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functional network

Mark A Newman, Mark A Hirsch, Richard D Peindl, Nahir A Habet, Tobias J Tsai, Michael S Runyon, Toan Huynh, Nigel Zheng
BACKGROUND: Studies have evaluated the test-re-test reliability of subcomponents of the timed up and-go test in adults by using body-worn inertial sensors. However, studies in children have not been reported in the literature. RESEARCH QUESTION: To evaluate the within-session reliability of subcomponents of a newly developed electronically augmented timed 'upand-go' test (EATUG) in ambulatory children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with typical development (TD)...
May 16, 2018: Gait & Posture
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Udaysankar Chockanathan, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
Functional connectivity analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) can represent brain networks and reveal insights into interactions amongst different brain regions. However, most connectivity analysis approaches adopted in practice are linear and non-directional. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantage of a data-driven, directed connectivity analysis approach called Mutual Connectivity Analysis using Local Models (MCA-LM) that approximates connectivity by modeling nonlinear dependencies of signal interaction, over more conventionally used approaches, such as Pearson's and partial correlation, Patel's conditional dependence measures, etcetera...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Peter Fransson, Björn C Schiffler, William Hedley Thompson
The characterization of brain subnetwork segregation and integration has previously focused on changes that are detectable at the level of entire sessions or epochs of imaging data. In this study, we applied time-varying functional connectivity analysis together with temporal network theory to calculate point-by-point estimates in subnetwork segregation and integration during an epoch-based (2-back, 0-back, baseline) working memory fMRI experiment as well as during resting-state. This approach allowed us to follow task-related changes in subnetwork segregation and integration at a high temporal resolution...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
João Paulo Santos Silva, Luciana da Mata Mônaco, André Monteiro Paschoal, Ícaro Agenor Ferreira de Oliveira, Renata Ferranti Leoni
BACKGROUND: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in functional studies of the healthy and diseased brain. To promote improvement in cerebral blood flow (CBF) signal specificity, many algorithms and imaging procedures, such as subtraction methods, were proposed to eliminate or, at least, minimize noise sources. Therefore, this study addressed the main considerations of how CBF functional connectivity (FC) is changed, regarding resting brain network (RBN) identification and correlations between regions of interest (ROI), by different subtraction methods and removal of residual motion artifacts and global signal fluctuations (RMAGSF)...
May 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nicky Scheefhals, Harold D MacGillavry
Glutamate receptors are the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain, responsible for mediating the vast majority of excitatory transmission in neuronal networks. The AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the fast synaptic responses, while metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are coupled to downstream signaling cascades that act on much slower timescales. These functionally distinct receptor sub-types are co-expressed at individual synapses, allowing for the precise temporal modulation of postsynaptic excitability and plasticity...
May 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Charlotte Hurel, Cécile Bignon, Cynthia Said-Mohamed, Sonia Amigoni, Thierry Devers, Frederic Guittard
Effects of functionalization and grafting of TiO2 , CeO2 , and SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated, and toxicity of pristine, functionalized, and grafted NP towards Daphnia magna was measured. Surface functionalization of NP with amine groups decreased hydrophobicity of NP. When NPs were hydrophilic, they were less toxic than hydrophobic NP towards D. magna. Grafting agents influenced toxicity: no toxicity of NP was observed when bio-based and hydrogenated synthetic polymers were used, whereas perfluorinated polymers induced a higher toxicity...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hongwei Yan, Xufang Shen, Xin Cui, Yumeng Wu, Lianshun Wang, Lei Zhang, Qi Liu, Yusheng Jiang
Quantifying the expression of mRNAs in the gonads at the critical stage of molecular sex differentiation stage might help to clarify the regulatory network during early sex differentiation and provide new information on the role of sex-related genes in gonadal function. In this study, transcriptomic analysis of sex-related genes expression profiles in fugu gonads at 60 and 90 days after hatching (dah) was conducted firstly, and a total of 112,504,991 clean reads, encompassing 28.35 Gb of sequences were retrieved...
May 18, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Matti Gärtner, M Elisabetta Ghisu, Milan Scheidegger, Luisa Bönke, Yan Fan, Anna Stippl, Ana-Lucia Herrera-Melendez, Sophie Metz, Emilia Winnebeck, Maria Fissler, Anke Henning, Malek Bajbouj, Karsten Borgwardt, Thorsten Barnhofer, Simone Grimm
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often accompanied by severe impairments in working memory (WM). Neuroimaging studies investigating the mechanisms underlying these impairments have produced conflicting results. It remains unclear whether MDD patients show hyper- or hypoactivity in WM-related brain regions and how potential aberrations in WM processing may contribute to the characteristic dysregulation of cognition-emotion interactions implicated in the maintenance of the disorder. In order to shed light on these questions and to overcome limitations of previous studies, we applied a multivoxel pattern classification approach to investigate brain activity in large samples of MDD patients (N = 57) and matched healthy controls (N = 61) during a WM task that incorporated positive, negative, and neutral stimuli...
May 2, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Arindam Dasgupta, Marie-Maxime Mennemanteuil, Mickaël Buret, Nicolas Cazier, Gérard Colas-des-Francs, Alexandre Bouhelier
Initiated as a cable-replacement solution, short-range wireless power transfer has rapidly become ubiquitous in the development of modern high-data throughput networking in centimeter to meter accessibility range. Wireless technology is now penetrating a higher level of system integration for chip-to-chip and on-chip radiofrequency interconnects. However, standard CMOS integrated millimeter-wave antennas have typical size commensurable with the operating wavelength, and are thus an unrealistic solution for downsizing transmitters and receivers to the micrometer and nanometer scale...
May 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Javier Martin-Diaz, Carmen Paret, Eva García-Ruiz, Patricia Molina-Espeja, Miguel Alcalde
Unspecific peroxygenase (UPO) is a highly promiscuous biocatalyst and its selective mono(per)oxygenase activity makes it useful for many synthetic chemistry applications. Among the broad repertory of library creation methods for directed enzyme evolution, genetic drift allows neutral mutations to be accumulated gradually within a polymorphic network of variants. In this study, we conducted a campaign of genetic drift with UPO in Saccharomyces cerevisiae so that neutral mutations were simply added and recombined in vivo With low mutational loading and an activity threshold of 45% of the parent's native function, mutant libraries enriched in folded and active UPO variants were generated...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rika Tanaka, Anita Banerjee, Jelena Surikova, Jacqueline Tracey, Ada Payne, Heather Ross, Robert Nolan
BACKGROUND: Self-care behaviors are commonly prescribed to manage both cardiovascular disease and hypertension to reduce modifiable risk factors and improve quality of life. Nevertheless, long-term adherence to self-care recommendations for cardiac patients has been problematic. In cardiac patients, moderated online forums have been found to be particularly useful in supporting maintenance of heart-healthy diet and fewer hospital visits. As such, we developed the e-Forum, a Web-based moderated forum designed to promote continued user engagement and long-term self-care adherence...
May 18, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
Kohei Aoki, Yotaro Izumi, Wataru Watanabe, Yuji Shimizu, Hisato Osada, Norinari Honda, Toshihide Itoh, Mitsuo Nakayama
BACKGROUND: While many studies have evaluated the change in lung volume before and after lung resection and correlated this with pulmonary function test results, there is very little evidence on the changes in ventilation perfusion ratio (V/Q) before versus after lung resection. In the present pilot study, we evaluated if V/Q mapping can be constructed using dual energy CT images. METHODS: Thirty-one lung cancer patients planned for pulmonary resection were included in this study...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Delia M Braun, Inn Chung, Nick Kepper, Katharina I Deeg, Karsten Rippe
BACKGROUND: The ends of linear chromosomes, the telomeres, comprise repetitive DNA sequences in complex with proteins that protects them from being processed by the DNA repair machinery. Cancer cells need to counteract the shortening of telomere repeats during replication for their unlimited proliferation by reactivating the reverse transcriptase telomerase or by using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. The different telomere maintenance (TM) mechanisms appear to involve hundreds of proteins but their telomere repeat length related activities are only partly understood...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genetics
Andreas Brechtel, Philipp Gramlich, Daniel Ritterskamp, Barbara Drossel, Thilo Gross
We study diffusion-driven pattern formation in networks of networks, a class of multilayer systems, where different layers have the same topology, but different internal dynamics. Agents are assumed to disperse within a layer by undergoing random walks, while they can be created or destroyed by reactions between or within a layer. We show that the stability of homogeneous steady states can be analyzed with a master stability function approach that reveals a deep analogy between pattern formation in networks and pattern formation in continuous space...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Edward Laurence, Jean-Gabriel Young, Sergey Melnik, Louis J Dubé
In binary cascade dynamics, the nodes of a graph are in one of two possible states (inactive, active), and nodes in the inactive state make an irreversible transition to the active state, as soon as their precursors satisfy a predetermined condition. We introduce a set of recursive equations to compute the probability of reaching any final state, given an initial state, and a specification of the transition probability function of each node. Because the naive recursive approach for solving these equations takes factorial time in the number of nodes, we also introduce an accelerated algorithm, built around a breath-first search procedure...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Rachel Nicks, Lucie Chambon, Stephen Coombes
For coupled oscillator networks with Laplacian coupling, the master stability function (MSF) has proven a particularly powerful tool for assessing the stability of the synchronous state. Using tools from group theory, this approach has recently been extended to treat more general cluster states. However, the MSF and its generalizations require the determination of a set of Floquet multipliers from variational equations obtained by linearization around a periodic orbit. Since closed form solutions for periodic orbits are invariably hard to come by, the framework is often explored using numerical techniques...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Hanqing Nan, Long Liang, Guo Chen, Liyu Liu, Ruchuan Liu, Yang Jiao
Three-dimensional (3D) collective cell migration in a collagen-based extracellular matrix (ECM) is among one of the most significant topics in developmental biology, cancer progression, tissue regeneration, and immune response. Recent studies have suggested that collagen-fiber mediated force transmission in cellularized ECM plays an important role in stress homeostasis and regulation of collective cellular behaviors. Motivated by the recent in vitro observation that oriented collagen can significantly enhance the penetration of migrating breast cancer cells into dense Matrigel which mimics the intravasation process in vivo [Han et al...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
K Sathiyadevi, V K Chandrasekar, D V Senthilkumar, M Lakshmanan
We investigate the effect of repulsive coupling together with an attractive coupling in a network of nonlocally coupled oscillators. To understand the complex interaction between these two couplings we introduce a control parameter in the repulsive coupling which plays a crucial role in inducing distinct complex collective patterns. In particular, we show the emergence of various cluster chimera death states through a dynamically distinct transition route, namely the oscillatory cluster state and coherent oscillation death state as a function of the repulsive coupling in the presence of the attractive coupling...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Sidiney G Alves
An approach to generate radial interfaces is presented. A radial network recursively obtained is used to implement discrete model rules designed originally for the investigation in flat substrates. I used the restricted solid-on-solid and etching models as to test the proposed scheme. The results indicate the Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang conjecture is completely verified leading to a good agreement between the interface radius fluctuation distribution and the Gaussian unitary ensemble. The evolution of the radius agrees well with the generalized conjecture, and the two-point correlation function exhibits also a good agreement with the covariance of the Airy_{2} process...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Giovanni M Cicuta, Johannes Krausser, Rico Milkus, Alessio Zaccone
A sparse random block matrix model suggested by the Hessian matrix used in the study of elastic vibrational modes of amorphous solids is presented and analyzed. By evaluating some moments, benchmarked against numerics, differences in the eigenvalue spectrum of this model in different limits of space dimension d, and for arbitrary values of the lattice coordination number Z, are shown and discussed. As a function of these two parameters (and their ratio Z/d), the most studied models in random matrix theory (Erdos-Renyi graphs, effective medium, and replicas) can be reproduced in the various limits of block dimensionality d...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
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