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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081528/rapid-decrease-in-populations-of-wild-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-in-madagascar
#1
Marni LaFleur, Tara A Clarke, Kim Reuter, Toby Schaeffer
Lemurs are the most threatened group of mammals on earth. Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) represents one of the most iconic lemur species and faces numerous anthropogenic threats in the wild. In this study, we present population estimates from 32 sites across the range of L. catta, collected from primary and secondary data sources, to assess the number of ring-tailed lemurs left in the wild. We estimate that there are approximately 2,220 individual L. catta remaining in the 32 sites considered. We note local extinctions of populations of L...
January 13, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079085/endangered-species-illegal-lemur-trade-grows-in-madagascar
#2
Kim E Reuter, Marni LaFleur, Tara A Clarke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054342/diversity-of-photoreceptor-arrangements-in-nocturnal-cathemeral-and-diurnal-malagasy-lemurs
#3
Leo Peichl, Alexander Kaiser, Felix Rakotondraparany, Richard R Dubielzig, Steven M Goodman, And Peter M Kappeler
The lemurs of Madagascar (Primates: Lemuriformes) are a monophyletic group that has lived in isolation from other primates for about 50 million years. Lemurs have diversified into species with diverse daily activity patterns and correspondingly different visual adaptations. We assessed the arrangements of retinal cone and rod photoreceptors in six nocturnal, three cathemeral and two diurnal lemur species and quantified different parameters in six of the species. The analysis revealed lower cone densities and higher rod densities in the nocturnal than in the cathemeral and diurnal species...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040547/lemur-tyrosine-kinase-2-lmtk2-is-a-determinant-of-cell-sensitivity-to-apoptosis-by-regulating-the-levels-of-the-bcl2-family-members
#4
Annalisa Conti, Maria Teresa Majorini, Enrico Fontanella, Alberto Bardelli, Mauro Giacca, Domenico Delia, Miguel Mano, Daniele Lecis
Using a high-throughput approach, we identified lemur tyrosine kinase 2 (LMTK2) as a novel determinant of cell sensitivity to TRAIL. LMTK2 is a poorly characterized serine/threonine kinase believed to play a role in endosomal membrane trafficking and neuronal physiology, and recently found to be mutated in diverse tumor types. We show that LMTK2 silencing sensitizes immortalized epithelial cells and cancer cells to TRAIL, and this phenomenon is accompanied by changes in the expression of BCL2 family members...
December 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039490/impaired-fasting-blood-glucose-is-associated-to-cognitive-impairment-and-cerebral-atrophy-in-middle-aged-non-human-primates
#5
Fathia Djelti, Marc Dhenain, Jérémy Terrien, Jean-Luc Picq, Isabelle Hardy, Delphine Champeval, Martine Perret, Esther Schenker, Jacques Epelbaum, Fabienne Aujard
Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations...
December 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018651/stability-in-skipping-gaits
#6
Emanuel Andrada, Roy Müller, Reinhard Blickhan
As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973681/dynamic-vs-static-social-networks-in-models-of-parasite-transmission-predicting-cryptosporidium-spread-in-wild-lemurs
#7
Andrea Springer, Peter M Kappeler, Charles L Nunn
1.Social networks provide an established tool to implement heterogeneous contact structures in epidemiological models. Dynamic temporal changes in contact structure and ranging behavior of wildlife may impact disease dynamics. A consensus has yet to emerge, however, concerning the conditions in which network dynamics impact model outcomes, as compared to static approximations that average contact rates over longer time periods. Furthermore, as many pathogens can be transmitted both environmentally and via close contact, it is important to investigate the relative influence of both transmission routes in real-world populations...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899642/the-ucsc-genome-browser-database-2017-update
#8
Cath Tyner, Galt P Barber, Jonathan Casper, Hiram Clawson, Mark Diekhans, Christopher Eisenhart, Clayton M Fischer, David Gibson, Jairo Navarro Gonzalez, Luvina Guruvadoo, Maximilian Haeussler, Steve Heitner, Angie S Hinrichs, Donna Karolchik, Brian T Lee, Christopher M Lee, Parisa Nejad, Brian J Raney, Kate R Rosenbloom, Matthew L Speir, Chris Villarreal, John Vivian, Ann S Zweig, David Haussler, Robert M Kuhn, W James Kent
Since its 2001 debut, the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser (http://genome.ucsc.edu/) team has provided continuous support to the international genomics and biomedical communities through a web-based, open source platform designed for the fast, scalable display of sequence alignments and annotations landscaped against a vast collection of quality reference genome assemblies. The browser's publicly accessible databases are the backbone of a rich, integrated bioinformatics tool suite that includes a graphical interface for data queries and downloads, alignment programs, command-line utilities and more...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870353/eye-size-and-set-in-small-bodied-fossil-primates-a-three-dimensional-method
#9
Alfred L Rosenberger, Tim D Smith, Valerie B DeLeon, Anne M Burrows, Robert Schenck, Lauren B Halenar
We introduce a new method to geometrically reconstruct eye volume and placement in small-bodied primates based on the three-dimensional contour of the intraorbital surface. We validate it using seven species of living primates, with dry skulls and wet dissections, and test its application on seven species of Paleogene fossils of interest. The method performs well even when the orbit is damaged and incomplete, lacking the postorbital bar and represented only by the orbital floor. Eye volume is an important quantity for anatomic and metabolic reasons, which due to differences in eye set, or position within (or outside) the bony orbit, can be underestimated in living and fossil forms when calculated from aperture diameter...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869570/use-of-primates-in-research-what-do-we-know-about-captive-strepsirrhine-primates
#10
Gloria Fernández Lázaro, Sarah Zehr, Enrique Alonso García
The increasing debate and restrictions on primate research have prompted many surveys about their status. However, there is a lack of information regarding strepsirrhine primates in the literature. This study provides an overview of research on strepsirrhines in captivity by analyzing scientific articles published from 2010 to 2013 and assessing publicly available government reports in Europe and the United States. Data on taxonomy, country, research area, research class, and type of institution were extracted...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856699/first-in-vivo-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-transcriptomes-reveal-mechanisms-of-host-exploitation-host-specific-gene-expression-and-expressed-genotype-shifts
#11
Amy R Ellison, Graziella V DiRenzo, Caitlin A McDonald, Karen R Lips, Kelly R Zamudio
For generalist pathogens, host species represent distinct selective environments, providing unique challenges for resource acquisition and defense from host immunity, potentially resulting in host-dependent differences in pathogen fitness. Gene expression modulation should be advantageous, responding optimally to a given host and mitigating the costs of generalism. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen of amphibians, shows variability in pathogenicity among isolates, and within-strain virulence changes rapidly during serial passages through artificial culture...
January 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853604/hibernation-in-a-primate-does-sleep-occur
#12
Marina B Blanco, Kathrin H Dausmann, Sheena L Faherty, Peter Klopfer, Andrew D Krystal, Robert Schopler, Anne D Yoder
During hibernation, critical physiological processes are downregulated and thermogenically induced arousals are presumably needed periodically to fulfil those physiological demands. Among the processes incompatible with a hypome tabolic state is sleep. However, one hibernating primate, the dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius, experiences rapid eye movement (REM)-like states during hibernation, whenever passively reaching temperatures above 30°C, as occurs when it hibernates in poorly insulated tree hollows under tropical conditions...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848158/evidence-of-prolonged-torpor-in-goodman-s-mouse-lemurs-at-ankafobe-forest-central-madagascar
#13
Marina B Blanco, Andon'ny A Andriantsalohimisantatra, Tahiry V Rivoharison, Jean-Basile Andriambeloson
The small-bodied mouse lemurs of Madagascar (Microcebus) are capable of heterothermy (i.e., torpor or hibernation). The expression of these energy-saving strategies has been physiologically demonstrated in three species: M. berthae, the pygmy mouse lemur (daily torpor), M. murinus, the gray mouse lemur (daily torpor and hibernation), and M. griseorufus, the reddish-gray mouse lemur (daily, prolonged torpor and hibernation). Additional evidence, based on radiotracking and seasonal body mass changes, indicated that mouse lemur capabilities for heterothermy extended to M...
November 15, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848157/competition-for-dead-trees-between-humans-and-aye-ayes-daubentonia-madagascariensis-in-central-eastern-madagascar
#14
Rose T Miller, Jean-Luc Raharison, Mitchell T Irwin
The destruction and degradation of forest habitats are major threats to the sustainability of lemur populations in Madagascar. Madagascan landscapes often contain forest fragments that represent refuges for native fauna, while also being used for firewood and timber by local human populations. As undisturbed forest becomes increasingly scarce, understanding resource competition between humans and wildlife in disturbed habitats will be increasingly important. We tested the hypothesis that Malagasy and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) compete for the limited number of dead trees in rainforest fragments at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar...
November 15, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830334/the-effect-of-body-mass-and-diet-composition-on-torpor-patterns-in-a-malagasy-primate-microcebus-murinus
#15
Sheena L Faherty, C Ryan Campbell, Susan A Hilbig, Anne D Yoder
One of the most obvious physiological changes accompanying seasonal heterothermy in mammals is a fattening stage preceding periods of resource scarcity. This phenomenon reflects the interplay of both diet and physiology. Though the accrual of fat stores is known to be essential for overwintering in some species, the influence of diet on the physiology of torpor is not fully understood. Results from captive studies in heterothermic rodents and marsupials have indicated that when autumn diets are enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), animals receiving these diets experience deeper and more frequent torpor bouts than their counterparts receiving a control diet...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809902/preliminary-analysis-of-psoroptes-ovis-transcriptome-in-different-developmental-stages
#16
Man-Li He, Jing Xu, Ran He, Neng-Xing Shen, Xiao-Bin Gu, Xue-Rong Peng, Guang-You Yang
BACKGROUND: Psoroptic mange is a chronic, refractory, contagious and infectious disease mainly caused by the mange mite Psoroptes ovis, which can infect horses, sheep, buffaloes, rabbits, other domestic animals, deer, wild camels, foxes, minks, lemurs, alpacas, elks and other wild animals. Features of the disease include intense pruritus and dermatitis, depilation and hyperkeratosis, which ultimately result in emaciation or death caused by secondary bacterial infections. The infestation is usually transmitted by close contact between animals...
November 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790777/the-inbreeding-strategy-of-a-solitary-primate-microcebus-murinus
#17
Elise Huchard, Susanne Schliehe-Diecks, Peter M Kappeler, Cornelia Kraus
Inbreeding depression may be common in nature, reflecting either the failure of inbreeding avoidance strategies, or inbreeding tolerance when avoidance is costly. The combined assessment of inbreeding risk, avoidance and depression is therefore fundamental to evaluate the inbreeding strategy of a population, i.e., how individuals respond to the risk of inbreeding. Here, we use the demographic and genetic monitoring of 10 generations of wild grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), small primates from Madagascar with overlapping generations, to examine their inbreeding strategy...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760787/phylogenomic-reconstruction-of-sportive-lemurs-genus-lepilemur-recovered-from-mitogenomes-with-inferences-for-madagascar-biogeography
#18
Runhua Lei, Cynthia L Frasier, Melissa T R Hawkins, Shannon E Engberg, Carolyn A Bailey, Steig E Johnson, Adam T McLain, Colin P Groves, George H Perry, Stephen D Nash, Russell A Mittermeier, Edward E Louis
The family Lepilemuridae includes 26 species of sportive lemurs, most of which were recently described. The cryptic morphological differences confounded taxonomy until recent molecular studies; however, some species' boundaries remain uncertain. To better understand the genus Lepilemur, we analyzed 35 complete mitochondrial genomes representing all recognized 26 sportive lemur taxa and estimated divergence dates. With our dataset we recovered 25 reciprocally monophyletic lineages, as well as an admixed clade containing Lepilemur mittermeieri and Lepilemur dorsalis Using modern distribution data, an ancestral area reconstruction and an ecological vicariance analysis were performed to trace the history of diversification and to test biogeographic hypotheses...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708046/primate-torpor-expression-ghost-of-the-climatic-past
#19
Kathrin H Dausmann, Lisa Warnecke
Torpor, the controlled depression of virtually all bodily function during scarce periods, was verified in primates under free-ranging conditions less than two decades ago. The large variety of different torpor patterns found both within and among closely related species is particularly remarkable. To help unravel the cause of these variable patterns, our review investigates primate torpor use within an evolutionary framework. First, we provide an overview of heterothermic primate species, focusing on the Malagasy lemurs, and discuss their use of daily torpor or hibernation in relation to habitat type and climatic conditions...
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691971/systemic-blastomycosis-in-a-captive-red-ruffed-lemur-varecia-rubra
#20
Michael F Rosser, Dana M Lindemann, Anne M Barger, Matthew C Allender, Shih-Hsuan Hsiao, Mark E Howes
A 5-yr-old, intact male red ruffed lemur ( Varecia rubra ) presented for evaluation as the result of a 1-wk history of lethargy and hyporexia. Physical examination findings included thin body condition, muffled heart sounds, harsh lung sounds, and liquid brown diarrhea. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry showed an inflammatory leukogram, mild hyponatremia, and mild hypochloremia. Orthogonal trunk radiographs revealed a severe alveolar pattern in the right cranial lung lobes with cardiac silhouette effacement...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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