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Attention disorder

Ji-Eun Kim, Kyung-Ok Cho
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disorder in adulthood. For translational studies of chronic epilepsy, pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is frequently selected to recapitulate spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Here we present a protocol of SE induction by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine and monitoring of chronic recurring seizures in live animals using a wireless telemetry video and electroencephalogram (EEG) system. We demonstrated notable behavioral changes that need attention after pilocarpine injection and their correlation with hippocampal neuronal loss at 7 days and 6 weeks post-pilocarpine...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Steffen Moritz, Karla Spirandelli, Insa Happach, Despina Lion, Fabrice Berna
OBJECTIVES: There is mixed evidence regarding whether patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) display substantial neurocognitive deficits. Several studies implicate poor motivation, comorbid disorders, or distraction due to obsessive thoughts as potential causes of secondary malperformance. The present study examined the impact of stereotype threat (i.e., confrontation with a negative stereotype may impair performance) on neuropsychological functioning in individuals with OCD...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Donna Hermawati, Farid Agung Rahmadi, Tanjung Ayu Sumekar, Tri Indah Winarni
Prevalence autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been on rise, but many studies suggests over-diagnosed. Currently, children have more access to electronic media on the daily basis than those of previous generation. Some studies suggest that increases screen time is associated with melanopsin-expressing neurons and decreasing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter, and thus results aberrant behavior, decreased cognitive, and language development. Early exposure of electronic media in early life (< 2 years old) gives an impact on language, but it still inconclusive...
February 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Lijuan Wang, Yanchun Quan, Yongfang Yue, Xueyuan Heng, Fengyuan Che
Interleukin (IL)-37, a new IL-1 family member, has received increasing attention in recent years. In the past decade, it has been determined that IL-37 is expressed in various normal cells and tissues and is regulated by inflammatory stimuli and pro-cytokines via different signal transduction pathways. Recently, it has been found that IL-37 is expressed in a variety of cancers, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, a growing body of literature demonstrates that IL-37 plays a vital role in inhibiting both innate and adaptive immune responses as well as inflammatory reactions...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Victoria O'Callaghan, Richard Parker, Natalie Mills, Katherine M Kirk, Jan Scott, Anna Vinkhuyzen, Daniel F Hermens, Penelope A Lind, Tracey A Davenport, Jane M Burns, Melissa Connell, Brendan P Zietsch, James Scott, Margaret J Wright, Sarah E Medland, John McGrath, Nicholas G Martin, Ian B Hickie, Nathan A Gillespie
PURPOSE: The Nineteen and Up study (19Up) assessed a range of mental health and behavioural problems and associated risk factors in a genetically informative Australian cohort of young adult twins and their non-twin siblings. As such, 19Up enables detailed investigation of genetic and environmental pathways to mental illness and substance misuse within the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Sample (BLTS). PARTICIPANTS: Twins and their non-twin siblings from Queensland, Australia; mostly from European ancestry...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Amrita Aranake-Chrisinger, Jenny Zhao Cheng, Maxwell R Muench, Rose Tang, Angela Mickle, Hannah Maybrier, Nan Lin, Troy Wildes, Eric Lenze, Michael Simon Avidan
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication in elderly patients, characterised by a fluctuating course of altered consciousness, disordered thinking and inattention. Preliminary research has linked POD with persistent cognitive impairment and decreased quality of life. However, these findings maybe confounded by patient comorbidities, postoperative complications and frailty. Our objective is to determine whether POD is an independent risk factor for persistent impairments in attention and executive function after elective surgery...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Morgwn Paris, Yatin Mahajan, Jeesun Kim, Tanya Meade
BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional prosody processing have been observed in bipolar disorder (BD). While recent neural studies have explored impaired processing of facial expressions, little is known about deficits in emotional speech processing, or the specific stages of processing at which they occur. This study examined if pre-attentive detection and attention to emotional speech is impaired in BD, relative to healthy individuals. METHODS: The EEG data was collected from 14 individuals with BD and 14 healthy control (HC) participants while the auditory stimuli was presented via a passive three-stimulus oddball sequence which included emotionally (neutral, happy, sad) spoken syllables and acoustically matched nonvocal tones...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
I Hyun Ruisch, Jan K Buitelaar, Jeffrey C Glennon, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy factors have been implicated in offspring oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Literature still holds notable limitations, such as studying only a restricted set of pregnancy factors, use of screening questionnaires which assess broadly defined outcome measures, and lack of control for disruptive behavior comorbidity and genetic confounds. We aimed to address these gaps by prospectively studying a broad range of pregnancy factors in relation to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Oddvar Myhre, Marit Låg, Gro Villanger, Bente Oftedal, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme, Heidi Aase, Ragnhild E Paulsen, Anna Bal-Price, Hubert Dirven
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that air pollution particulate matter (PM) and adsorbed toxicants (organic compounds and trace metals) may affect child development already in utero. Recent studies have also indicated that PM may be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). A pattern of increasing prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested to partly be linked to environmental pollutants exposure, including PM. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between pre- or postnatal exposure to air pollution components and ADHD symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Evdokiya Salamanova, Joana Costeira-Paulo, Kyou-Hoon Han, Do-Hyoung Kim, Lennart Nilsson, Anthony P H Wright
BACKGROUND: Adaptive mutations that alter protein functionality are enriched within intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs), thus conformational flexibility correlates with evolvability. Pre-structured motifs (PreSMos) with transient propensity for secondary structure conformation are believed to be important for IDR function. The glucocorticoid receptor tau1core transcriptional activation domain (GR tau1core) domain contains three α-helical PreSMos in physiological buffer conditions...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Dong-Oh Seo, Laura E Motard, Michael R Bruchas
Great efforts in clinical and basic research have shown progress in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit hyperactive disorders. Literature on this field have suggested that these disorders are affected by the complex interaction of genetic, biological, psychosocial and environmental risk factors. However, this complexity of interplaying risk factors during neurodevelopment has prevented a complete understanding of the causes of those neuropsychiatric symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Alireza Mohammadi, Ali Maleki-Jamshid, Davood Sanooghi, Peiman Brouki Milan, Arash Rahmani, Farshid Sefat, Koorosh Shahpasand, Mansoureh Soleimani, Mehrdad Bakhtiari, Rafie Belali, Faezeh Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, George Perry, Masoud Mozafari
A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Gary J Lewis, Nicolas G Shakeshaft, Robert Plomin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism-like traits are associated with deficits in face memory ability, although it is not yet clear whether this deficit reflects a specific aspect of the ASD/autism-like phenotype. We addressed this issue using a neurotypical sample of adolescent twins (Ncomplete pairs  = 782) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed on face and object memory performance alongside two core aspects of autism-like traits: (i) difficulties with social behavior/interactions, and (ii) attention to detail...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Philippe Vignaud, Clément Donde, Thouraya Sadki, Emmanuel Poulet, Jérôme Brunelin
Growing evidence has suggested that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could have beneficial effects on the acute phase of depression and on the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence. Despite growing clinical interest, the effects of MBIs on brain functioning in patients with MDD remain unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the changes in brain functioning associated with MBIs in patients with MDD. A systematic search was conducted, and of the 56 articles found, 8 were eligible...
March 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Isabella Merzagora, Alberto Amadasi, Alberto Blandino, Guido Travaini
In recent times Italy has been experiencing massive migration flows, therefore the attention on the issue of crimes committed by foreigners is increasing. But within trials, in the evaluation of criminal liability of foreigners, how do experts deal with them? Do the performed evaluations take cultural diversity into account? The present study took origin from these questions and examined a total of 86 reports by experts on criminal liability of foreign persons (16 females and 70 males). Examinees have been declared indictable in 31 cases (36%), totally mentally ill in 40 cases (45%) and with diminished liability in 15 cases (17%); when liability was excluded, examinees were diagnosed in 11 cases with mood disorders, in 23 cases with personality disorders, in 4 cases with adaptation disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder and in 10 cases with different diagnoses (in some cases more than one diagnosis was present)...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Robert A DiStasio, Ge Zhang, Frank H Stillinger, Salvatore Torquato
Disordered stealthy hyperuniform materials are exotic amorphous states of matter that have attracted recent attention because of their novel structural characteristics (hidden order at large length scales) and physical properties, including desirable photonic and transport properties. It is therefore useful to devise algorithms that enable one to design a wide class of such amorphous configurations at will. In this paper, we present several algorithms enabling the systematic identification and generation of discrete (digitized) stealthy hyperuniform patterns with a tunable degree of order, paving the way towards the rational design of disordered materials endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Nathan H Johnson, Carol Vidal, Flavius R W Lilly
Background: Current prevalence estimates are 15% for depression and 20% for anxiety disorders among college students. These disorders are known to negatively impact academic achievement and persistence. It is important to understand the effects of parental military service on the mental health of children across development. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of being raised in a military household on current and historical depression and anxiety disorders among college students...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Víviam Vargas Barros, Emérita Sátiro Opaleye, Marcelo Demarzo, Sarah Bowen, Daniela Fernández Curado, Helena Hachul, Ana Regina Noto
INTRODUCTION: Dispositional mindfulness can be described as the mental ability to pay attention to the present moment, non-judgmentally. There is evidence of inverse relation between dispositional mindfulness and insomnia and substance use, but as of yet, no studies evaluating the specific association between dispositional mindfulness and the components of hypnotic use disorder. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between dispositional mindfulness and the components of dependence among female chronic hypnotic users...
2018: PloS One
Audrey M Bernstein, Robert Ritch, J Mario Wolosin
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disease involving the deposition of aggregated fibrillar material (XFM) at extracellular matrices in tissues that synthesize elastic fibers. Its main morbidity is in the eye, where XFM accumulations form on the surface of the ciliary body, iris and lens. Exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurs in a high proportion of persons with XFS and can be a rapidly progressing disease. Worldwide, XFG accounts for about 25% of open-angle glaucoma cases. XFS and XFG show a sharp age-dependence, similarly to the many age-related diseases classified as aggregopathies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
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