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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151229/effects-of-female-sex-steroids-administration-on-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
REVIEW
Mohammad Khaksari, Zahra Soltani, Nader Shahrokhi
Secondary brain damage following initial brain damage in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of adverse outcomes. There are many gaps in TBI research and a lack of therapy to limit debilitating outcomes in TBI or enhance the neurogenesis, despite pre-clinical and clinical research performed in TBI. Females show harmful outcomes against brain damage including TBI less than males, independent of different TBI occurrence. A significant reduction in secondary brain damage and improvement in neurologic outcome post-TBI has been reported following the use of progesterone and estrogen in many experimental studies...
November 19, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151109/reporting-of-randomized-trials-in-common-cancers-in-the-lay-media
#2
Domen Ribnikar, Hadar Goldvaser, Alberto Ocana, Arnoud J Templeton, Bostjan Seruga, Eitan Amir
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist about the role of the lay media in the dissemination of results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in common cancers. METHODS: Completed phase III RCTs evaluating new drugs in common cancers between January 2005 and October 2016 were identified from ClinicalTrials.gov. Lay media reporting was identified by searching LexisNexis Academic. Scientific reporting was defined as presentation at an academic conference or publication in full...
November 18, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150934/the-current-status-and-perspectives-regarding-the-clinical-implication-of-intracellular-calcium-in-breast-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Amir Tajbakhsh, Alireza Pasdar, Mehdi Rezaee, Mostafa Fazeli, Saman Soleimanpour, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Zahra FarshchiyanYazdi, Tayebe Younesi Rad, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan
Calcium ions (Ca(2+) ) act as second messengers in intracellular signaling. Ca(2+) pumps, channels, sensors, and calcium binding proteins, regulate the concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+) as a key regulator of important cellular processes such as gene expression, proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair, apoptosis, metastasis, and hormone secretion. Intracellular Ca(2+) also influences the functions of several organelles, that include: the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, the Golgi, and cell membrane both in normal and breast cancer cells...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150925/one-pot-synthesis-of-a-multi-template-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-for-the-extraction-of-six-sulfonamide-residues-from-milk-before-hplc-with-diode-array-detection
#4
Maria Kechagia, Victoria Samanidou, Abuzar Kabir, Kenneth G Furton
A highly selective molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent was synthesized and employed for the simultaneous determination of six sulfonamide antibiotic residues (sulfanilamide, sulfacetamide, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine and sulfamethizole) in milk samples. Multi-analyte imprinted particles were used as sorbent in solid phase extraction. Sulfonamides were separated on a high-performance liquid chromatography column (Merck-Lichrospher RP18e, 5 μm 250 × 4 mm) and further identified and quantified by diode array detection...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150865/enhanced-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-opioidergic-modulation-of-striatal-cholinergic-transmission-in-dyt1-dystonia
#5
Giulia Ponterio, Annalisa Tassone, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Valentina Vanni, Maria Meringolo, Massimo Santoro, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Paola Bonsi, Antonio Pisani
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptor activation modulates acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum, an area deeply involved in motor function, habit formation, and reinforcement learning as well as in the pathophysiology of different movement disorders, such as dystonia. Although the role of opioids in drug reward and addiction is well established, their involvement in motor dysfunction remains largely unexplored. METHODS: We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the responses to mu activation in 2 mouse models of DYT1 dystonia (Tor1a(+/Δgag) mice, Tor1a(+/-) torsinA null mice, and their respective wild-types)...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150609/atomic-resolution-snapshot-of-leishmania-ribosome-inhibition-by-the-aminoglycoside-paromomycin
#6
Moran Shalev-Benami, Yan Zhang, Haim Rozenberg, Yuko Nobe, Masato Taoka, Donna Matzov, Ella Zimmerman, Anat Bashan, Toshiaki Isobe, Charles L Jaffe, Ada Yonath, Georgios Skiniotis
Leishmania is a single-celled eukaryotic parasite afflicting millions of humans worldwide, with current therapies limited to a poor selection of drugs that mostly target elements in the parasite's cell envelope. Here we determined the atomic resolution electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Leishmania ribosome in complex with paromomycin (PAR), a highly potent compound recently approved for treatment of the fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The structure reveals the mechanism by which the drug induces its deleterious effects on the parasite...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150592/the-influence-of-genetic-stability-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-and-azole-resistance
#7
Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Pollyne Borborema Almeida de Lima, Rafaela Andrade do Carmo, Marjorie Mendes Marini, José Franco da Silveira, Beatriz Henriques Ferreira, Fernando Rodrigues, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Genetic stability is extremely important for the survival of every living organism and a very complex set of genes have evolved to cope with DNA repair upon DNA damage. Here, we investigated the Aspergillus fumigatus AtmA (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and AtrA kinases and how they impact virulence and the evolution of azole resistance. We demonstrated that A. fumigatus atmA and atrA null mutants are haploid and have a discrete chromosomal polymorphism. The ΔatmA and ΔatrA strains are sensitive to several DNA damaging agents but surprisingly both strains were more resistant than the wild-type strain to paraquat, menadione, and hydrogen peroxide...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150561/influence-of-enzalutamide-on-cabazitaxel-pharmacokinetics-a-drug-drug-interaction-study-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-mcrpc-patients
#8
Bodine P S Belderbos, Sander Bins, Roelof W F van Leeuwen, Esther Oomen-de Hoop, Nelly van der Meer, Peter de Bruijn, Paul Hamberg, Esther N M Overkleeft, Wendy M van der Deure, Martijn Lolkema, Ronald de Wit, Ron H J Mathijssen
PURPOSE: In ongoing clinical research on metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treatment, the potential enhanced efficacy of the combination of taxanes with AR-targeted agents, i.e. enzalutamide and abiraterone, is currently being explored. Since enzalutamide induces the CYP3A4 enzyme and taxanes are metabolized by this enzyme, a potential drug-drug interaction needs to be investigated. DESIGN: Therefore, we performed a pharmacokinetic cross-over study in mCRPC patients who were scheduled for treatment with cabazitaxel Q3W (25 mg/m(2))...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150490/gut-roundtable-meeting-paper-selected-recent-advances-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Alexander Gerbes, Fabien Zoulim, Herbert Tilg, Jean-François Dufour, Jordi Bruix, Valérie Paradis, Riad Salem, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Peter R Galle, Tim F Greten, Jean-Charles Nault, Matias A Avila
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks number three among the most frequent causes of death from solid tumors worldwide. With obesity and fatty liver diseases as risk factors on the rise, HCC represents an ever increasing challenge. While there is still no curative treatment for most patients numerous novel drugs have been proposed, but most ultimately failed in phase III trials. This manuscript targets therapeutic advances and most burning issues. Expert key point summaries and urgent research agenda are provided regarding risk factors, including microbiota, need for prognostic and predictive biomarkers and the equivocal role of liver biopsy...
November 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150447/the-prototypical-proton-coupled-oligopeptide-transporter-ydgr-from-escherichia-coli-facilitates-chloramphenicol-uptake-into-bacterial-cells
#10
Bala K Prabhala, Nanda G Aduri, Neha Sharma, Aqsa Shaheen, Arpan Sharma, Mazhar Iqbal, Paul R Hansen, Christoffer Brasen, Michael Gajhede, Moazur Rahman, Osman Mirza
Chloramphenicol (Cam) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to combat bacterial infections in humans and animals. Cam export from bacterial cells is one of the mechanisms by which pathogens resist Cam's antibacterial effects, and several different proteins are known to facilitate this process. However, to date no report exists on any specific transport protein that facilitates Cam uptake. The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (POT) YdgR from Escherichia coli is a prototypical member of the POT family, functioning in proton-coupled uptake of di- and tripeptides...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150332/organic-arsenicals-target-thioredoxin-reductase-followed-by-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-resulting-in-apoptosis
#11
Xiao-Yang Fan, Yu-Jiao Liu, Kai Chen, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yan-Jun Hu, Dan Liu, Yi Liu, Yu-Shu Ge
Considering the vital role of cellular redox state, more and more researches focus on the design of drugs targeting thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), an important enzyme in maintaining the balance of cellular redox. Here two organic arsenicals, 2-(((4-(1,3,2-dithiarsinan-2-yl) phenyl) imino) methyl) phenol (PIM-PAO-PDT) and N-(4-(1,3,2-dithiarsinan-2-yl) phenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide (PAM-PAO-PDT), bearing the S-As-S chemical scaffold and different linking groups have been synthesized, and both of them show the better inhibitory activity and selectivity towards HL-60 cells...
May 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150182/mature-hippocampal-neurons-require-lis1-for-synaptic-integrity-implications-for-cognition
#12
Anamaria Sudarov, Xin-Jun Zhang, Leighton Braunstein, Eve LoCastro, Shawn Singh, Yu Taniguchi, Ashish Raj, Song-Hai Shi, Holly Moore, M Elizabeth Ross
BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1B1 (LIS1), a critical mediator of neuronal migration in developing brain, is expressed throughout life. However, relatively little is known about LIS1 function in the mature brain. We previously demonstrated that LIS1 involvement in the formation and turnover of synaptic protrusions and synapses of young brain after neuronal migration is complete. Here we examine the requirement for LIS1 to maintain hippocampal circuit function in adulthood...
September 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149996/coupling-of-two-centrifugeless-ultrasound-assisted-dispersive-solid-liquid-phase-microextractions-as-a-highly-selective-clean-and-efficient-method-for-determination-of-ultra-trace-amounts-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-complicated-matrices
#13
Somayeh Arghavani-Beydokhti, Maryam Rajabi, Alireza Asghari
In this work, a new, simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly method with a high sample clean-up capability termed as centrifugeless ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction coupled with salting-out ultrasound-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of a floating organic droplet followed by high performance liquid chromatography is introduced for the first time. In this method, the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid are first extracted based on an effective nanoadsorbent named as the layered double hydroxide-carbon nanotube nanohybrid...
January 2, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149914/testing-the-effectiveness-of-a-motivational-interviewing-based-brief-intervention-for-substance-use-as-an-adjunct-to-usual-care-in-community-based-aids-service-organizations-study-protocol-for-a-multisite-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Bryan R Garner, Heather J Gotham, Stephen J Tueller, Elizabeth L Ball, David Kaiser, Patricia Stilen, Kathryn Speck, Denna Vandersloot, Traci R Rieckmann, Michael Chaple, Erika G Martin, Steve Martino
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States was released and included three goals: (1) reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, (2) increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV, and (3) reducing HIV-related health disparities and health inequities. In 2013, as part of its effort to help address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the Substance Abuse Treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project...
November 17, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149911/the-analysis-of-novel-microrna-mimic-sequences-in-cancer-cells-reveals-lack-of-specificity-in-stem-loop-rt-qpcr-based-microrna-detection
#15
Patrick Winata, Marissa Williams, Eileen McGowan, Najah Nassif, Nico van Zandwijk, Glen Reid
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs are frequently downregulated in cancer, and restoring expression has tumour suppressive activity in tumour cells. Our recent phase I clinical trial investigated microRNA-based therapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Treatment with TargomiRs, microRNA mimics with novel sequence packaged in EGFR antibody-targeted bacterial minicells, revealed clear signs of clinical activity. In order to detect delivery of microRNA mimics to tumour cells in future clinical trials, we tested hydrolysis probe-based assays specific for the sequence of the novel mimics in transfected mesothelioma cell lines using RT-qPCR...
November 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149875/prevalence-of-antibiotic-prescription-in-pediatric-outpatients-in-italy-the-role-of-local-health-districts-and-primary-care-physicians-in-determining-variation-a-multilevel-design-for-healthcare-decision-support
#16
Mirko Di Martino, Adele Lallo, Ursula Kirchmayer, Marina Davoli, Danilo Fusco
BACKGROUND: According to scientific literature, antibacterials are prescribed for common pediatric conditions that do not benefit from antibiotic therapy. The link between antibiotic use and bacterial resistance is well known. Antibiotic overprescribing generates high social costs and severe consequences for children. Our objectives were to analyze antibiotic prescription patterns in pediatric outpatients residing in the Lazio region (Italy), to identify physicians' characteristics associated with increased propensity for prescription, to identify the priority axes for action to improve the rational use of antibiotics...
November 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149832/optimizing-metal-based-chemotherapeutics-targeting-chemoresistance-related-patterns-in-molecular-tumor-immunology-and-immunosuppressive-tumor-networks
#17
Athanasios Salifoglou, Savvas Petanidis, Efrosini Kioseoglou
Tumor cell chemoresistance is a major challenge in cancer therapeutics. Major select metal-based drugs are potent anticancer agents yet they exhibit undesirable side-effects and are effective against only a few types of cancers. A need, therefore, arises for new metallodrugs with an improved spectrum of efficacy and lower toxicity. Development of anticancer drugs based on antitumor metals is currently a very active field, with considerable efforts having been made toward elucidating the mechanisms of immune action of complex metalloforms and optimizing their immunoregulatory bioactivity through appropriate structural modification...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149826/novel-functions-of-microrna-17-92-cluster-in-the-endocrine-system
#18
Shan Wan, Xiang Chen, Yuedong He, Xijie Yu
BACKGROUND: MiR-17-92 cluster is coded by MIR17HG in chromosome 13, which is highly conserved in vertebrates. Published literatures have proved that miR-17-92 cluster critically regulates tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent researches showed that the miR-17-92 cluster also plays novel functions in the endocrine system. OBJECTIVE: To summarize recent findings on the physiological and pathological roles of miR-17-92 cluster in bone, lipid and glucose metabolisms...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149824/gene-therapy-and-retinal-diseases
#19
Claudio Campa, Carla Enrica Gallenga, Elena Bolletta, Paolo Perri
Background Gene therapy represents the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient's cells with the aim of treating an underlying disease. Over the past 2 decades this new therapy has made substantial progress owing to better understanding of the pathobiologic basis of various diseases coupled with growth of gene transfer biotechnologies. The eye, in particular, represents a suitable target for such therapy due to the immune privilege provided by the blood-ocular barrier, the ability to directly visualize, access and locally treat the cells and the minimal amount of vector needed given the size of this organ...
November 16, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149731/purinergic-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Kenneth A Jacobson, Fievos L Christofi
Purinergic receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders and are being explored as potential therapeutic targets. Gut inflammation releases ATP that acts on neuronal, glial, epithelial and immune cells. Purinergic signalling in glia and neurons is implicated in enteric neuropathies. Inflammation activates glia to increase ATP release and alter purinergic signalling. ATP release causes neuron death and gut motor dysfunction in colitis via a P2X7-dependent neural-glial pathway and a glial purinergic-connexin-43 pathway...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
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