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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352529/measuring-and-improving-the-quality-of-mental-health-care-a-global-perspective
#1
Amy M Kilbourne, Kathryn Beck, Brigitta Spaeth-Rublee, Parashar Ramanuj, Robert W O'Brien, Naomi Tomoyasu, Harold Alan Pincus
Mental disorders are common worldwide, yet the quality of care for these disorders has not increased to the same extent as that for physical conditions. In this paper, we present a framework for promoting quality measurement as a tool for improving quality of mental health care. We identify key barriers to this effort, including lack of standardized information technology-based data sources, limited scientific evidence for mental health quality measures, lack of provider training and support, and cultural barriers to integrating mental health care within general health environments...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352375/-aspects-of-liaison-psychiatry-care-of-patients-in-a%C3%A2-university-pain-clinic
#2
M Brinkers, G Pfau, C Schneemilch
BACKGROUND: Owing to a rise of psychosomatic comorbidities, the treatment of psychological disorders, which may negatively impact prognosis and therapy, is increasingly becoming a focus of attention for pain outpatient clinics. AIM: This study investigates and discusses the advantages of liaison psychiatric care in a university pain clinic. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we investigated all patients who presented to an anaesthesiologically led pain clinic between January and June 2014...
January 19, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352132/design-of-non-equiatomic-medium-entropy-alloys
#3
Yang Zhou, Dong Zhou, Xi Jin, Lu Zhang, Xingyu Du, Bangsheng Li
High-entropy alloys have attracted much attention due to their unique microstructures and excellent properties. Since their invention more than ten years ago, research attention has been mainly focused on the study of multicomponent alloys with equiatomic or near-equiatomic compositions. Here we propose a novel design of non-equiatomic medium-entropy alloys that contain one matrix element and several equiatomic alloying elements. To verify the utility of this new design, a series of Co-free Fex(CrNiAl)100-x (at...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352036/multiple-memory-systems-multiple-time-points-how-science-can-inform-treatment-to-control-the-expression-of-unwanted-emotional-memories
#4
REVIEW
Renée M Visser, Alex Lau-Zhu, Richard N Henson, Emily A Holmes
Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352025/state-of-the-art-and-future-directions-for-extinction-as-a-translational-model-for-fear-and-anxiety
#5
REVIEW
Michelle G Craske, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
Through advances in both basic and clinical scientific research, Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction have become an exemplary translational model for understanding and treating anxiety disorders. Discoveries in associative and neurobiological mechanisms underlying extinction have informed techniques for optimizing exposure therapy that enhance the formation of inhibitory associations and their consolidation and retrieval over time and context. Strategies that enhance formation include maximizing prediction-error correction by violating expectancies, deepened extinction, occasional reinforced extinction, attentional control and removal of safety signals/behaviours...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351768/overweight-in-adult-cats-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Malin Öhlund, Malin Palmgren, Bodil Ström Holst
BACKGROUND: Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors...
January 19, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351108/neuroimaging-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-focus-on-resting-state-fmri-analysis-of-intrinsic-functional-brain-connectivity
#7
Allison Jack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resting-state fMRI assessment of instrinsic functional brain connectivity (rs-fcMRI) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) allows assessment of participants with a wide range of functioning levels, and collection of multisite databases that facilitate large-scale analysis. These heterogeneous multisite data present both promise and methodological challenge. Herein, we provide an overview of recent (1 October 2016-1 November 2017) empirical research on ASD rs-fcMRI, focusing on work that helps clarify how best to leverage the power of these data...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350996/conduct-disorders-and-neighborhood-effects
#8
Wesley G Jennings, Nicholas M Perez, Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez
There has been a considerable amount of scholarly attention to the relationship between neighborhood effects and conduct disorder, particularly in recent years. Having said this, it has been nearly two decades since a comprehensive synthesis of this literature has been conducted. Relying on a detailed and comprehensive search strategy and inclusion criteria, this article offers a systematic and interdisciplinary review of 47 empirical studies that have examined neighborhood effects and conduct disorder. Described results suggest that there are generally robust linkages between adverse neighborhood factors and conduct disorder and externalizing behavior problems, as 67 of the 93 (72...
January 19, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349890/case-report-cytochrome-p450-implications-for-comorbid-adhd-and-ocd-pharmacotherapy
#9
Michaela K Hogan, Nikhil P Rao
TOPIC: This case report details the treatment of an early adolescent already receiving treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who presents with recurrent obsessive-compulsive disorder. Potential atomoxetine (Strattera) and fluoxetine (Prozac) interactions via Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) pathways are examined and alternate therapies are recommended. PURPOSE: Provide a discussion of psychopharmacogenomics, especially in the case of combining medications, CYP450 enzymes, and clinical implications in the context of the burgeoning field of precision medicine...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348192/differential-contributions-of-nucleus-accumbens-subregions-to-cue-guided-risk-reward-decision-making-and-implementation-of-conditional-rules
#10
Stan B Floresco, David R Montes, Maric M T Tse, Mieke van Holstein
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node within cortico-limbic circuitry for guiding action selection and cost/benefit decision making in situations involving reward uncertainty. Preclinical studies have typically assessed risk/reward decision making using assays where decisions are guided by internally-generated representations of choice-outcome contingencies. Yet, real-life decisions are often influenced by external stimuli that inform about likelihoods of obtaining rewards. How different subregions of the NAc mediate decision making in such situations is unclear...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats
#11
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Maria Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia E Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Gianni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO rats) in which the gene encoding the DAT has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology (ZFN)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348041/executive-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-a-failure-to-modulate-frontoparietal-insular-hub-architecture
#12
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348040/negative-valence-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-the-relationship-between-amygdala-activity-selective-attention-and-co-occurring-anxiety
#13
John D Herrington, Brenna B Maddox, Alana J McVey, Martin E Franklin, Benjamin E Yerys, Judith S Miller, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: A critical agenda of the National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative is establishing whether domains within the RDoC matrix are truly transdiagnostic. Rates of anxiety disorders are elevated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is unclear whether the same mechanisms contribute to anxiety in individuals with and without ASD. As changes in selective attention are a hallmark of anxiety disorders in non-ASD samples, the identification of these changes in ASD would support the transdiagnostic nature of anxiety...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348038/children-with-fragile-x-syndrome-display-threat-specific-biases-toward-emotion
#14
Jessica L Burris, Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Riley N Sims, Randi J Hagerman, Flora Tassone, Susan M Rivera
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. FXS is caused by a silencing of the FMR1 gene that results in a loss or absence of the gene's protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein. The phenotype of FXS is consistently associated with heightened anxiety, although no previous study has investigated attentional bias toward threat, a hallmark of anxiety disorders, in individuals with FXS. METHODS: The current study employed a passive-viewing eye-tracking version of the dot probe task to investigate attentional biases toward emotional faces in young children with FXS (n = 47) and without FXS (n = 94)...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347983/experiences-of-an-internet-based-support-and-coaching-model-for-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-adhd-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-qualitative-study
#15
Helena Sehlin, Britt Hedman Ahlström, Gerhard Andersson, Elisabet Wentz
BACKGROUND: There is a great demand for non-medical treatment and support targeting the needs of adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is also a lack of qualitative studies providing in-depth insight into these individuals' own experiences within this area. The current study aimed to explore how adolescents and young adults with ADHD, ASD or both experienced taking part in an internet-based support and coaching intervention...
January 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347927/prevalence-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-in-ethiopia-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Abadi Kidanemariam Berhe, Getachew Mullu Kassa, Gedefaw Abeje Fekadu, Achenef Asmamaw Muche
BACKGROUND: Although hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the leading cause of poor perinatal outcomes in Ethiopia, there is no study that shows the national prevalence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the national pooled prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy from studies conducted in different parts of the country. METHODS: Databases; MEDLINE, PubMed, HINARI, EMBASE, Google Scholar and African Journals Online were searched by using different search terms on HDP and Ethiopia...
January 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347861/positive-emotional-attention-bias-in-young-children-with-symptoms-of-adhd
#17
Amanda Cremone, Claudia I Lugo-Candelas, Elizabeth A Harvey, Jennifer M McDermott, Rebecca M C Spencer
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience emotional dysregulation. Dysregulation can arise from heightened attention to emotional stimuli. Emotional attention biases are associated with a number of adverse socioemotional outcomes including reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors. As reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors are common in children with ADHD, the aim of the current study was to determine whether emotional attention biases are evident in young children with clinically significant ADHD symptoms...
January 18, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346654/evaluation-of-system-mapping-approaches-in-identifying-patient-safety-risks
#18
Mecit Can Emre Simsekler, James R Ward, P John Clarkson
Objective: While many system mapping approaches (SMAs) have been broadly used in safety-critical industries, few have so far been employed in the healthcare field to assist in the identification of patient safety risks. In this study, we evaluated a set of system modelling approaches to assess their potential contribution to the identification of risks affecting patient safety. The aim was to gain a greater understanding of the practical application of system modelling approaches with the help of the risk categorization framework developed in this study...
January 16, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346342/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-prescription-claims-among-privately-insured-women-aged-15-44-years-united-states-2003-2015
#19
Kayla N Anderson, Elizabeth C Ailes, Melissa Danielson, Jennifer N Lind, Sherry L Farr, Cheryl S Broussard, Sarah C Tinker
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects individuals across the lifespan. ADHD medication use among pregnant women is increasing (1), but consensus about the safety of ADHD medication use during pregnancy is lacking. Given that nearly half of U.S. pregnancies are unintended (2), and early pregnancy is a critical period for fetal development, examining trends in ADHD medication prescriptions among reproductive-aged women is important to quantify the population at risk for potential exposure...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345528/linguistic-analysis-of-patients-with-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-during-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#20
Anke R Sonnenschein, Stefan G Hofmann, Tobias Ziegelmayer, Wolfgang Lutz
We analyzed the verbal behavior of patients with mood or/and anxiety disorders during psychotherapy. Investigating the words people used, we expected differences due to cognitive and emotional foci in patients with depression vs. anxiety. Transcripts of therapy sessions from 85 outpatients treated with cognitive behavioral therapy were analyzed using the software program Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Multivariate group comparisons were carried out investigating the LIWC-categories first-person-singular pronouns, sad, anxiety and fillers...
January 18, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
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