. Increasing evidence supports a role of LRRK2 in modulating microglial activity, of which Lrrk2-null rodent microglia display less inflammatory response to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The underlying molecular mechanism, however, remains elusive. Chemokine (C-X3-C) receptor 1 (CX3CR1), predominantly expressed by microglia, suppresses microglial inflammation while promotes migration...
August 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Kathrin Brockmann, Anja Apel, Claudia Schulte, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Claustre Pont-Sunyer, Dolores Vilas, Javier Ruiz-Martinez, Markus Langkamp, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Florence Cormier, Thomas Knorpp, Thomas O Joos, Thomas Gasser, Birgitt Schüle, Jan O Aasly, Tatiana Foroud, Jose Felix Marti-Masso, Alexis Brice, Eduardo Tolosa, Connie Marras, Daniela Berg, Walter Maetzler
BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a relevant role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene represent the most frequent genetic cause for autosomal dominant PD. LRRK2 is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia suggesting an involvement in inflammatory pathways. The objectives are to test (1) whether idiopathic PD and LRRK2-associated PD share common inflammatory pathways or present distinct profiles and (2) whether non-manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers present with similar aspects of inflammatory profiles as seen in PD-affected patients...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Isabella Russo, Giulia Berti, Nicoletta Plotegher, Greta Bernardo, Roberta Filograna, Luigi Bubacco, Elisa Greggio
BACKGROUND: Over-activated microglia and chronic neuroinflammation contribute to dopaminergic neuron degeneration and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a kinase mutated in autosomal dominantly inherited and sporadic PD cases, is highly expressed in immune cells, in which it regulates inflammation through a yet unclear mechanism. METHODS: Here, using pharmacological inhibition and cultured Lrrk2 (-/-) primary microglia cells, we validated LRRK2 as a positive modulator of inflammation and we investigated its specific function in microglia cells...
December 9, 2015: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Insup Choi, Beomsue Kim, Ji-Won Byun, Sung Hoon Baik, Yun Hyun Huh, Jong-Hyeon Kim, Inhee Mook-Jung, Woo Keun Song, Joo-Ho Shin, Hyemyung Seo, Young Ho Suh, Ilo Jou, Sang Myun Park, Ho Chul Kang, Eun-Hye Joe
In response to brain injury, microglia rapidly extend processes that isolate lesion sites and protect the brain from further injury. Here we report that microglia carrying a pathogenic mutation in the Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated gene, G2019S-LRRK2 (GS-Tg microglia), show retarded ADP-induced motility and delayed isolation of injury, compared with non-Tg microglia. Conversely, LRRK2 knockdown microglia are highly motile compared with control cells. In our functional assays, LRRK2 binds to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphorylates its Thr-X-Arg/Lys (TXR/K) motif(s), eventually attenuating FAK activity marked by decreased pY397 phosphorylation (pY397)...
September 14, 2015: Nature Communications
Qian Xiao, Suosuo Yang, Weidong Le
The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation G2019S is one of the most common genetic causes in Parkinson's disease (PD). The penetrance of G2019S LRRK2 is incomplete and is age-dependent, therefore, it has been speculated that environmental toxins and aging could contribute to G2019S LRRK2-related PD pathogenesis. To prove this speculation, we performed a longitudinal investigation in mice bearing G2019S LRRK2 mutation. BAC G2019S LRRK2 transgenic (Tg) mice and their wildtype (Wt) littermates were treated with lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor...
December 2015: Journal of Neural Transmission
Jenna M Puccini, Daniel F Marker, Tim Fitzgerald, Justin Barbieri, Christopher S Kim, Patrick Miller-Rhodes, Shao-Ming Lu, Stephen Dewhurst, Harris A Gelbard
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the single most common genetic cause of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), both of which share pathogenetic and neurologic similarities with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Pathologic LRRK2 activity may also contribute to neuroinflammation, because microglia lacking LRRK2 exposed to proinflammatory stimuli have attenuated responses. Because microglial activation is a hallmark of HIV-1 neuropathology, we have investigated the role of LRRK2 activation using in vitro and in vivo models of HAND...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tianxia Li, Xinhua He, Joseph M Thomas, Dejun Yang, Shijun Zhong, Fengtian Xue, Wanli W Smith
Leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2), a cytoplasmic protein containing both GTP binding and kinase activities, has emerged as a highly promising drug target for Parkinson's disease (PD). The majority of PD-linked mutations in LRRK2 dysregulate its GTP binding and kinase activities, which may contribute to neurodegeneration. While most known LRRK2 inhibitors are developed to target the kinase domain, we have recently identified the first LRRK2 GTP binding inhibitor, 68, which not only inhibits LRRK2 GTP binding and kinase activities with high potency in vitro, but also reduces neurodegeneration...
2015: PloS One
Lenka Munoz, Madeline E Kavanagh, Athena F Phoa, Benjamin Heng, Nicolas Dzamko, Ew-Jun Chen, Munikumar Reddy Doddareddy, Gilles J Guillemin, Michael Kassiou
LRRK2IN1 is a highly potent inhibitor of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, IC50 = 7.9 nM), an established target for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Two LRRK2IN1 analogues 1 and 2 were synthesised which retained LRRK2 inhibitory activity (1: IC50 = 72 nM; 2: IC50 = 51 nM), were predicted to have improved bioavailability and were efficacious in cell-based models of neuroinflammation. Analogue 1 inhibited IL-6 secretion from LPS-stimulated primary human microglia with EC50 = 4.26 μM. In order to further optimize the molecular properties of LRRK2IN1, a library of truncated analogues was designed based on docking studies...
May 5, 2015: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
J Schapansky, J D Nardozzi, M J LaVoie
The proteins alpha-synuclein (αSyn) and leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are both key players in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease (PD), but establishing a functional link between the two proteins has proven elusive. Research studies for these two proteins have traditionally and justifiably focused in neuronal cells, but recent studies indicate that each protein could play a greater pathological role elsewhere. αSyn is expressed at high levels within neurons, but they also secrete the protein into the extracellular milieu, where it can have broad ranging effects in the nervous system and relevance to disease etiology...
August 27, 2015: Neuroscience
Tianxia Li, Dejun Yang, Shijun Zhong, Joseph M Thomas, Fengtian Xue, Jingnan Liu, Lingbo Kong, Pamela Voulalas, Hazem E Hassan, Jae-Sung Park, Alexander D MacKerell, Wanli W Smith
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene cause autosomal-dominant Parkinson's disease (PD) and contribute to sporadic PD. LRRK2 contains Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) binding, GTPase and kinase activities that have been implicated in the neuronal degeneration of PD pathogenesis, making LRRK2, a potential drug target. To date, there is no disease-modifying drug to slow the neuronal degeneration of PD and no published LRRK2 GTP domain inhibitor. Here, the biological functions of two novel GTP-binding inhibitors of LRRK2 were examined in PD cell and mouse models...
December 1, 2014: Human Molecular Genetics
João P L Daher, Laura A Volpicelli-Daley, Jonathan P Blackburn, Mark S Moehle, Andrew B West
Missense mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene can cause late-onset Parkinson disease. Past studies have provided conflicting evidence for the protective effects of LRRK2 knockdown in models of Parkinson disease as well as other disorders. These discrepancies may be caused by uncertainty in the pathobiological mechanisms of LRRK2 action. Previously, we found that LRRK2 knockdown inhibited proinflammatory responses from cultured microglia cells. Here, we report LRRK2 knockout rats as resistant to dopaminergic neurodegeneration elicited by intracranial administration of LPS...
June 24, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Isabella Russo, Luigi Bubacco, Elisa Greggio
It is now well established that chronic inflammation is a prominent feature of several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Growing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation can contribute greatly to dopaminergic neuron degeneration and progression of the disease. Recent literature highlights that leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a kinase mutated in both autosomal-dominantly inherited and sporadic PD cases, modulates inflammation in response to different pathological stimuli...
March 21, 2014: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mareike Caesar, Sandra Felk, Susanne Zach, Gunnar Brønstad, Jan O Aasly, Thomas Gasser, Frank Gillardon
Increasing evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD)-linked Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has a role in peripheral and brain-resident immune cells. Furthermore, dysregulation of the anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic protein progranulin (PGRN) has been demonstrated in several chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show that PGRN levels are significantly reduced in conditioned medium of LRRK2(R1441G) mutant mouse fibroblasts, leukocytes, and microglia, whereas levels of proinflammatory factors, like interleukin-1β and keratinocyte-derived chemokine, were significantly increased...
July 2014: Glia
Daniel F Marker, Jenna M Puccini, Taryn E Mockus, Justin Barbieri, Shao-Ming Lu, Harris A Gelbard
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are accompanied by significant morbidity, which persists despite the use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While activated microglia play a role in pathogenesis, changes in their immune effector functions, including phagocytosis and proinflammatory signaling pathways, are not well understood. We have identified leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) as a novel regulator of microglial phagocytosis and activation in an in vitro model of HANDs, and hypothesize that LRRK2 kinase inhibition will attenuate microglial activation during HANDs...
November 29, 2012: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Beomsue Kim, Myung-Soon Yang, Dongjoo Choi, Jong-Hyeon Kim, Hye-Sun Kim, Wongi Seol, Sangdun Choi, Ilo Jou, Eun-Young Kim, Eun-Hye Joe
LRRK2, a Parkinson's disease associated gene, is highly expressed in microglia in addition to neurons; however, its function in microglia has not been evaluated. Using Lrrk2 knockdown (Lrrk2-KD) murine microglia prepared by lentiviral-mediated transfer of Lrrk2-specific small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA), we found that Lrrk2 deficiency attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA and/or protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and stimulation of NF-κB-responsive luciferase reporter activity was also decreased in Lrrk2-KD cells...
2012: PloS One
F Gillardon, R Schmid, H Draheim
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been causally linked to neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 expression has also been detected in B lymphocytes and macrophages, suggesting a role in immune responses. In the present study, we demonstrate that LRRK2 is expressed in primary microglial cells isolated from brains of adult mice. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial cells from mice overexpressing the Parkinson's disease-linked LRRK2(R1441G) mutation exhibit increased expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines compared with wild-type control microglia...
April 19, 2012: Neuroscience
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