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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#1
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922421/effects-of-acute-administration-of-donepezil-or-memantine-on-sleep-deprivation-induced-spatial-memory-deficit-in-young-and-aged-non-human-primate-grey-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus
#2
Anisur Rahman, Yves Lamberty, Esther Schenker, Massimo Cella, Solène Languille, Régis Bordet, Jill Richardson, Fabien Pifferi, Fabienne Aujard
The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM) provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920824/baseline-health-and-nutrition-evaluation-of-two-sympatric-nocturnal-lemur-species-avahi-laniger-and-lepilemur-mustelinus-residing-near-an-active-mine-site-at-ambatovy-madagascar
#3
Randall E Junge, Cathy V Williams, Hajanirina Rakotondrainibe, Karine L Mahefarisoa, Tsiky Rajaonarivelo, Charles Faulkner, Vanessa Mass
Extractive industries can have significant impacts on ecosystems through loss of habitat, degradation of water quality, and direct impact on floral and faunal biodiversity. When operations are located in sensitive regions with high biodiversity containing endangered or threatened species, it is possible to minimize impact on the environment by developing programs to scientifically monitor the impact on resident flora and fauna species in the early phases of operation so that effects can be mitigated whenever possible...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902889/on-specimen-killing-in-the-era-of-conservation-crisis-a-quantitative-case-for-modernizing-taxonomy-and-biodiversity-inventories
#4
Patrick O Waeber, Charlie J Gardner, Wilson R Lourenço, Lucienne Wilmé
BACKGROUND TO THE WORK: For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. METHODS: We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888657/spontaneous-listeriosis-in-grey-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus-but-not-in-goodman-s-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-lehilahytsara-of-the-same-colony
#5
Kirsten Hülskötter, Daniel Schmidtke, Marko Dubicanac, Ute Siesenop, Elke Zimmermann, Ingo Gerhauser, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Vanessa Herder
Listeriosis is a zoonotic infection with the gram positive, facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria (L.) monocytogenes. Infections mainly occur in ruminants, but also in other species, including humans. Case fatality rate usually is high. The incidence of listeriosis in captive non-human primates is very low. We report the first spontaneous, fatal, and likely food-born outbreak of listeriosis in a population of captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Conspicuously, none of the closely related Goodman's mouse lemurs (Microcebus lehilahytsara) in the same facility were affected...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871099/vocal-greeting-during-mother-infant-reunions-in-a-nocturnal-primate-the-gray-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#6
Marina Scheumann, Sabrina Linn, Elke Zimmermann
In human societies, ritualized greeting behavior includes gestural and vocal displays to signal the social acceptance of an encountering person. These displays are universal across cultures suggesting a pre-human origin. Vocal greeting displays are only reported for monkeys and apes with complex social systems, but none of these studies confirmed that greeting signals fulfill all criteria characterizing human greeting behavior. In this study, we analyzed for the first time whether vocal exchanges between mother and infants in a non-human primate fulfill the criteria of human greeting behavior and whether vocal greeting behavior is present in a basal primate with a less complex social system, the gray mouse lemur...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860569/an-intra-population-analysis-of-the-indris-song-dissimilarity-in-the-light-of-genetic-distance
#7
Valeria Torti, Giovanna Bonadonna, Chiara De Gregorio, Daria Valente, Rose Marie Randrianarison, Olivier Friard, Luca Pozzi, Marco Gamba, Cristina Giacoma
The increasing interest in the evolution of human language has led several fields of research to focus on primate vocal communication. The 'singing primates', which produce elaborated and complex sequences of vocalizations, are of particular interest for this topic. Indris (Indri indri) are the only singing lemurs and emit songs whose most distinctive portions are "descending phrases" consisting of 2-5 units. We examined how the structure of the indris' phrases varied with genetic relatedness among individuals...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859635/hair-cortisol-concentrations-correlate-negatively-with-survival-in-a-wild-primate-population
#8
Josué H Rakotoniaina, Peter M Kappeler, Eva Kaesler, Anni M Hämäläinen, Clemens Kirschbaum, Cornelia Kraus
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid hormones are known to play a key role in mediating a cascade of physiological responses to social and ecological stressors and can therefore influence animals' behaviour and ultimately fitness. Yet, how glucocorticoid levels are associated with reproductive success or survival in a natural setting has received little empirical attention so far. Here, we examined links between survival and levels of glucocorticoid in a small, short-lived primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), using for the first time an indicator of long-term stress load (hair cortisol concentration)...
September 1, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857605/-i-am-going-to-groom-you-multiple-forms-of-play-fighting-in-gray-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus
#9
Sergio M Pellis, Vivien C Pellis
Play fighting is a commonly reported form of play that involves competitive interactions that generally do not escalate to serious fighting. Although in many species what are competed over are the body targets that are bitten or struck in serious fighting, for many others, the competition can be over other forms of contact, such as sex, social grooming, and predation. In primates, the most detailed studies have been of species such as Old World monkeys, that engage in play fighting that simulates serious fighting, but reports of a number of others, especially among nocturnal prosimians, have noted that play fighting can also involve simulation of sex and grooming...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845070/the-use-of-vocalizations-of-the-sambirano-mouse-lemur-microcebus-sambiranensis-in-an-acoustic-survey-of-habitat-preference
#10
Dan Hending, Marc Holderied, Grainne McCabe
Primate vocalizations convey a variety of information to conspecifics. The acoustic traits of these vocalizations are an effective vocal fingerprint to discriminate between sibling species for taxonomic diagnosis. However, the vocal behavior of nocturnal primates has been poorly studied and there are few studies of their vocal repertoires. We compiled a vocal repertoire for the Endangered Sambirano mouse lemur, Microcebus sambiranensis, an unstudied nocturnal primate of northwestern Madagascar, and compared the acoustic properties of one of their call types to those of M...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833696/shared-evolutionary-origin-of-mhc-polymorphism-in-sympatric-lemurs
#11
Eva Kaesler, Peter M Kappeler, Markus Brameier, Janina Demeler, Cornelia Kraus, Josué H Rakotoniaina, Anni M Hämäläinen, Elise Huchard
Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) play a central role in adaptive immune responses of vertebrates. They exhibit remarkable polymorphism, often crossing species boundaries with similar alleles or allelic motifs shared across species. This pattern may reflect parallel parasite-mediated selective pressures, either favouring the long maintenance of ancestral MHC allelic lineages across successive speciation events by balancing selection ('trans-species polymorphism'), or alternatively favouring the independent emergence of functionally similar alleles post-speciation via convergent evolution...
August 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810710/testing-convergent-evolution-in-auditory-processing-genes-between-echolocating-mammals-and-the-aye-aye-a-percussive-foraging-primate
#12
Richard J Bankoff, Michael Jerjos, Baily Hohman, M Elise Lauterbur, Logan Kistler, George H Perry
Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808022/genomic-evidence-reveals-a-radiation-of-placental-mammals-uninterrupted-by-the-kpg-boundary
#13
Liang Liu, Jin Zhang, Frank E Rheindt, Fumin Lei, Yanhua Qu, Yu Wang, Yu Zhang, Corwin Sullivan, Wenhui Nie, Jinhuan Wang, Fengtang Yang, Jinping Chen, Scott V Edwards, Jin Meng, Shaoyuan Wu
The timing of the diversification of placental mammals relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KPg) boundary mass extinction remains highly controversial. In particular, there have been seemingly irreconcilable differences in the dating of the early placental radiation not only between fossil-based and molecular datasets but also among molecular datasets. To help resolve this discrepancy, we performed genome-scale analyses using 4,388 loci from 90 taxa, including representatives of all extant placental orders and transcriptome data from flying lemurs (Dermoptera) and pangolins (Pholidota)...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751399/complete-genome-sequence-of-torque-teno-indri-virus-1-a-novel-anellovirus-in-blood-from-a-free-living-lemur
#14
Rina Amatya, Sharon L Deem, Ingrid J Porton, David Wang, Efrem S Lim
We identified Torque teno indri virus 1 (TTIV1), the first anellovirus in a free-living lemur (Indri indri). The complete circular 2,572-nucleotide (nt) TTIV1 genome is distantly related to torque teno sus virus. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses support TTIV1 as a putative member of a new genus within the Anelloviridae family.
July 27, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724495/minimum-alveolar-concentration-and-cardiopulmonary-effects-of-isoflurane-in-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta
#15
Sathya K Chinnadurai, Julie A Balko, Cathy V Williams
The goal of this study was to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). The MAC of isoflurane was determined by using a tail-clamp stimulus in adult ring-tailed lemurs (6 male, 4 female). Once MAC was determined, another group of 10 adult ring-tailed lemurs (5 male, 5 female) were anesthetized and instrumented similarly as the previous group and maintained at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times MAC for 15 min each with no external stimulation...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667704/growth-and-development-at-the-sphenoethmoidal-junction-in-perinatal-primates
#16
Timothy D Smith, Matthew J McMahon, Michelle E Millen, Catherine Llera, Serena M Engel, Ly Li, Kunwar P Bhatnagar, Anne M Burrows, Michael P Zumpano, Valerie B DeLeon
Integration of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones during early postnatal development is poorly described in the literature. A uniquely prolonged patency of sphenoethmoidal synchondrosis or prespheno-septal synchondrosis (PSept) has been attributed to humans. However, the sphenoethmoidal junction has not been studied using a comparative primate sample. Here, we examined development of the sphenoethmoidal interface using ontogenetic samples of Old and New World monkeys, strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises), and a comparative sample of other mammals...
July 1, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666376/a-massively-parallel-strategy-for-str-marker-development-capture-and-genotyping
#17
Logan Kistler, Stephen M Johnson, Mitchell T Irwin, Edward E Louis, Aakrosh Ratan, George H Perry
Short tandem repeat (STR) variants are highly polymorphic markers that facilitate powerful population genetic analyses. STRs are especially valuable in conservation and ecological genetic research, yielding detailed information on population structure and short-term demographic fluctuations. Massively parallel sequencing has not previously been leveraged for scalable, efficient STR recovery. Here, we present a pipeline for developing STR markers directly from high-throughput shotgun sequencing data without a reference genome, and an approach for highly parallel target STR recovery...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640911/evolution-of-microrna-in-primates
#18
Jennifer C McCreight, Sean E Schneider, Damien B Wilburn, Willie J Swanson
MicroRNA play an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of most transcripts in the human genome, but their evolution across the primate lineage is largely uncharacterized. A particular miRNA can have one to thousands of messenger RNA targets, establishing the potential for a small change in sequence or overall miRNA structure to have profound phenotypic effects. However, the majority of non-human primate miRNA is predicted solely by homology to the human genome and lacks experimental validation. In the present study, we sequenced thirteen species representing a wide range of the primate phylogeny...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627784/dr-elwyn-laverne-simons-leader-in-lemur-conservation
#19
Patricia C Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608982/high-reproductive-effort-is-associated-with-decreasing-mortality-late-in-life-in-captive-ruffed-lemurs
#20
Morgane Tidière, Jean-François Lemaître, Guillaume Douay, Mylisa Whipple, Jean-Michel Gaillard
Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that a high allocation to reproduction during early life should have long-term deleterious consequences on future reproduction or survival because individuals have to face an energy allocation trade-off between reproductive effort and the maintenance of body condition. Using a high-quality dataset from 1,721 red ruffed lemurs (RRL, Varecia rubra) and 3,637 black and white ruffed lemurs (BWRM, V. variegata) living in captivity, we tested the existence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and late-life survival after accounting for possible confounding effects of natal environmental conditions...
September 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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