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Mamy Rina Evasoa, Ute Radespiel, Alida F Hasiniaina, Solofonirina Rasoloharijaona, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Romule Rakotondravony, Elke Zimmermann
Reproduction is a fundamental trait in the life history of any species and contributes to species diversity and evolution. Here, we aim to review the barely known variation in reproductive patterns of the smallest-bodied primate radiation, the Malagasy mouse lemurs, focusing on twelve species of four phylogenetic clades. We present a new reproductive field dataset collected between May and November 1996-2016 for nine species (Microcebus murinus, M. myoxinus, M. ravelobensis, M. bongolavensis, M. danfossi, M...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Pauline B Zablocki-Thomas, Anthony Herrel, Isabelle Hardy, Lucile Rabardel, Martine Perret, Fabienne Aujard, Emmanuelle Pouydebat
A whole suite of parameters is likely to influence the behavior and performance of individuals as adults, including correlations between phenotypic traits or an individual's developmental context. Here, we ask the question whether behavior and physical performance traits are correlated and how early life parameters such as birth weight, litter size, and growth can influence these traits as measured during adulthood. We studied 486 captive gray mouse lemurs ( Microcebus murinus ) and measured two behavioral traits and two performance traits potentially involved in two functions: exploration behavior with pull strength and agitation score with bite force...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Paula Lado, Barbara Qurollo, Cathy Williams, Randall Junge, Hans Klompen
Lemurs are primate species that are endemic to Madagascar. At present, about 90% of lemur species are endangered, and 5 species are among the 25 most endangered primates worldwide. Health status is a major factor impacting the viability of wild populations of many endangered species including lemurs. Given this context, we analyzed the microbiome of 24 specimens of Haemaphysalis lemuris, the most common tick parasitizing lemurs in their native habitats. Ticks were collected from 6 lemur species and microbiomes analyzed using next-generation sequencing...
May 2, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Daniel Schmidtke, Sandra Ammersdörfer, Marine Joly, Elke Zimmermann
A recent study suggests that a specific, touchscreen-based task on visual object-location paired-associates learning (PAL), the so-called Different PAL (dPAL) task, allows effective translation from animal models to humans. Here, we adapted the task to a nonhuman primate (NHP), the gray mouse lemur, and provide first evidence for the successful comparative application of the task to humans and NHPs. Young human adults reach the learning criterion after considerably less sessions (one order of magnitude) than young, adult NHPs, which is likely due to faster and voluntary rejection of ineffective learning strategies in humans and almost immediate rule generalization...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Travis S Steffens, Shawn M Lehman
Determining what factors affect species occurrence is vital to the study of primate biogeography. We investigated the metapopulation dynamics of a lemur community consisting of eight species (Avahi occidentalis, Propithecus coquereli, Microcebus murinus, Microcebus ravelobensis, Lepilemur edwardsi, Cheirogaleus medius, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur fulvus) within fragmented tropical dry deciduous forest habitat in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. We measured fragment size and isolation of 42 fragments of forest ranging in size from 0...
2018: PloS One
Stephanie L Meredith
Strong chemical control of strepsirrhine mating behaviour when compared to haplorhines might suggest that strepsirrhine behavioural development, generally, is under stronger somatic control. A comparative lack of reported behavioural sex differences in immature strepsirrhines would seem to support this hypothesis, but the recent discovery of sex differences in juvenile foraging behaviour in Lemur catta suggests that this difference might be an artefact of undersampling in strepsirrhines. Here, I document in wild L...
May 7, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Stacey R Tecot, Andrea L Baden
Neuroendocrine evidence suggests that paternal care is mediated by hormonal mechanisms, where hormonal changes in expectant and new fathers facilitate infant care. In species with obligate and extensive paternal care such as humans, androgen levels decline once males are paired and have offspring, and in direct response to offspring care. Facultative infant care is widespread in the Order Primates, but the underlying hormonal mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that wild, red-bellied lemurs living in family groups (two adults and their presumed offspring) varied in the amount of care they provided infants...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Morgan E Shapiro, Hannah G Shapiro, Erin E Ehmke
Environmental enrichment is a tool used to promote the welfare and well-being of captive animals by encouraging the display of species-specific behaviors and reducing the stress or boredom induced by captive environments. Lemurs are highly endangered, yet few studies have analyzed the behavioral impacts of enrichment on captive populations. We studied the impacts of two novel enrichment devices on three lemur species (ring-tailed lemurs [Lemur catta], red-ruffed lemurs [Varecia rubra], and Coquerel's sifaka [Propithecus coquereli]) to determine both the overall and species-specific impacts of enrichment on lemur behavior...
May 3, 2018: Zoo Biology
Alida F Hasiniaina, Marina Scheumann, Mamy Rina Evasoa, Diane Braud, Solofonirina Rasoloharijaona, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Elke Zimmermann
The critically endangered Claire's mouse lemur, only found in the evergreen rain forest of the National Park Lokobe (LNP) and a few lowland evergreen rain forest fragments of northern Madagascar, was described recently. The present study provides the first quantified information on vocal acoustics of calls, sound associated behavioral context, acoustic niche, and vocal activity of this species. We recorded vocal and social behavior of six male-female and six male-male dyads in a standardized social-encounter paradigm in June and July 2016 at the LNP, Nosy Bé island...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
K Anbarasu, S Jayanthi
Human lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) is primarily involved in regulation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) by phosphorylation activity. LMTK3 acts as key biomarker for ERα positive breast cancer and identified as novel drug target for breast cancer. Due to the absence of experimental reports, the computational approach has been followed to screen LMTK3 inhibitors from natural product curcumin derivatives based on rational inhibitor design. The initial virtual screening and re-docking resulted in identification of top three leads with favorable binding energy and strong interactions in critical residues of ATP-binding cavity...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Derick N Forbanka
Needle-clawed galagos (Euoticus spp.) and fork-marked dwarf lemurs (Phaner spp.) are specialist gummivores inhabiting the forests of Cameroon and Madagascar, respectively. They share a suite of adaptations related to their foraging behavior, but are distantly related. I compared structural characteristics of the natural vegetation in which these strepsirrhines occurred using 10 m × 10 m (100 m2 ) quadrats established in forest areas selected on the grounds of observations of animals during nocturnal surveys...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Miguel A Landestoy T, Daniel B Turner, Angela B Marion, S Blair Hedges
Peltophryne armata sp. nov. is described from the South paleoisland of Hispaniola, West Indies. This is the only native toad species known to inhabit the Barahona Peninsula, Dominican Republic, in the southernmost part of Hispaniola, and it is allopatric with the widely distributed Hispaniolan toad species, P. guentheri Cochran. However, in a molecular phylogeny, the closest relative of P. armata sp. nov. is the Puerto Rican species P. lemur Cope, with which it shares a protrusive snout, large orbits, a depressed head, indistinct or absent infraorbital crests, and a long and complex advertisement call, but differs from it greatly by the very long cephalic crests, and in the massive and spinose parotoid glands that converge medially on the dorsum...
April 5, 2018: Zootaxa
Brittany Finucci, William T White, Jenny M Kemper, Gavin J P Naylor
An integrated taxonomic approach, combining both morphological and molecular data, was adopted to investigate the Hydrolagus lemures-ogilbyi group in the Indo-Australian region. Single mitochondrial markers (CO1 and NADH2) provided evidence supporting the separation of four distinct species in this group. However, detailed morphological data collected from specimens from across their range failed to find any consistent differences, and many features previously considered to be diagnostic were found to be variable...
January 24, 2018: Zootaxa
Andrew Whiten
A new study shows both that socially well-connected lemurs are more likely to acquire new behavioral innovations, and that individuals displaying such useful new knowledge gain in status. Such positive feedback loops may help explain resilient cultural transmission in animals.
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Lydia K Greene, Erin A McKenney
OBJECTIVES: The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is famous for its feeding strategies that target structurally defended, but high-quality resources. Nonetheless, the influence of this digestible diet on gut microbial contributions to aye-aye metabolism and nutrition remains unexplored. When four captive aye-ayes were unexpectedly lost to persin toxicity, we opportunistically collected samples along the animals' gastrointestinal tracts. Here we describe the diversity and composition of appendicular, cecal, and colonic consortia relative to the aye-aye's unusual feeding ecology...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Paul Agnani, Cécile Kauffmann, Loren D Hayes, Carsten Schradin
Strepsirrhines, that is, lemurs, galagos, and lorises, are considered basal primates, making them important to understand the evolution of primate sociality. Apart from some lemurs, they are nocturnal and solitary living, though the view of their sociality nature has changed with field studies being completed. We conducted a review of the primary literature about the social organization (group composition) of strepsirrhines, with the aim to determine whether intra-specific variation in social organization (IVSO) occurs and to determine how many species are pair-living, group-living, or solitary living...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Lance A Durden, Sharon E Kessler, Ute Radespiel, Elke Zimmermann, Alida F Hasiniaina, Sarah Zohdy
Lemurpediculus madagascariensis sp. nov. (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Polyplacidae) is described from the Gray Mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (J. F. Miller) (Primates: Cheirogaleidae), from Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. Lemurs were trapped using Sherman Live Traps and visually inspected for lice, which were preserved in 90% ethanol. Adults of both sexes and the third-instar nymph of the new species are illustrated and distinguished from the four previously known species of Lemurpediculus: L. verruculosus (Ward); L...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Ipek G Kulahci, Asif A Ghazanfar, Daniel I Rubenstein
Strong relationships exist between social connections and information transmission [1-9], where individuals' network position plays a key role in whether or not they acquire novel information [2, 3, 5, 6]. The relationships between social connections and information acquisition may be bidirectional if learning novel information, in addition to being influenced by it, influences network position. Individuals who acquire information quickly and use it frequently may receive more affiliative behaviors [10, 11] and may thus have a central network position...
April 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Eugenio Gaudio, Laura Voltan, Giulia Maria De Benedictis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effects and quality of sedation, induction, maintenance and recovery in Lemur catta after dexmedetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam sedation and alfaxalone anaesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. ANIMALS: Six male L. catta weighing 3.0 ± 0.6 kg undergoing surgical castration. METHODS: Lemurs were sedated with intramuscular dexmedetomidine (0.015 mg kg-1 ), butorphanol (0...
February 3, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Marc Herbin, Eva Hommet, Vicky Hanotin-Dossot, Martine Perret, Rémi Hackert
The gaits of the adult grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus were studied during treadmill locomotion over a large range of velocities. The locomotion sequences were analysed to determine the gait and the various spatiotemporal gait parameters of the limbs. We found that velocity adjustments are accounted for differently by stride frequency and stride length depending on whether the animal showed a symmetrical or an asymmetrical gait. When using symmetrical gaits the increase in velocity is associated with a constant contribution of the stride length and stride frequency; the increase of the stride frequency being always lower...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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