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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913883/on-the-prevalence-of-constipation-and-fecal-incontinence-and-their-co-occurrence-in-the-netherlands
#1
Rob J Meinds, Maxime M van Meegdenburg, Monika Trzpis, Paul M A Broens
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of constipation and fecal incontinence (FI) in the general population and, even though these disorders are known to co-occur, they were studied independently of each other. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of constipation and FI, and their co-occurrence, in the general population in the Netherlands. METHODS: We studied a cross-section of the Dutch population (N = 1259). All respondents completed the Groningen Defecation & Fecal Continence checklist...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913157/further-evidence-of-alerted-default-network-connectivity-and-association-with-theory-of-mind-ability-in-schizophrenia
#2
Omar Mothersill, Noreen Tangney, Derek W Morris, Hazel McCarthy, Thomas Frodl, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Gary Donohoe
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has repeatedly shown evidence of altered functional connectivity of large-scale networks in schizophrenia. The relationship between these connectivity changes and behaviour (e.g. symptoms, neuropsychological performance) remains unclear. METHODS: Functional connectivity in 27 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 25 age and gender matched healthy controls was examined using rs-fMRI...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912958/a-systematic-review-of-the-ayurvedic-medicinal-herb-bacopa-monnieri-in-child-and-adolescent-populations
#3
REVIEW
James D Kean, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
OBJECTIVES: Clinicians utilise critical research to advance their knowledge when prescribing standard and alternative therapies for developmental disorders. Recent research has reported that the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri may improve cognitive outcomes in adult populations; however, few studies have investigated its benefits in younger cohorts. The aim of the current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trial outcomes and safety of Bacopa and its effects on the cognition and behaviour in children and adolescents...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912159/changes-in-the-self-during-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Bree Gregory, Lorna Peters
A consistent feature across cognitive-behavioural models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the central role of the self in the emergence and maintenance of the disorder. The strong emphasis placed on the self in these models and related empirical research has also been reflected in evidence-based treatments for the disorder. This systematic review provides an overview of the empirical literature investigating the role of self-related constructs (e.g., self-beliefs, self-images, self-focused attention) proposed in cognitive models of SAD, before examining how these constructs are modified during and following CBT for SAD...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911932/chemical-and-cellular-assays-combined-with-in-vitro-digestion-to-determine-the-antioxidant-activity-of-flavonoids-from-chinese-bayberry-myrica-rubra-sieb-et-zucc-leaves
#5
Yu Zhang, Shiguo Chen, Chaoyang Wei, Hui Gong, Lanqi Li, Xingqian Ye
Oxidative stress is highly associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and has drawn great attention. Natural products suggest a potential role in prevention of these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-cancer properties of Chinese bayberry leaves (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) flavonoids (BLF) comprehensively through the combination of in vitro digestion, chemical and cellular antioxidant assays. Based on the LC/MS data, the major flavonoids of BLF were myricitrin and quercetin 3-rhamnoside...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911791/a-functional-role-for-intrinsic-disorder-in-the-tau-tubulin-complex
#6
Ana M Melo, Juliana Coraor, Garrett Alpha-Cobb, Shana Elbaum-Garfinkle, Abhinav Nath, Elizabeth Rhoades
Tau is an intrinsically disordered protein with an important role in maintaining the dynamic instability of neuronal microtubules. Despite intensive study, a detailed understanding of the functional mechanism of tau is lacking. Here, we address this deficiency by using intramolecular single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) to characterize the conformational ensemble of tau bound to soluble tubulin heterodimers. Tau adopts an open conformation on binding tubulin, in which the long-range contacts between both termini and the microtubule binding region that characterize its compact solution structure are diminished...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911085/perceived-neighborhood-conditions-and-depression-positive-local-news-as-a-buffering-factor
#7
Masahiro Yamamoto
This study investigates positive local news as a moderator of the effects of perceived neighborhood conditions on depression. Data from an online survey of Chicago residents indicate that the relationship between fear of crime and depression is weaker for respondents who pay more attention to positive local news. Data also reveal that the indirect relationships that perceived neighborhood disorder and crime have with depression through fear of crime are weaker as attention to positive local news increases. Implications are discussed for the role of positive news as a protective factor for mental health...
December 2, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911044/utilization-of-stimulants-and-atomoxetine-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-among-5-4-million-children-using-population-based-longitudinal-data
#8
Kari Furu, Øystein Karlstad, Helga Zoega, Jaana E Martikainen, Shahram Bahmanyar, Helle Kieler, Anton Pottegård
Use of stimulants to treat Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including co-medication with other psychothropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012; which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5...
December 2, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#9
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910804/sudden-cardiac-death-a-nationwide-cohort-study-among-the-young
#10
Bjarke Risgaard
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a tragic event affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although several studies have investigated the epidemiology of SCD, these studies may have been affected by reporting and referral biases, which are reflected in the very different incidence rates and causes of deaths that have previously been reported. Among SCD victims aged < 36 years, inherited cardiac diseases are well known to play an important role. However, the extent to which inherited cardiac diseases also play a role in SCD victims aged < 50 years has not been completely described...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909931/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-mothers-and-fathers-family-level-interactions-in-relation-to-parenting
#11
David Williamson, Charlotte Johnston, Amira Noyes, Kurtis Stewart, Margaret D Weiss
Previous studies linking parent ADHD symptoms to parenting have typically focused on each parent individually. To provide a broader understanding of family context, in this study, levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in mothers and fathers were examined, both individually and in combination, in relation to negative parenting and child-rearing disagreements. Two-parent families of 5 to 13 year old boys (126 with ADHD and 53 typically developing) participated. Parents reported their own ADHD symptoms and their perceptions of child-rearing disagreements...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909683/fronto-striatal-glutamate-in-children-with-tourette-s-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Jilly Naaijen, Natalie J Forde, David J Lythgoe, Sophie E A Akkermans, Thaira J C Openneer, Andrea Dietrich, Marcel P Zwiers, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jan K Buitelaar
OBJECTIVE: Both Tourette's disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been related to abnormalities in glutamatergic neurochemistry in the fronto-striatal circuitry. TD and ADHD often co-occur and the neural underpinnings of this co-occurrence have been insufficiently investigated in prior studies. METHOD: We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in children between 8 and 12 years of age (TD n = 15, ADHD n = 39, TD + ADHD n = 29, and healthy controls n = 53) as an in vivo method of evaluating glutamate concentrations in the fronto-striatal circuit...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#13
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909451/gender-differences-in-somatic-symptoms-and-current-suicidal-risk-in-outpatients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Hong Jin Jeon, Jong-Min Woo, Hyo-Jin Kim, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Seong Jin Cho, Sung Man Chang, Doo-Heum Park, Jong Woo Kim, Ikki Yoo, Jung-Yoon Heo, Jin Pyo Hong
OBJECTIVE: Although somatic symptoms are common complaints of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), their associations with suicide are still unclear. METHODS: A total of 811 MDD outpatients of aged between 18 to 64 years were enrolled nationwide in Korea with the suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Depression and Somatic Symptom Scale (DSSS). RESULTS: On stepwise regression analysis, current suicidality scores were most strongly associated with chest pain in men, and neck or shoulder pain in women...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908845/design-response-rates-and-population-characteristics-of-a-cross-sectional-study-in-zanzibar-tanzania
#15
Maria Adam Nyangasa, Soerge Kelm, Mohammed Ali Sheikh, Antje Hebestreit
BACKGROUND: Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, "Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population," data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908060/individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-regional-nonnative-and-disordered-speech-varieties
#16
Tessa Bent, Melissa Baese-Berk, Stephanie A Borrie, Megan McKee
Speech perception abilities vary substantially across listeners, particularly in adverse conditions including those stemming from environmental degradation (e.g., noise) or from talker-related challenges (e.g., nonnative or disordered speech). This study examined adult listeners' recognition of words in phrases produced by six talkers representing three speech varieties: a nonnative accent (Spanish-accented English), a regional dialect (Irish English), and a disordered variety (ataxic dysarthria). Semantically anomalous phrases from these talkers were presented in a transcription task and intelligibility scores, percent words correct, were compared across the three speech varieties...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907271/adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosis-management-and-treatment-in-the-dsm-5-era
#17
Joel L Young, David W Goodman
Objective: To increase awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary care community and to provide guidance for the management of this condition. Despite its increasing prevalence, adult ADHD largely remains underdiagnosed and inappropriately treated in the United States. The publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has provided more clear diagnostic criteria for adult ADHD, but a solid framework supporting the transition of ADHD management from pediatric to adult primary care is lacking...
November 17, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907210/assessing-potentially-inappropriate-prescribing-in-community-dwelling-older-patients-using-the-updated-version-of-stopp-start-criteria-a-comparison-of-profiles-and-prevalences-with-respect-to-the-original-version
#18
Encarnación Blanco-Reina, Maria Rosa García-Merino, Ricardo Ocaña-Riola, Lorena Aguilar-Cano, Jennifer Valdellós, Inmaculada Bellido-Estévez, Gabriel Ariza-Zafra
Emerging and changing evidence made it necessary to update STOPP-START criteria, and version 2 was published recently. In this study the objectives were to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication prescribing (PIM) in primary care using STOPP versions 1 (v1) and 2 (v2), as well as 2012 AGS Beers criteria, and analyze the factors associated with inappropriate prescribing according to STOPP/START v2. A cross-sectional study was carried out including community-dwelling older adults over the age of 65...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906414/delphi-consensus-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-evaluation-by-a-panel-of-experts
#19
Amaia Hervás, Teresa de Santos, Javier Quintero, Pedro M Ruíz-Lázaro, José A Alda, Alberto Fernández-Jaén, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga
INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, which is frequently maintained in adolescent and adult age. It presents great clinical heterogeneity, significantly affecting the functioning of those who suffer it. Although drug treatments obtain results by themselves, the approach should be multidisciplinary and be adapted to the specific needs of each patient and his/ her family. Given the variety of drugs currently available to treat ADHD, there are diverse opinions on the most effective way to approach this disorder...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#20
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
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