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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429848/stuck-in-fragments-population-genetics-of-the-endangered-collared-brown-lemur-eulemur-collaris-in-the-malagasy-littoral-forest
#1
Stefania Bertoncini, Jacopo D'Ercole, Francesca Brisighelli, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Cristian Capelli, Sergio Tofanelli, Giuseppe Donati
OBJECTIVES: The Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429569/celebrating-fifty-years-of-research-at-the-duke-lemur-center
#2
Elaine E Guevara, Chloe Chen-Kraus, Rachel L Jacobs, Andrea L Baden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423373/distribution-of-interstitial-telomeric-sequences-in-primates-and-the-pygmy-tree-shrew-scandentia
#3
Sofia Mazzoleni, Odessa Schillaci, Luca Sineo, Francesca Dumas
It has been hypothesized that interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), i.e., repeated telomeric DNA sequences found at intrachromosomal sites in many vertebrates, could be correlated to chromosomal rearrangements and plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we hybridized a telomeric PNA probe through FISH on representative species of 2 primate infraorders, Strepsirrhini (Lemur catta, Otolemur garnettii, Nycticebus coucang) and Catarrhini (Erythrocebus patas, Cercopithecus petaurista, Chlorocebus aethiops, Colobus guereza), as well as on 1 species of the order Scandentia, Tupaia minor, used as an outgroup for primates in phylogenetic reconstructions...
April 20, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407630/characterization-of-the-tree-holes-used-by-lepilemur-ruficaudatus-in-the-dry-deciduous-forest-of-kirindy-mitea-national-park
#4
Elvis J Rakotomalala, Felix Rakotondraparany, Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis
Knowledge of the key resources for a species is critical for developing an effective conservation strategy. Kirindy Mitea National Park is an important refuge for the red-tailed sportive lemur (Lepilemur ruficaudatus), a nocturnal folivorous lemur endemic to the dry deciduous forest of western Madagascar. Because L. ruficaudatus sleeps in tree holes during the day, sleeping trees may be an important resource for this species. Our goal was to characterize the sleeping sites used by L. ruficaudatus at the Ankoatsifaka Research Station in Kirindy Mitea National Park...
April 14, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399297/two-new-species-of-sucking-lice-phthiraptera-anoplura-polyplacidae-from-endangered-hibernating-lemurs-primates-cheirogaleidae
#5
Lance A Durden, Marina B Blanco, Matthew H Seabolt
Lemurpediculus robbinsi sp. nov. is described from Crossley's dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus crossleyi A. Grandidier, and Lemurpediculus claytoni sp. nov. is described from Sibree's dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus sibreei Forsyth Major, from Madagascar. Both sexes of each new louse species are illustrated and distinguished from the two previously known species of Lemurpediculus: L. verruculosus (Ward) and L. petterorum Paulian. With the addition of two new species to the genus, an amended description of Lemurpediculus is provided...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394028/the-dynamics-of-transmission-and-the-dynamics-of-networks
#6
Damien Farine
A toy example depicted here highlighting the results of a study in this issue of the Journal of Animal Ecology that investigates the impact of network dynamics on potential disease outbreaks. Infections (stars) that spread by contact only (left) reduce the predicted outbreak size compared to situations where individuals can become infected by moving through areas that previously contained infected individuals (right). This is potentially important in species where individuals, or in this case groups, have overlapping ranges (as depicted on the top right)...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345775/quantification-of-the-position-and-depth-of-the-flexor-hallucis-longus-groove-in-euarchontans-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-primate-positional-behavior
#7
Gabriel S Yapuncich, Erik R Seiffert, Doug M Boyer
OBJECTIVE: On the talus, the position and depth of the groove for the flexor hallucis longus tendon have been used to infer phylogenetic affinities and positional behaviors of fossil primates. This study quantifies aspects of the flexor hallucis longus groove (FHLG) to test if: (1) a lateral FHLG is a derived strepsirrhine feature, (2) a lateral FHLG reflects inverted and abducted foot postures, and (3) a deeper FHLG indicates a larger muscle. METHODS: We used linear measurements of microCT-generated models from a sample of euarchontans (n = 378 specimens, 125 species) to quantify FHLG position and depth...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330740/estimating-body-size-in-early-primates-the-case-of-archicebus-and-teilhardina
#8
Marian Dagosto, Daniel Gebo, Xijun Ni, Thierry Smith
Obtaining accurate estimations of the body mass of fossil primates has always been a subject of interest in paleoanthropology because mass is an important determinant for so many other aspects of biology, ecology, and life history. This paper focuses on the issues involved in attempting to reconstruct the mass of two early Eocene haplorhine primates, Teilhardina and Archicebus, which pose particular problems due to their small size and temporal and phylogenetic distance from extant primates. In addition to a ranking of variables from more to less useful, the effect of using models of varying taxonomic and size compositions is examined...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324014/variation-in-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene-in-primates
#9
Peter Rotwein
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a multifunctional peptide that is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes in many animal species, ranging from somatic growth in children to metabolism and tissue regeneration and repair in adults. The IGF1 gene is under multifactorial regulation in the few species in which it has been studied, with major control being exerted by growth hormone through a gene expression pathway involving inducible binding of the STAT5b transcription factor to dispersed enhancer elements...
April 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295350/anatomy-histology-and-ultrasonography-of-the-normal-adrenal-gland-in-brown-lemur-eulemur-fulvus
#10
Fidiniaina Raharison, Nathalie Bourges Abella, Jean Sautet, Alexandra Deviers, Giovanni Mogicato
BACKGROUND: The medical care currently to brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) is limited by a lack of knowledge of their anatomy. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and histology and obtain ultrasonographic measurements of normal adrenal glands in these animals. METHODS: The adrenal glands of four lemurs cadavers were used for the anatomical and histological studies, and those of 15 anesthetized lemurs were examined by ultrasonography. RESULTS: Anatomically, the adrenal glands of brown lemurs are comparable to those of other species...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294115/phosphorylation-of-rab-coupling-protein-by-lmtk3-controls-rab14-dependent-epha2-trafficking-to-promote-cell-cell-repulsion
#11
Christine Gundry, Sergi Marco, Elena Rainero, Bryan Miller, Emmanuel Dornier, Louise Mitchell, Patrick T Caswell, Andrew D Campbell, Anna Hogeweg, Owen J Sansom, Jennifer P Morton, Jim C Norman
The Rab GTPase effector, Rab-coupling protein (RCP) is known to promote invasive behaviour in vitro by controlling integrin and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) trafficking, but how RCP influences metastasis in vivo is unclear. Here we identify an RTK of the Eph family, EphA2, to be a cargo of an RCP-regulated endocytic pathway which controls cell:cell repulsion and metastasis in vivo. Phosphorylation of RCP at Ser(435) by Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) and of EphA2 at Ser(897) by Akt are both necessary to promote Rab14-dependent (and Rab11-independent) trafficking of EphA2 which generates cell:cell repulsion events that drive tumour cells apart...
March 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280597/testing-the-adaptive-radiation-hypothesis-for-the-lemurs-of-madagascar
#12
James P Herrera
Lemurs, the diverse, endemic primates of Madagascar, are thought to represent a classic example of adaptive radiation. Based on the most complete phylogeny of living and extinct lemurs yet assembled, I tested predictions of adaptive radiation theory by estimating rates of speciation, extinction and adaptive phenotypic evolution. As predicted, lemur speciation rate exceeded that of their sister clade by nearly twofold, indicating the diversification dynamics of lemurs and mainland relatives may have been decoupled...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275167/novel-opsin-gene-variation-in-large-bodied-diurnal-lemurs
#13
Rachel L Jacobs, Tammie S MacFie, Amanda N Spriggs, Andrea L Baden, Toni Lyn Morelli, Mitchell T Irwin, Richard R Lawler, Jennifer Pastorini, Mireya Mayor, Runhua Lei, Ryan Culligan, Melissa T R Hawkins, Peter M Kappeler, Patricia C Wright, Edward E Louis, Nicholas I Mundy, Brenda J Bradley
Some primate populations include both trichromatic and dichromatic (red-green colour blind) individuals due to allelic variation at the X-linked opsin locus. This polymorphic trichromacy is well described in day-active New World monkeys. Less is known about colour vision in Malagasy lemurs, but, unlike New World monkeys, only some day-active lemurs are polymorphic, while others are dichromatic. The evolutionary pressures underlying these differences in lemurs are unknown, but aspects of species ecology, including variation in activity pattern, are hypothesized to play a role...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260706/synthetic-smooth-muscle-in-the-outer-blood-plexus-of-the-rhinarium-skin-of-lemur-catta-l
#14
Rolf Elofsson, Ronald H H Kröger
The skin of the lemur nose tip (rhinarium) has arterioles in the outer vascular plexus that are endowed with an unusual coat of smooth muscle cells. Comparison with the arterioles of the same area in a number of unrelated mammalians shows that the lemur pattern is unique. The vascular smooth muscle cells belong to the synthetic type. The function of synthetic smooth muscles around the terminal vessels in the lemur rhinarium is unclear but may have additional functions beyond regulation of vessel diameter.
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260052/lmtk3-knockdown-retards-cell-growth-and-invasion-and-promotes-apoptosis-in-thyroid-cancer
#15
Lu Lu, Xueli Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Hong Zhang, Baozhong Shen
Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) is a member of the serine/threonine tyrosine kinase family, which is thought to be involved in tumor progression and prognosis. The purpose of the present study was to determine the diagnostic significance and therapeutic targets in thyroid cancer. ELISA assay was used to detect the protein expression of serum LMTK3. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction were employed to measure the expression of LMTK3. Flow cytometry was used to determine the cell cycle...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257553/activity-patterns-in-seven-captive-lemur-species-evidence-of-cathemerality-in-varecia-and-lemur-catta
#16
Joel Bray, David R Samson, Charles L Nunn
Cathemerality, or activity throughout the 24-hr cycle, is rare in primates yet relatively common among lemurs. However, the diverse ecological conditions under which cathemerality is expressed complicates attempts to identify species-typical behavior. For example, Lemur catta and Varecia have historically been described as diurnal, yet recent studies suggest that they might exhibit cathemeral behavior under some conditions. To investigate this variation, we monitored activity patterns among lemurs that are exposed to similar captive environments...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225021/characterisation-of-urinary-wfdc12-in-small-nocturnal-basal-primates-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-spp
#17
Jennifer Unsworth, Grace M Loxley, Amanda Davidson, Jane L Hurst, Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Nicholas I Mundy, Robert J Beynon, Elke Zimmermann, Ute Radespiel
Mouse lemurs are basal primates that rely on chemo- and acoustic signalling for social interactions in their dispersed social systems. We examined the urinary protein content of two mouse lemurs species, within and outside the breeding season, to assess candidates used in species discrimination, reproductive or competitive communication. Urine from Microcebus murinus and Microcebus lehilahytsara contain a predominant 10 kDa protein, expressed in both species by some, but not all, males during the breeding season, but at very low levels by females...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185282/impacts-of-habitat-loss-and-fragmentation-on-the-activity-budget-ranging-ecology-and-habitat-use-of-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-the-southern-ethiopian-highlands
#18
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nga Nguyen, Nils Chr Stenseth
Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180967/the-evolution-of-the-natural-killer-complex-a-comparison-between-mammals-using-new-high-quality-genome-assemblies-and-targeted-annotation
#19
John C Schwartz, Mark S Gibson, Dorothea Heimeier, Sergey Koren, Adam M Phillippy, Derek M Bickhart, Timothy P L Smith, Juan F Medrano, John A Hammond
Natural killer (NK) cells are a diverse population of lymphocytes with a range of biological roles including essential immune functions. NK cell diversity is in part created by the differential expression of cell surface receptors which modulate activation and function, including multiple subfamilies of C-type lectin receptors encoded within the NK complex (NKC). Little is known about the gene content of the NKC beyond rodent and primate lineages, other than it appears to be extremely variable between mammalian groups...
April 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173059/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-sportive-lemurs-genus-lepilemur-recovered-from-mitogenomes-with-inferences-for-madagascar-biogeography
#20
Runhua Lei, Cynthia L Frasier, Melissa T R Hawkins, Shannon E Engberg, Carolyn A Bailey, Steig E Johnson, Adam T McLain, Colin P Groves, George H Perry, Stephen D Nash, Russell A Mittermeier, Edward E Louis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
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