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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225021/characterisation-of-urinary-wfdc12-in-small-nocturnal-basal-primates-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-spp
#1
Jennifer Unsworth, Grace M Loxley, Amanda Davidson, Jane L Hurst, Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Nicholas I Mundy, Robert J Beynon, Elke Zimmermann, Ute Radespiel
Mouse lemurs are basal primates that rely on chemo- and acoustic signalling for social interactions in their dispersed social systems. We examined the urinary protein content of two mouse lemurs species, within and outside the breeding season, to assess candidates used in species discrimination, reproductive or competitive communication. Urine from Microcebus murinus and Microcebus lehilahytsara contain a predominant 10 kDa protein, expressed in both species by some, but not all, males during the breeding season, but at very low levels by females...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185282/impacts-of-habitat-loss-and-fragmentation-on-the-activity-budget-ranging-ecology-and-habitat-use-of-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-the-southern-ethiopian-highlands
#2
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nga Nguyen, Nils Chr Stenseth
Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180967/the-evolution-of-the-natural-killer-complex-a-comparison-between-mammals-using-new-high-quality-genome-assemblies-and-targeted-annotation
#3
John C Schwartz, Mark S Gibson, Dorothea Heimeier, Sergey Koren, Adam M Phillippy, Derek M Bickhart, Timothy P L Smith, Juan F Medrano, John A Hammond
Natural killer (NK) cells are a diverse population of lymphocytes with a range of biological roles including essential immune functions. NK cell diversity is in part created by the differential expression of cell surface receptors which modulate activation and function, including multiple subfamilies of C-type lectin receptors encoded within the NK complex (NKC). Little is known about the gene content of the NKC beyond rodent and primate lineages, other than it appears to be extremely variable between mammalian groups...
February 9, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173059/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-sportive-lemurs-genus-lepilemur-recovered-from-mitogenomes-with-inferences-for-madagascar-biogeography
#4
Runhua Lei, Cynthia L Frasier, Melissa T R Hawkins, Shannon E Engberg, Carolyn A Bailey, Steig E Johnson, Adam T McLain, Colin P Groves, George H Perry, Stephen D Nash, Russell A Mittermeier, Edward E Louis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161098/peracute-bacterial-meningitis-due-to-infection-with-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-captive-bred-ruffed-lemurs-varecia-variegate
#5
E Sasaki, T Tokiwa, K Tsugo, Y Higashi, H Hori, Y Une
We describe the development of neurological signs in four juvenile black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegate), housed at a petting zoo in Japan. The clinical course was severe, with three lemurs dying within 1 day of the appearance of clinical signs. The other lemur was treated and survived. Pathological analyses demonstrated meningitis and the presence of gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum, cerebellum, palatine tonsil and liver. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the brain of all of the dead lemurs...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109265/population-genetics-of-mouse-lemur-vomeronasal-receptors-current-versus-past-selection-and-demographic-inference
#6
Philipp Hohenbrink, Nicholas I Mundy, Ute Radespiel
BACKGROUND: A major effort is underway to use population genetic approaches to identify loci involved in adaptation. One issue that has so far received limited attention is whether loci that show a phylogenetic signal of positive selection in the past also show evidence of ongoing positive selection at the population level. We address this issue using vomeronasal receptors (VRs), a diverse gene family in mammals involved in intraspecific communication and predator detection. In mouse lemurs, we previously demonstrated that both subfamilies of VRs (V1Rs and V2Rs) show a strong signal of directional selection in interspecific analyses...
January 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081528/rapid-decrease-in-populations-of-wild-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-in-madagascar
#7
Marni LaFleur, Tara A Clarke, Kim Reuter, Toby Schaeffer
Lemurs are the most threatened group of mammals on earth. Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) represents one of the most iconic lemur species and faces numerous anthropogenic threats in the wild. In this study, we present population estimates from 32 sites across the range of L. catta, collected from primary and secondary data sources, to assess the number of ring-tailed lemurs left in the wild. We estimate that there are approximately 2,220 individual L. catta remaining in the 32 sites considered. We note local extinctions of populations of L...
2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079085/endangered-species-illegal-lemur-trade-grows-in-madagascar
#8
Kim E Reuter, Marni LaFleur, Tara A Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054342/diversity-of-photoreceptor-arrangements-in-nocturnal-cathemeral-and-diurnal-malagasy-lemurs
#9
Leo Peichl, Alexander Kaiser, Felix Rakotondraparany, Richard R Dubielzig, Steven M Goodman, And Peter M Kappeler
The lemurs of Madagascar (Primates: Lemuriformes) are a monophyletic group that has lived in isolation from other primates for about 50 million years. Lemurs have diversified into species with diverse daily activity patterns and correspondingly different visual adaptations. We assessed the arrangements of retinal cone and rod photoreceptors in six nocturnal, three cathemeral and two diurnal lemur species and quantified different parameters in six of the species. The analysis revealed lower cone densities and higher rod densities in the nocturnal than in the cathemeral and diurnal species...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040547/lemur-tyrosine-kinase-2-lmtk2-is-a-determinant-of-cell-sensitivity-to-apoptosis-by-regulating-the-levels-of-the-bcl2-family-members
#10
Annalisa Conti, Maria Teresa Majorini, Enrico Fontanella, Alberto Bardelli, Mauro Giacca, Domenico Delia, Miguel Mano, Daniele Lecis
Using a high-throughput approach, we identified lemur tyrosine kinase 2 (LMTK2) as a novel determinant of cell sensitivity to TRAIL. LMTK2 is a poorly characterized serine/threonine kinase believed to play a role in endosomal membrane trafficking and neuronal physiology, and recently found to be mutated in diverse tumor types. We show that LMTK2 silencing sensitizes immortalized epithelial cells and cancer cells to TRAIL, and this phenomenon is accompanied by changes in the expression of BCL2 family members...
December 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039490/impaired-fasting-blood-glucose-is-associated-to-cognitive-impairment-and-cerebral-atrophy-in-middle-aged-non-human-primates
#11
Fathia Djelti, Marc Dhenain, Jérémy Terrien, Jean-Luc Picq, Isabelle Hardy, Delphine Champeval, Martine Perret, Esther Schenker, Jacques Epelbaum, Fabienne Aujard
Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations...
December 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018651/stability-in-skipping-gaits
#12
Emanuel Andrada, Roy Müller, Reinhard Blickhan
As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973681/dynamic-vs-static-social-networks-in-models-of-parasite-transmission-predicting-cryptosporidium-spread-in-wild-lemurs
#13
Andrea Springer, Peter M Kappeler, Charles L Nunn
1.Social networks provide an established tool to implement heterogeneous contact structures in epidemiological models. Dynamic temporal changes in contact structure and ranging behavior of wildlife may impact disease dynamics. A consensus has yet to emerge, however, concerning the conditions in which network dynamics impact model outcomes, as compared to static approximations that average contact rates over longer time periods. Furthermore, as many pathogens can be transmitted both environmentally and via close contact, it is important to investigate the relative influence of both transmission routes in real-world populations...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899642/the-ucsc-genome-browser-database-2017-update
#14
Cath Tyner, Galt P Barber, Jonathan Casper, Hiram Clawson, Mark Diekhans, Christopher Eisenhart, Clayton M Fischer, David Gibson, Jairo Navarro Gonzalez, Luvina Guruvadoo, Maximilian Haeussler, Steve Heitner, Angie S Hinrichs, Donna Karolchik, Brian T Lee, Christopher M Lee, Parisa Nejad, Brian J Raney, Kate R Rosenbloom, Matthew L Speir, Chris Villarreal, John Vivian, Ann S Zweig, David Haussler, Robert M Kuhn, W James Kent
Since its 2001 debut, the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser (http://genome.ucsc.edu/) team has provided continuous support to the international genomics and biomedical communities through a web-based, open source platform designed for the fast, scalable display of sequence alignments and annotations landscaped against a vast collection of quality reference genome assemblies. The browser's publicly accessible databases are the backbone of a rich, integrated bioinformatics tool suite that includes a graphical interface for data queries and downloads, alignment programs, command-line utilities and more...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870353/eye-size-and-set-in-small-bodied-fossil-primates-a-three-dimensional-method
#15
Alfred L Rosenberger, Tim D Smith, Valerie B DeLeon, Anne M Burrows, Robert Schenck, Lauren B Halenar
We introduce a new method to geometrically reconstruct eye volume and placement in small-bodied primates based on the three-dimensional contour of the intraorbital surface. We validate it using seven species of living primates, with dry skulls and wet dissections, and test its application on seven species of Paleogene fossils of interest. The method performs well even when the orbit is damaged and incomplete, lacking the postorbital bar and represented only by the orbital floor. Eye volume is an important quantity for anatomic and metabolic reasons, which due to differences in eye set, or position within (or outside) the bony orbit, can be underestimated in living and fossil forms when calculated from aperture diameter...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869570/use-of-primates-in-research-what-do-we-know-about-captive-strepsirrhine-primates
#16
Gloria Fernández Lázaro, Sarah Zehr, Enrique Alonso García
The increasing debate and restrictions on primate research have prompted many surveys about their status. However, there is a lack of information regarding strepsirrhine primates in the literature. This study provides an overview of research on strepsirrhines in captivity by analyzing scientific articles published from 2010 to 2013 and assessing publicly available government reports in Europe and the United States. Data on taxonomy, country, research area, research class, and type of institution were extracted...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856699/first-in-vivo-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-transcriptomes-reveal-mechanisms-of-host-exploitation-host-specific-gene-expression-and-expressed-genotype-shifts
#17
Amy R Ellison, Graziella V DiRenzo, Caitlin A McDonald, Karen R Lips, Kelly R Zamudio
For generalist pathogens, host species represent distinct selective environments, providing unique challenges for resource acquisition and defense from host immunity, potentially resulting in host-dependent differences in pathogen fitness. Gene expression modulation should be advantageous, responding optimally to a given host and mitigating the costs of generalism. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen of amphibians, shows variability in pathogenicity among isolates, and within-strain virulence changes rapidly during serial passages through artificial culture...
January 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853604/hibernation-in-a-primate-does-sleep-occur
#18
Marina B Blanco, Kathrin H Dausmann, Sheena L Faherty, Peter Klopfer, Andrew D Krystal, Robert Schopler, Anne D Yoder
During hibernation, critical physiological processes are downregulated and thermogenically induced arousals are presumably needed periodically to fulfil those physiological demands. Among the processes incompatible with a hypome tabolic state is sleep. However, one hibernating primate, the dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius, experiences rapid eye movement (REM)-like states during hibernation, whenever passively reaching temperatures above 30°C, as occurs when it hibernates in poorly insulated tree hollows under tropical conditions...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848158/evidence-of-prolonged-torpor-in-goodman-s-mouse-lemurs-at-ankafobe-forest-central-madagascar
#19
Marina B Blanco, Andon'ny A Andriantsalohimisantatra, Tahiry V Rivoharison, Jean-Basile Andriambeloson
The small-bodied mouse lemurs of Madagascar (Microcebus) are capable of heterothermy (i.e., torpor or hibernation). The expression of these energy-saving strategies has been physiologically demonstrated in three species: M. berthae, the pygmy mouse lemur (daily torpor), M. murinus, the gray mouse lemur (daily torpor and hibernation), and M. griseorufus, the reddish-gray mouse lemur (daily, prolonged torpor and hibernation). Additional evidence, based on radiotracking and seasonal body mass changes, indicated that mouse lemur capabilities for heterothermy extended to M...
November 15, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848157/competition-for-dead-trees-between-humans-and-aye-ayes-daubentonia-madagascariensis-in-central-eastern-madagascar
#20
Rose T Miller, Jean-Luc Raharison, Mitchell T Irwin
The destruction and degradation of forest habitats are major threats to the sustainability of lemur populations in Madagascar. Madagascan landscapes often contain forest fragments that represent refuges for native fauna, while also being used for firewood and timber by local human populations. As undisturbed forest becomes increasingly scarce, understanding resource competition between humans and wildlife in disturbed habitats will be increasingly important. We tested the hypothesis that Malagasy and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) compete for the limited number of dead trees in rainforest fragments at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar...
November 15, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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