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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166633/range-extension-and-behavioural-observations-of-the-recently-described-sheth-s-dwarf-lemur-cheirogaleus-shethi
#1
Daniel Hending, Angelo Andrianiaina, Zafimahery Rakotomalala, Sam Cotton
Sheth's dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus shethi, is a small, recently discovered nocturnal primate endemic to northern Madagascar. Unlike many other nocturnal lemurs, C. shethi lives sympatrically with morphologically similar species of its cryptic genus, making it difficult for biologists to determine its population density and distribution. Here, we present new data and observations of this species. During a series of rapid biodiversity assessments in the SAVA region of north-eastern Madagascar, we observed C. shethi in 10 different sites, 9 of which were not previously known to harbour C...
November 23, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145861/hybrid-de-novo-genome-assembly-and-centromere-characterization-of-the-gray-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#2
Peter A Larsen, R Alan Harris, Yue Liu, Shwetha C Murali, C Ryan Campbell, Adam D Brown, Beth A Sullivan, Jennifer Shelton, Susan J Brown, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Olga Dudchenko, Ido Machol, Neva C Durand, Muhammad S Shamim, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Anne D Yoder, Jeffrey Rogers, Kim C Worley
BACKGROUND: The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we present an iterative approach to hybrid de novo genome assembly that incorporates datasets stemming from multiple genomic technologies and methods. We used this approach to improve the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome from early draft status to a near chromosome-scale assembly...
November 16, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140563/-stink-flirting-in-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-male-olfactory-displays-to-females-as-honest-costly-signals
#3
Amber D Walker-Bolton, Joyce A Parga
Sexual selection for honest behavioral displays of quality has driven the development of remarkably complex courtship behavior in many animal species. Olfactory displays are often overlooked as an area of inquiry compared to auditory and visual displays. Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) scent marking of substrates has been studied extensively, although the male olfactory displays of anointing and wafting tails to females has received relatively little attention. We studied the role of male olfactory displays to females, evaluating whether such signals function as honest, costly signals of male dominance status in two groups of wild L...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123214/evolution-of-facial-color-pattern-complexity-in-lemurs
#4
Hanitriniaina Rakotonirina, Peter M Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel
Interspecific variation in facial color patterns across New and Old World primates has been linked to species recognition and group size. Because group size has opposite effects on interspecific variation in facial color patterns in these two radiations, a study of the third large primate radiation may shed light on convergences and divergences in this context. We therefore compiled published social and ecological data and analyzed facial photographs of 65 lemur species to categorize variation in hair length, hair and skin coloration as well as color brightness...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112973/reading-wild-minds-a-computational-assay-of-theory-of-mind-sophistication-across-seven-primate-species
#5
Marie Devaine, Aurore San-Galli, Cinzia Trapanese, Giulia Bardino, Christelle Hano, Michel Saint Jalme, Sebastien Bouret, Shelly Masi, Jean Daunizeau
Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107552/feeding-ecology-and-morphology-make-a-bamboo-specialist-vulnerable-to-climate-change
#6
Jussi T Eronen, Sarah Zohdy, Alistair R Evans, Stacey R Tecot, Patricia C Wright, Jukka Jernvall
Animals with dietary specializations can be used to link climate to specific ecological drivers of endangerment. Only two mammals, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Asia and the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) in Madagascar, consume the nutritionally poor and mechanically challenging culm or trunk of woody bamboos [1-3]. Even though the greater bamboo lemur is critically endangered, paleontological evidence shows that it was once broadly distributed [4, 5]. Here, integrating morphological, paleontological, and ecological evidence, we project the effects of climate change on greater bamboo lemurs...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090275/activation-of-tpa-response-element-present-in-human-lemur-tyrosine-kinase-2-lmtk2-gene-increases-its-expression
#7
Isha Dey, Neil A Bradbury
Regulatory elements present in the promoter of a gene drive the expression of the gene in response to various stimuli. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase 2 (LMTK2) is a membrane-anchored Serine/Threonine kinase involved in endosomal protein trafficking and androgen signaling amongst other processes. Previous studies have shown this protein to be of therapeutic importance in cystic fibrosis and prostate cancer. However, nothing is known about the endogenous expression of this protein and its regulation. In this study, we analyzed the gene encoding human LMTK2, to look for possible regulatory elements that could affect its expression...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089504/low-levels-of-fruit-nitrogen-as-drivers-for-the-evolution-of-madagascar-s-primate-communities
#8
Giuseppe Donati, Luca Santini, Timothy M Eppley, Summer J Arrigo-Nelson, Michela Balestri, Sue Boinski, An Bollen, LeAndra L Bridgeman, Marco Campera, Valentina Carrai, Mukesh K Chalise, Abigail Derby Lewis, Gottfried Hohmann, Margaret F Kinnaird, Andreas Koenig, Martin Kowalewski, Petra Lahann, Matthew R McLennan, Anna K I Nekaris, Vincent Nijman, Ivan Norscia, Julia Ostner, Sandra Y Polowinsky, Oliver Schülke, Christoph Schwitzer, Pablo R Stevenson, Mauricio G Talebi, Chia Tan, Irene Tomaschewski, Erin R Vogel, Patricia C Wright, Jörg U Ganzhorn
The uneven representation of frugivorous mammals and birds across tropical regions - high in the New World, low in Madagascar and intermediate in Africa and Asia - represents a long-standing enigma in ecology. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences but the ultimate drivers remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that fruits in Madagascar contain insufficient nitrogen to meet primate metabolic requirements, thus constraining the evolution of frugivory. We performed a global analysis of nitrogen in fruits consumed by primates, as collated from 79 studies...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043021/genetic-wealth-population-health-major-histocompatibility-complex-variation-in-captive-and-wild-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta
#9
Kathleen E Grogan, Michelle L Sauther, Frank P Cuozzo, Christine M Drea
Across species, diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is critical to individual disease resistance and, hence, to population health; however, MHC diversity can be reduced in small, fragmented, or isolated populations. Given the need for comparative studies of functional genetic diversity, we investigated whether MHC diversity differs between populations which are open, that is experiencing gene flow, versus populations which are closed, that is isolated from other populations. Using the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) as a model, we compared two populations under long-term study: a relatively "open," wild population (n = 180) derived from Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar (2003-2013) and a "closed," captive population (n = 121) derived from the Duke Lemur Center (DLC, 1980-2013) and from the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Zoos (2012)...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971470/two-cases-of-liver-lobe-torsion-in-a-white-lipped-tamarin-saguinus-labiatus-and-an-alaotran-gentle-lemur-hapalemur-alaotrensis
#10
S Silvetti, M Kubiak, W S M Justice, M F Stidworthy
This paper describes liver lobe torsion in a white-lipped tamarin (Saguinus labiatus) and an Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur alaotrensis). Both animals had a history of acute collapse, and diagnosis was made post-mortem. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first reported cases of this pathology in non-human primates.
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943886/sleeping-site-ecology-but-not-sex-affect-ecto-and-hemoparasite-risk-in-sympatric-arboreal-primates-avahi-occidentalis-and-lepilemur-edwardsi
#11
May Hokan, Christina Strube, Ute Radespiel, Elke Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: A central question in evolutionary parasitology is to what extent ecology impacts patterns of parasitism in wild host populations. In this study, we aim to disentangle factors influencing the risk of parasite exposure by exploring the impact of sleeping site ecology on infection with ectoparasites and vector-borne hemoparasites in two sympatric primates endemic to Madagascar. Both species live in the same dry deciduous forest of northwestern Madagascar and cope with the same climatic constraints, they are arboreal, nocturnal, cat-sized and pair-living but differ prominently in sleeping site ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942309/benign-bilateral-adenomyoepithelioma-of-the-mammary-gland-in-a-ring-tailed-lemur-lemur-catta
#12
A Suárez-Bonnet, E Rodríguez Grau-Bassas, P Herráez, O Quesada-Canales, S L Priestnall, A Espinosa de Los Monteros
Naturally occurring mammary tumours are uncommon in prosimians. A 20-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) developed bilateral enlargement of the mammary glands. Surgical removal revealed that both masses were comprised of multiple nodules and cystic areas that entirely replaced the normal glands. Histologically, a benign neoplastic biphasic cellular proliferation, composed of luminal-epithelial and basal-myoepithelial components, was identified. Immunohistochemical analysis for expression of cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3, CK7, CK5 + 8, CK14, vimentin, p63 and 14-3-3σ highlighted the biphasic nature of the neoplasm...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#13
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922421/effects-of-acute-administration-of-donepezil-or-memantine-on-sleep-deprivation-induced-spatial-memory-deficit-in-young-and-aged-non-human-primate-grey-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus
#14
Anisur Rahman, Yves Lamberty, Esther Schenker, Massimo Cella, Solène Languille, Régis Bordet, Jill Richardson, Fabien Pifferi, Fabienne Aujard
The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM) provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920824/baseline-health-and-nutrition-evaluation-of-two-sympatric-nocturnal-lemur-species-avahi-laniger-and-lepilemur-mustelinus-residing-near-an-active-mine-site-at-ambatovy-madagascar
#15
Randall E Junge, Cathy V Williams, Hajanirina Rakotondrainibe, Karine L Mahefarisoa, Tsiky Rajaonarivelo, Charles Faulkner, Vanessa Mass
Extractive industries can have significant impacts on ecosystems through loss of habitat, degradation of water quality, and direct impact on floral and faunal biodiversity. When operations are located in sensitive regions with high biodiversity containing endangered or threatened species, it is possible to minimize impact on the environment by developing programs to scientifically monitor the impact on resident flora and fauna species in the early phases of operation so that effects can be mitigated whenever possible...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902889/on-specimen-killing-in-the-era-of-conservation-crisis-a-quantitative-case-for-modernizing-taxonomy-and-biodiversity-inventories
#16
Patrick O Waeber, Charlie J Gardner, Wilson R Lourenço, Lucienne Wilmé
BACKGROUND TO THE WORK: For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. METHODS: We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888657/spontaneous-listeriosis-in-grey-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus-but-not-in-goodman-s-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-lehilahytsara-of-the-same-colony
#17
Kirsten Hülskötter, Daniel Schmidtke, Marko Dubicanac, Ute Siesenop, Elke Zimmermann, Ingo Gerhauser, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Vanessa Herder
Listeriosis is a zoonotic infection with the gram positive, facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria (L.) monocytogenes. Infections mainly occur in ruminants, but also in other species, including humans. Case fatality rate usually is high. The incidence of listeriosis in captive non-human primates is very low. We report the first spontaneous, fatal, and likely food-born outbreak of listeriosis in a population of captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Conspicuously, none of the closely related Goodman's mouse lemurs (Microcebus lehilahytsara) in the same facility were affected...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871099/vocal-greeting-during-mother-infant-reunions-in-a-nocturnal-primate-the-gray-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#18
Marina Scheumann, Sabrina Linn, Elke Zimmermann
In human societies, ritualized greeting behavior includes gestural and vocal displays to signal the social acceptance of an encountering person. These displays are universal across cultures suggesting a pre-human origin. Vocal greeting displays are only reported for monkeys and apes with complex social systems, but none of these studies confirmed that greeting signals fulfill all criteria characterizing human greeting behavior. In this study, we analyzed for the first time whether vocal exchanges between mother and infants in a non-human primate fulfill the criteria of human greeting behavior and whether vocal greeting behavior is present in a basal primate with a less complex social system, the gray mouse lemur...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860569/an-intra-population-analysis-of-the-indris-song-dissimilarity-in-the-light-of-genetic-distance
#19
Valeria Torti, Giovanna Bonadonna, Chiara De Gregorio, Daria Valente, Rose Marie Randrianarison, Olivier Friard, Luca Pozzi, Marco Gamba, Cristina Giacoma
The increasing interest in the evolution of human language has led several fields of research to focus on primate vocal communication. The 'singing primates', which produce elaborated and complex sequences of vocalizations, are of particular interest for this topic. Indris (Indri indri) are the only singing lemurs and emit songs whose most distinctive portions are "descending phrases" consisting of 2-5 units. We examined how the structure of the indris' phrases varied with genetic relatedness among individuals...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859635/hair-cortisol-concentrations-correlate-negatively-with-survival-in-a-wild-primate-population
#20
Josué H Rakotoniaina, Peter M Kappeler, Eva Kaesler, Anni M Hämäläinen, Clemens Kirschbaum, Cornelia Kraus
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid hormones are known to play a key role in mediating a cascade of physiological responses to social and ecological stressors and can therefore influence animals' behaviour and ultimately fitness. Yet, how glucocorticoid levels are associated with reproductive success or survival in a natural setting has received little empirical attention so far. Here, we examined links between survival and levels of glucocorticoid in a small, short-lived primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), using for the first time an indicator of long-term stress load (hair cortisol concentration)...
September 1, 2017: BMC Ecology
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