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organophosphorous poisoning

S Sichler, G Höfner, S Rappenglück, T Wein, K V Niessen, T Seeger, F Worek, H Thiermann, F F Paintner, K T Wanner
The bispyridinium compound MB327 has been shown previously to have a positive pharmacological effect against poisoning with organophosphorous compounds (OPCs). The mechanism by which it exerts its therapeutic effect seems to be directly mediated by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In the present study, the development of mass spectrometry based binding assays (MS Binding Assays) for characterization of the binding site of MB327 at the nAChR from Torpedo californica is described. MS Binding Assays follow the principle of radioligand binding assays, but do not, in contrast to the latter, require a radiolabeled reporter ligand, as the readout is in this case based on mass spectrometric detection...
November 13, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Xiaoran Duan, Yongli Yang, Sihua Wang, Xiaolei Feng, Tuanwei Wang, Pengpeng Wang, Suxiang Liu, Lei Li, Wu Yao, Liuxin Cui, Wei Wang
Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs), with high efficiency, broad-spectrum and low residue, are widely used in China. Omethoate is a broad category of organophosphorous pesticides and is more domestically utilized which has chronic toxic effect on human health caused by long-term, low-dose exposure to Ops, recently its potential genotoxicity has attracted wide attention which can cause chromosomal DNA damage. Thus, the aim of this study is screen susceptible biomarkers and explore the mechanism of canceration induced by omethoate...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
H N Vijayakumar, Sudheesh Kannan, C Tejasvi, Devika Rani Duggappa, K M Veeranna Gowda, S S Nethra
BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus compound poisoning (OPCP) is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. Atropine and oximes remain the main-stay of management. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has shown benefit in the management of OPCP. AIMS: This study was designed to assess the effect of MgSO4 on outcome in OPCP patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial in an ICU of tertiary care institution...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Dilip M Rampure, Prem Kumar Aluka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Shaik Razia, Dilip M Rampure
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yamini Addepalli, Tanveer Hassan Banday
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
V P Dayananda, B Bhaskara, G N P Pateel
BACKGROUND: The main stay of treatment in organophophosphorous [OP] poisoning is with atropine, oximes and supportive therapy. Despite the therapy, no improvement in mortality and morbidity. Fresh frozen plasma [FFP] a source of serum cholinesterase act as bio-scavenger to neutralise organophosphate toxins to improve the patients out come. METHODS: The prospective study was conducted in 80 patients with acute OP poisoning. Patients with moderate to severe grade of OP poisoning with serum cholinesterase level <1000 IU/L were included in the study...
May 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Rubina Khullar Mahajan, Sudha Jasmine Rajan, John Victor Peter, Mayur Keshav Suryawanshi
Organophosphate poisoning has significant gastrointestinal manifestations including vomiting, diarrhea, cramps and increased salivation. We report an uncommon gastrointestinal complication of multiple small intestinal perforations following organophosphorus poisoning. A 28-year old male presented after ingesting dichlorvos mixed with alcohol. Following the initial cholinergic symptoms, the patient developed severe shock with fever, attributed to aspiration pneumonia. Despite appropriate antibiotics, shock was persistent...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Vinny Naidoo, Kerri Wolter
Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Sonya M S Azab, Jon Mark Hirshon, John Mark Hirshon, Bryan D Hayes, Maged El-Setouhy, Gordon S Smith, Mahmoud Lotfy Sakr, Hany Tawfik, Wendy Klein-Schwartz
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups...
2016: Clinical Toxicology
Soohee Kim, Mi-Young Park, Hyo-Jin Kim, Jin Young Shin, Kyung Yuk Ko, Dong-Gyu Kim, MeeKyung Kim, Hwan-Goo Kang, ByungJae So, Sung-Won Park
Wild birds are exposed to insecticides in a variety of ways, at different dose levels and via multiple routes, including ingestion of contaminated food items, and dermal, inhalation, preening, and embryonic exposure. Most poisoning by insecticides occurs as a result of misuse or accidental exposure, but intentional killing of unwanted animals also occurs. In this study, we investigated insecticides in the gastric contents of dead wild birds that were suspected to have died from insecticide poisoning based on necropsy...
January 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Dimo Dimov, Radka Hadjiolova, Kamen Kanev, Radka Tomova, Anna Michova, Todor Todorov, Rumen Murdjev, Temenujka Boneva, Ivanka Dimova
We hypothesized that Tabun poisoning, as well as other organophosphorous treatment, cause specific organs' oxidative changes that have not previously been substantiated investigated. In this regard, a marker for nitrosative-oxidative stress in the main haemodynamic organs (heart and kidney) could reveal the existence of such changes. In this study, for the first time we studied the nitrosative/oxidative stress in heart and kidney after acute Tabun (Ethyl N,N- Dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) poisoning measuring by immunohistochemistry the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine--a marker for nitrosative-oxidative stress...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Sandeep Krishna Murthy Kosaraju, Lakshmi Naresh Vadlamani, Mohammed Shakeel Mohammed Bashir, Lokesh Kumar Kalasapati, G L V Chalapathi Rao, G Prasad Rao
BACKGROUND: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one's own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study in which all the suicide attempt cases reported at Bhaskar Medical College and General Hospital were included...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Gaurav Mittal, Neeraj Kumar, Harish Rawat, Abhinav Jaimini, Mitrabasu Chhillar, Aseem Bhatnagar
CONTEXT: Increased use of organophosphate insecticides (OPI) and possibility of terror groups using stocks of nerve agents underscore the need to develop effective and safe antidotes. While intramuscular administration of antidotes like atropine sulphate (AS) has certain lacunae, intravenous route may not be always feasible in emergency field conditions. OBJECTIVE: Objective was (a) to develop a novel inhalable submicronic-AS respiratory fluid as potential antidote for OPI poisoning, (b) in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation in terms of respiratory fraction, and (c) clinical study to assess drug bioavailability in blood and atropinization pattern post-inhalation...
September 2016: Drug Delivery
P A Ferchmin, Myrna Andino, Rebeca Reyes Salaman, Janaina Alves, Joyce Velez-Roman, Brenda Cuadrado, Marimeé Carrasco, Wilmarie Torres-Rivera, Annabell Segarra, Antonio Henrique Martins, Jae Eun Lee, Vesna A Eterovic
Many organophosphorous esters synthesized for applications in industry, agriculture, or warfare irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, and acute poisoning with these compounds causes life-threatening cholinergic overstimulation. Following classical emergency treatment with atropine, an oxime, and a benzodiazepine, surviving victims often suffer brain neurodegeneration. Currently, there is no pharmacological treatment to prevent this brain injury. Here we show that a cyclic diterpenoid, (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-triene-4,6-diol (4R) ameliorates the damage caused by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in the hippocampal area CA1...
September 2014: Neurotoxicology
Rajesh Phatake, Sameer Desai, Manikanth Lodaya, Shrinivas Deshpande, Nagaraj Tankasali
A 32-year-old male presented with a history of consuming some organophosphorous compound with suicidal intention. He was treated with atropine, pralidoxime, ventilator support. During stay patient had persistent irritability, tachycardiaand hypertension despite sedation and labetalol infusion. He developed headache, visual blurring hemiparesis and focal seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multifocal hyperintensities mainly in subcortical areas of parietal and occipital regions in T2-weighted images, with increased values of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, suggesting posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)...
April 2014: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
David G Mata, Peter E Rezk, Praveena Sabnekar, Douglas M Cerasoli, Nageswararao Chilukuri
We investigated the ability of the engineered paraoxonase-1 variants G3C9, VII-D11, I-F11, and VII-D2 to afford protection against paraoxon intoxication. Paraoxon is the toxic metabolite of parathion, a common pesticide still in use in many developing countries. An in vitro investigation showed that VII-D11 is the most efficient variant at hydrolyzing paraoxon with a kcat/Km of 2.1 × 10(6) M(-1) min(-1) and 1.6 × 10(6) M(-1) min(-1) for the enzyme expressed via adenovirus infection of 293A cells and mice, respectively...
June 2014: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
S Bala Bhaskar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2014: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
R H Bradwell
This is the case of a young farm worker presenting with episodes of acute organic psychosis superimposed on a state of chronic anergy and hypersomnia. It is suggested that he developed an encephalopathic illness presenting with an organic bipolar affective disorder as a result of organophosphate exposure. In proposing this aetiology, an hypothesis is developed which links clinical observations and investigative results with research findings in relation to organophosphorus compounds and neuropharmacology.
1994: Behavioural Neurology
Shyam Chand Chaudhary, Khemraj Singh, Kamal Kumar Sawlani, Nirdesh Jain, Arvind Kumar Vaish, Virendra Atam, Munna Lal Patel, Avinash Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Organophosphorous (OP) poisoning is one of the most common poisonings seen in India. OP compounds act through inhibition of enzyme acetylcholinesterase and estimation of pseudocholinesterase (PCE) activity strengthens the diagnosis in clinically uncertain cases of OP poisoning. The role of pralidoxime (PAM) therapy in OP poisoning has been controversial. STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to determine the prognostic significance of estimation of PCE activity and also to assess the role of PAM therapy in OP poisoning...
September 2013: Toxicology International
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