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Sense of coherence

Garrett Dash Nelson, Alasdair Rae
The emergence in the United States of large-scale "megaregions" centered on major metropolitan areas is a phenomenon often taken for granted in both scholarly studies and popular accounts of contemporary economic geography. This paper uses a data set of more than 4,000,000 commuter flows as the basis for an empirical approach to the identification of such megaregions. We compare a method which uses a visual heuristic for understanding areal aggregation to a method which uses a computational partitioning algorithm, and we reflect upon the strengths and limitations of both...
2016: PloS One
Mohamed S Sayed, Michael Margolis, Richard K Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an integral component of modern glaucoma practice. Utilizing color codes, OCT analysis has rendered glaucoma diagnosis and follow-up simpler and faster for the busy clinician. However, green labeling of OCT parameters suggesting normal values may confer a false sense of security, potentially leading to missed diagnoses of glaucoma and/or glaucoma progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Conditions in which OCT color coding may be falsely negative (i...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Julio E Posada-Roman, Jose A Garcia-Souto, Dragos A Poiana, Pablo Acedo
Optical frequency combs (OFC) generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
Martin González, Antonio Sánchez-Pedraza, Rebeca Marfil, Juan A Rodríguez, Antonio Bandera
There exist image processing applications, such as tracking or pattern recognition, that are not necessarily precise enough to maintain the same resolution across the whole image sensor. In fact, they must only keep it as high as possible in a relatively small region, but covering a wide field of view. This is the aim of foveal vision systems. Briefly, they propose to sense a large field of view at a spatially-variant resolution: one relatively small region, the fovea, is mapped at a high resolution, while the rest of the image is captured at a lower resolution...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
Z Zhu, H Liu, D Wang, Y X Li, C Y Guan, H Zhang, J H Shi
Coherent light-matter interaction in ultrathin metamaterials has been demonstrated to dynamically modulate intensity, polarization and propagation direction of light. The gradient metasurface with a transverse phase variation usually exhibits an anomalous refracted beam of light dictated by so-called generalized Snell's law. However, less attention has been paid to coherent control of the metasurface with multiple anomalous refracted beams. Here we propose an ultrathin gradient metasurface with single trapezoid-shaped slot antenna as its building block that allows one normal and two deflected transmitted beams...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jennifer E Corbett, Paola Venuti, David Melcher
There is mounting evidence that observers rely on statistical summaries of visual information to maintain stable and coherent perception. Sensitivity to the mean (or other prototypical value) of a visual feature (e.g., mean size) appears to be a pervasive process in human visual perception. Previous studies in individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have uncovered characteristic patterns of visual processing that suggest they may rely more on enhanced local representations of individual objects instead of computing such perceptual averages...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
R M Dröes, R Chattat, A Diaz, D Gove, M Graff, K Murphy, H Verbeek, M Vernooij-Dassen, L Clare, A Johannessen, M Roes, F Verhey, K Charras, The Interdem Social Health Taskforce
BACKGROUND: Because the pattern of illnesses changes in an aging population and many people manage to live well with chronic diseases, a group of health care professionals recently proposed reformulating the static WHO definition of health towards a dynamic one based on the ability to physically, mentally and socially adapt and self-manage. This paper is the result of a collaborative action of the INTERDEM Social Health Taskforce to operationalize this new health concept for people with dementia, more specifically the social domain, and to formulate directions for research and practice to promote social health in dementia...
November 21, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
U Lindmark, P Wagman, C Wåhlin, B Rolander
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to explore self-reported psychosocial health and work environments among different dental occupations and workplaces from a salutogenic perspective. A further purpose was to analyse possible associations between three salutogenic measurements: The Sense of Coherence questionnaire (SOC), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) and the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS). METHODS: Employees in the Public Dental Service in a Swedish county council (n = 486) were invited to respond to a self-reported web survey including demographics, work-related factors, the SOC, the SHIS and the WEMS...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Ranjith Nair, Mankei Tsang
We obtain the ultimate quantum limit for estimating the transverse separation of two thermal point sources using a given imaging system with limited spatial bandwidth. We show via the quantum Cramér-Rao bound that, contrary to the Rayleigh limit in conventional direct imaging, quantum mechanics does not mandate any loss of precision in estimating even deep sub-Rayleigh separations. We propose two coherent measurement techniques, easily implementable using current linear-optics technology, that approach the quantum limit over an arbitrarily large range of separations...
November 4, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Chenjin Deng, Wenlin Gong, Shensheng Han
Ghost imaging (GI) lidar, as a novel remote sensing technique, has been receiving increasing interest in recent years. By combining pulse-compression technique and coherent detection with GI, we propose a new lidar system called pulse-compression GI lidar. Our analytical results, which are backed up by numerical simulations, demonstrate that pulse-compression GI lidar can obtain the target's spatial intensity distribution, range and moving velocity. Compared with conventional pulsed GI lidar system, pulse-compression GI lidar, without decreasing the range resolution, is easy to obtain high single pulse energy with the use of a long pulse, and the mechanism of coherent detection can eliminate the influence of the stray light, which is helpful to improve the detection sensitivity and detection range...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
Margret Olafia Tomasdottir, Johann Agust Sigurdsson, Halfdan Petursson, Anna Luise Kirkengen, Tom Ivar Lund Nilsen, Irene Hetlevik, Linn Getz
OBJECTIVES: Multimorbidity is prevalent, and knowledge regarding its aetiology is limited. The general pathogenic impact of adverse life experiences, comprising a wide-ranging typology, is well documented and coherent with the concept allostatic overload (the long-term impact of stress on human physiology) and the notion embodiment (the conversion of sociocultural and environmental influences into physiological characteristics). Less is known about the medical relevance of subtle distress or unease...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Open
V G Vivilaki, V Dafermos, Ev Patelarou, D Bick, Ar Syngelaki, N D Tsopelas, P Bitsios, E T Petridou, Al N Vgontzas, Chr Lionis
Research has highlighted the wide impact of maternal mental health problems during and beyond the postpartum period and the public health role of community health professionals in early detection of women who may be at risk. This paper aims to describe, explore and test an a priori hypothesised conceptual model of postnatal experience, identifying the relationships between postnatal mental vulnerability and postnatal adjustment to maternal roles and attitudes, marital/partner-relationship and sense of coherence...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Tin Komljenovic, John E Bowers
We investigate self-seeded optical sources for interferometric sensing applications and show that they can, depending on optical filter bandwidth, provide high-output power, high wavelength temperature stability (<5 ppm/°C), low relative intensity noise (<-140 dBc/Hz) and low coherence lengths (<100 um). We characterize the key performance indicators for a range of optical filter bandwidths and provide insight into key design parameters of such sources for interferometric sensors.
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
Yongkang Dong, Xi Chen, Erhu Liu, Cheng Fu, Hongying Zhang, Zhiwei Lu
A sensing system is proposed for quantitative measurement of large-range dynamic nanostrain based on a phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer, where the coherent detection and I/Q demodulation methods are employed to demodulate both the phase and the amplitude of the Rayleigh scattering light in real time. A nanopositioning translation stage is utilized to apply precise nanostrain to fiber. By measuring phase differences between two adjacent sections, the quantitative nanostrain with a large measurement range is demonstrated; this is also a method to measure the strain parameter of refractive index...
October 1, 2016: Applied Optics
Juan Du, Juha Harra, Matti Virkki, Jyrki M Mäkelä, Yuxin Leng, Martti Kauranen, Takayoshi Kobayashi
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has attracted a lot of attention in molecular sensing because of the remarkable ability of plasmonic metal nanostructures to enhance the weak Raman scattering process. On the other hand, coherent vibrational spectroscopy triggered by impulsive excitation using ultrafast laser pulses provides complete information about the temporal evolution of molecular vibrations, allowing dynamical processes in molecular systems to be followed in "real time". Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate surface-enhanced impulsive vibrational spectroscopy...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
D J Gould, R Hale, E Waters, D Allen
BACKGROUND: All health workers should take responsibility for infection prevention and control (IPC). Recent reduction in key reported healthcare-associated infections in the UK is impressive, but the determinants of success are unknown. It is imperative to understand how IPC strategies operate as new challenges arise and threats of antimicrobial resistance increase. METHODS: The authors undertook a retrospective, independent evaluation of an action plan to enhance IPC and 'ownership' (individual accountability) for IPC introduced throughout a healthcare organization...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Koji Yoshida, Makiko Orita, Aya Goto, Atsushi Kumagai, Kiyotaka Yasui, Akira Ohtsuru, Naomi Hayashida, Takashi Kudo, Shunichi Yamashita, Noboru Takamura
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) play important roles in managing the health of local residents, especially after a disaster. In this study, we assessed radiation anxiety and the stress processing capacity of PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey among the PHNs (n=430) in July of 2015 via postal mail. The questions included demographic factors (sex, age and employment position), knowledge about radiation, degree of anxiety about radiation at the time of the FDNPS accident (and at present), by asking them to answer questions about radiation and the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13)...
October 24, 2016: BMJ Open
Lidia Perenc, Mieczyslaw Radochonski
Although the corresponding literature contains a substantial number of studies on the relationship between psychological factors and attitude towards seeking professional psychological help, the role of some determinants remains unexplored, especially among Polish young adults. The present study investigated diversity among a large cohort of Polish university students related to attitudes towards help-seeking and the regulative roles of gender, level of university education, health locus of control and sense of coherence...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rebecca L Gieseking, Mark A Ratner, George C Schatz
Quadrupolar plasmonic modes in noble metal nanoparticles have gained interest in recent years for various sensing applications. Although quantum mechanical studies have shown that dipolar plasmons can be modeled in terms of excited states where several to many excited states contribute coherently to the transition dipole moment, new approaches are needed to identify the quadrupolar plasmonic states. We show that quadrupolar states in Ag nanorods can be identified using the semiempirical INDO/SCI approach by examining the quadrupole moment of the transition density...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Philipp Kerksieck, Arndt Büssing, Eckhard Frick, Christoph Jacobs, Klaus Baumann
In this study, we examined a third variable effect on the relationship of personality traits, especially neuroticism and the salutogenetic concept sense of coherence. Specifically, we were interested in the moderating role of religious trust (RT) and transcendence perception operationalized as daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on the aforementioned relationship among religious individuals. We applied a cross-sectional study among a sample of 8594 pastoral workers using standardized questionnaires. Multiple regression and moderator analysis displayed the relationships between big five personality variables and sense of coherence...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
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