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Sense of coherence

Antonia Jiménez-Iglesias, Carmen Moreno, Irene García-Moya, Francisco Rivera
BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls' family context and psychological characteristics play important roles in their sexual behavior, including the use of the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP). This study aims to (1) determine the prevalence of ECP use among girls who have had sexual intercourse and (2) comparatively analyze their family and psychological profiles according to whether they have used ECPs. METHODS: The sample of 1735 Spanish girls aged 15 to 18 came from a representative sample of the 2014 edition of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study...
May 16, 2018: BMC Women's Health
M Wuehr, C Schlick, K Möhwald, R Schniepp
INTRODUCTION: Primary orthostatic tremor (OT) is characterized by high-frequency lower limb muscle contractions and a disabling sense of unsteadiness while standing. To date, therapeutic options for OT are limited. Here, we examined the effects of proprioceptive leg muscle stimulation via muscle tendon vibration (MTV) on tremor and balance control in patients with primary OT. METHODS: Tremor in nine patients with primary OT was examined during four conditions: standing (1), standing with MTV on the bilateral soleus muscles (2), lying (3), and lying with MTV (4)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Monalisa Cesarino Gomes, Érick Tássio Barbosa Neves, Matheus França Perazzo, Carolina Castro Martins, Saul Martins Paiva, Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate association between psychological factors, socio-demographic conditions, oral habits and anterior open bite in five-year-old preschool children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 764 pairs of children and parents/caregivers in preschools. The parents/caregivers answered questionnaires addressing oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), sense of coherence, locus of control, oral habits and socio-demographic characteristics...
May 15, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
C Benstoem, R Wübker, M Lüngen, T Breuer, G Marx, R Autschbach, A Goetzenich, H Schnoering
BACKGROUND: For cardiac surgery patients who were employed prior to surgery, the return to their professional life is of special importance. In addition to medical reasons, such as pre-existing conditions, the success of the operation or postoperative course and patient-intrinsic reasons, which can be assessed with the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale by Antonovsky, may also play a role in the question of a possible return into working life. METHODS: In this study 278 patients (invasive coronary artery bypass graft surgery and/or surgery on heart valves, age < 60 years, employed) were questioned postoperatively via post with the SOC questionnaire...
May 14, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Mengjie Yu, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Austin G Griffith, Nathalie Picqué, Michal Lipson, Alexander L Gaeta
The development of a spectroscopy device on a chip that could realize real-time fingerprinting with label-free and high-throughput detection of trace molecules represents one of the big challenges in sensing. Dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS) in the mid-infrared is a powerful technique offering high acquisition rates and signal-to-noise ratios through use of only a single detector with no moving parts. Here, we present a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform designed for mid-infrared (mid-IR) DCS. A single continuous-wave low-power pump source generates two mutually coherent mode-locked frequency combs spanning from 2...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Shai Machnes, Elie Assémat, David Tannor, Frank K Wilhelm
Quantum computation places very stringent demands on gate fidelities, and experimental implementations require both the controls and the resultant dynamics to conform to hardware-specific constraints. Superconducting qubits present the additional requirement that pulses must have simple parameterizations, so they can be further calibrated in the experiment, to compensate for uncertainties in system parameters. Other quantum technologies, such as sensing, require extremely high fidelities. We present a novel, conceptually simple and easy-to-implement gradient-based optimal control technique named gradient optimization of analytic controls (GOAT), which satisfies all the above requirements, unlike previous approaches...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Meghana Raghunandan, Jörg Wrachtrup, Hendrik Weimer
The sensing of external fields using quantum systems is a prime example of an emergent quantum technology. Generically, the sensitivity of a quantum sensor consisting of N independent particles is proportional to sqrt[N]. However, interactions invariably occurring at high densities lead to a breakdown of the assumption of independence between the particles, posing a severe challenge for quantum sensors operating at the nanoscale. Here, we show that interactions in quantum sensors can be transformed from a nuisance into an advantage when strong interactions trigger a dissipative phase transition in an open quantum system...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
John S Torday
Biology has remained descriptive since its formalization by Linnaeus in the 18th Century. Dobzhansky has challenged us to think mechanistically by stating that 'Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution', but NeoDarwinian evolution remains untestable or refutable. The physicist Bohm has encouraged us to recognize that our perception of 'reality' is mediated by our evolved, subjective senses, though there is a coherent Implicate Order just out of reach. Only recently has a novel understanding of physiologic evolution based on cell-cell communication for embryonic development and phylogeny offered the opportunity to mechanistically merge Quantum Mechanics with Evolutionary Biology...
May 2, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Robert Taylor, Jo Ann LeQuang, Robert B Raffa
There is no greater public health threat at this time in America than the opioid abuse crisis, and a systematic, level-headed, coherent, and unified approach is needed. Among the many things that have been proposed to help reduce opioid abuse is the development of opioid analgesic products in abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs). This seems to make perfect sense. Areas Covered: In this article, the viewpoints of 12 stakeholders (physicians, pain patients, payers, manufacturers, regulators, law enforcement, hospitals, first responders, elected officials, rehabilitation centers, opioid addicts, and the general public) were considered in terms of how ADF opioids are regarded and might contribute potential impediments to more widespread use...
May 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Johann Klocker, Ursula Klocker-Kaiser, Wolfgang Pipam, Dietmar Geissler
A 3-week cancer rehabilitation program was conducted at the Humanomed Zentrum Althofen, comprising therapy of organic defects, lifestyle modification, and psycho-social support. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed in comprehensive surveys before and after the therapy, and after 6 and 12 months. The study covers a 5-year period with data from 3233 patients. Parameters of subjective health assessed according to the European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions (EuroQol EQ-5D) standard and signifying quality of life showed significant improvement both immediately after the therapy, and after 6 and 12 months...
May 8, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
A Biedermann, F Taroni, S Bozza, M Augsburger, C G G Aitken
In this paper we critically discuss the definition and use of cut-off values by forensic scientists, for example in forensic toxicology, and point out when and why such values - and ensuing categorical conclusions - are inappropriate concepts for helping recipients of expert information with their questions of interest. Broadly speaking, a cut-off is a particular value of results of analyses of a target substance (e.g., a toxic substance or one of its metabolites in biological sample from a person of interest), defined in a way such as to enable scientists to suggest conclusions regarding the condition of the person of interest...
April 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
S Ågren, A Eriksson, M Fredrikson, G Hollman-Frisman, L Orwelius
BACKGROUND: After intensive care unit treatment, patients often have prolonged impairments that affect their physical, cognitive and mental health. Family members can face overwhelming and emotionally challenging situations and their concerns and needs must be addressed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the outcomes of pilot randomised control trial, a nurse-led family intervention, Health Promoting Conversations, which focused on family functioning and wellbeing in families with a critically ill member...
May 3, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia, Monalisa Cesarino Gomes, Matheus França Perazzo, Carolina Castro Martins, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães Abreu, Saul Martins Paiva
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the severity/activity of dental caries as well as sense of coherence (SOC) and locus of control (LOC) on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among 5-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 769 children at schools in a city in northeast Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered validated questionnaires addressing SOC and LOC. The children and parents/caregivers answered their respective modules of the Brazilian version of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5)...
May 3, 2018: Caries Research
Zuzana Škodová, L'ubica Bánovčinová
BACKGROUND: Understanding the factors that influence resilience is especially important in the context of emotionally demanding work environments in health care. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between Type D personality and resilience among nursing students. METHOD: A correlational study design was used, and 150 baccalaureate nursing students participated. The Type D personality subscale, sense of coherence questionnaire, and Baruth protective factors inventory were used...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
Adi Eindor-Abarbanel, Timna Naftali, Nahum Ruhimovich, Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit, Fabiana Sklerovsky-Benjaminov, Fred Konikoff, Shai Matalon, Haim Shirin, Yael Milgrom, Efrat Broide
Background: Adherence is generally associated with improved treatment outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Different components of the patient profile have an impact on patient adherence. Capturing nonadherent patients by identifying modifiable risk factors in daily practice still remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for nonadherence in IBD patients. Methods: Patients filled out questionnaires including demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic information and accessibility to gastrointestinal services...
April 26, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Eduardo Garcia-Rico, Ramon A Alvarez-Puebla, Luca Guerrini
Plasmonic optical biosensors for the analysis of nucleic acids have drawn a great deal of interest in nanomedicine because of their capability to overcome major limitations of conventional methods. Within this realm, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensing is progressively emerging as a powerful analytical tool beyond the basic grounds of academia to viable commercial products. SERS benefits from the synergistic combination between the intrinsic structural specificity and experimental flexibility of Raman spectroscopy, the extremely high sensitivity provided by plasmonic nanomaterials, and the tremendous advances in nanofabrication techniques and spectroscopic instrumentation...
May 2, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Jarosław Sotor, Tadeusz Martynkien, Peter G Schunemann, Paweł Mergo, Lucile Rutkowski, Grzegorz Soboń
We report the first fully fiberized difference frequency generation (DFG) source, delivering a broadly tunable idler in the 6 to 9 μm spectral range, using an orientation-patterned gallium phosphide (OP-GaP) crystals with different quasi-phase matching periods (QPM). The mid-infrared radiation (MIR) is obtained via mixing of the output of a graphene-based Er-doped fiber laser at 1.55 μm with coherent frequency-shifted solitons at 1.9 μm generated in a highly nonlinear fiber using the same seed. The presented setup is the first truly all-fiber, all-polarization maintaining, alignment-free DFG source reported so far...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Sascha Liehr, Sven Münzenberger, Katerina Krebber
Distributed vibration sensing in optical fibers opened entirely new opportunities and penetrated various sectors from security to seismic monitoring. Here, we demonstrate a most simple and robust approach for dynamic strain measurement using wavelength-scanning coherent optical time domain reflectometry (C-OTDR). Our method is based on laser current modulation and Rayleigh backscatter shift correlation. As opposed to common single-wavelength phase demodulation techniques, also the algebraic sign of the strain change is retrieved...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Sanjeeb Dey, Suneel Singh, Desai Narayana Rao
We propose a scheme for high precision position sensing based on coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in a five-layered structure comprising three layers of metal-dielectric composites and two spacer (air) layers. Both the outermost interfaces of the five layered medium are irradiated by two identical coherent light waves at the same angle of incidence. We first investigate the occurrence of CPA in a symmetric layered structure as a function of different system parameters for oblique incidence. Thereafter, by shifting the middle layer, beginning from one end of the structure to the other, we observe the periodic occurrence of extremely narrow CPA resonances at several positions of the middle layer...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Alfred Margulies
One can only be disillusioned if once one lived within illusions-and so disillusionment is always after the fact ( après coup or nachträglich), as illusions come into view even as they are crumbling within. With a crisis of disillusionment-or existential disillusionment-one falls away from a coherence of meaning, revealing a system of intertwined fundamental illusions that had always been lived within and implicit, part of one's being-in-the-world, and that now seem broken, strange, and uncanny. This way of being that one recognizes only retrospectively may be called "illusionment," a state of being apprehended in the very process of its falling apart...
April 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
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