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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318650/the-distribution-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-human-meniscus-and-a-meniscal-injury-model
#1
Zhichao Lu, Takayuki Furumatsu, Masataka Fujii, Ami Maehara, Toshifumi Ozaki
BACKGROUND: The meniscus plays an important role in controlling the complex biomechanics of the knee. Meniscus injury is common in the knee joint. The perimeniscal capillary plexus supplies the outer meniscus, whereas the inner meniscus is composed of avascular tissue. Angiogenesis factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have important roles in promoting vascularization of various tissues. VEGF-mediated neovascularization is beneficial to the healing of injured tissues...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316059/prevention-of-tumour-cell-apoptosis-associated-with-sustained-protein-kinase-b-phosphorylation-is-more-sensitive-to-regulation-by-insulin-signalling-than-stimulation-of-proliferation-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase
#2
Christoph Schmid, Claudia Ghirlanda, Markus Niessen
Insulin controls blood glucose while insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 is an important growth factor. Interestingly, both hormones have overlapping bioactivities and can activate the same intracellular signal transduction cascades. Growth control (mainly by IGF1) and metabolic function (predominantly by insulin) are believed to depend on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), respectively. Therefore, insulin analogues that are used to normalize blood glucose are tested for their ability to preferentially activate Akt/PKB but not ERK1/2 and mitogenesis...
March 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315487/xpln-is-modulated-by-hdac-inhibitors-and-negatively-regulates-sparc-expression-by-targeting-mtorc2-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#3
Koichiro Kamio, Arata Azuma, Jiro Usuki, Kuniko Matsuda, Minoru Inomata, Nobuhiko Nishijima, Shioto Itakura, Hiroki Hayashi, Takeru Kashiwada, Nariaki Kokuho, Kenichiro Atsumi, Tomoyoshi Yamaguchi, Kazue Fujita, Yoshinobu Saito, Shinji Abe, Kaoru Kubota, Akihiko Gemma
Pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unclear. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that participates in the assembly and turnover of the extracellular matrix, whose expression is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Exchange factor found in platelets, leukemic, and neuronal tissues (XPLN) is an endogenous inhibitor of mTORC2. However, whether XPLN modulates SPARC expression remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315323/increased-serotonin-signaling-contributes-to-the-warburg-effect-in-pancreatic-tumor-cells-under-metabolic-stress-and-promotes-growth-of-pancreatic-tumors-in-mice
#4
Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Li, Fang-Yuan Dong, Jian-Yu Yang, De-Jun Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Ya-Hui Wang, Min-Wei Yang, Xue-Liang Fu, Xiao-Xin Zhang, Qing Li, Xiu-Feng Pang, Yan-Miao Huo, Jiao Li, Jun-Feng Zhang, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Wen-Xin Qin, Jian-Ren Gu, Yong-Wei Sun, Zhi-Gang Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The desmoplasia and poor vascularity cause severe metabolic stress in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions that contributes to tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of 5-HT signaling in the growth of pancreatic tumors. METHODS: We measured the levels of proteins that regulate 5-HT synthesis, packaging, and degradation in pancreata from Kras(G12D/+); Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx1-Cre; (KPC) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, as well as in PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 human PDAC samples...
March 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315314/nicotine-promotes-cholangiocarcinoma-growth-in-xenograft-mice
#5
Allyson K Martínez, Kendal Jensen, Chad Hall, April O'Brien, Laurent Ehrlich, Tori White, Fanyin Meng, Tianhao Zhou, John Greene, Francesca Bernuzzi, Pietro Invernizzi, David E Dostal, Terry Lairmore, Gianfranco Alpini, Shannon Glaser
Nicotine, the main addictive substance in tobacco, is known to play a role in the development and/or progression of a number of malignant tumors. However, nicotine's involvement in the pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma is controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of nicotine on the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro and the progression of cholangiocarcinoma in a mouse xenograft model. The predominant subunit responsible for nicotine-mediated proliferation in normal and cancer cells, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), was more highly expressed in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared with normal human cholangiocytes...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315060/results-of-a-phase-ib-trial-of-combination-immunotherapy-with-a-cd8-%C3%A2-t-cell-eliciting-vaccine-and-trastuzumab-in-breast-cancer-patients
#6
G Travis Clifton, Jennifer K Litton, Karen Arrington, Sathibalan Ponniah, Nuhad K Ibrahim, Victor Gall, Gheath Alatrash, George E Peoples, Elizabeth A Mittendorf
BACKGROUND: CD8+ T cell-eliciting vaccines are being investigated in breast cancer patients. Preclinical data showed that trastuzumab increases the susceptibility of tumor cells to lysis by vaccine-generated CD8+ T cells, suggesting potential benefit of a combination immunotherapy strategy. The current trial was undertaken to demonstrate the safety of this approach. METHODS: This study was designed as a dose-escalation trial enrolling clinically disease-free, human leukocyte antigen A2+ or A3+ , human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314957/lipoteichoic-acids-from-staphylococcus-aureus-stimulate-proliferation-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#7
Katja Hattar, Christian P Reinert, Ulf Sibelius, Mira Y Gökyildirim, Florentine S B Subtil, Jochen Wilhelm, Bastian Eul, Gabriele Dahlem, Friedrich Grimminger, Werner Seeger, Ulrich Grandel
Pulmonary infections are frequent complications in lung cancer and may worsen its outcome and survival. Inflammatory mediators are suspected to promote tumor growth in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hence, bacterial pathogens may affect lung cancer growth by activation of inflammatory signalling. Against this background, we investigated the effect of purified lipoteichoic acids (LTA) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on cellular proliferation and liberation of interleukin (IL)-8 in the NSCLC cell lines A549 and H226...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314864/systematic-model-of-peripheral-inflammation-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#8
Jude P J Savarraj, Kaushik Parsha, Georgene W Hergenroeder, Liang Zhu, Suhas S Bajgur, Sungho Ahn, Kiwon Lee, Tiffany Chang, Dong H Kim, Yin Liu, H Alex Choi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate inflammatory processes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) with network models. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of serum samples from 45 participants with aSAH analyzed at multiple predetermined time points: <24 hours, 24 to 48 hours, 3 to 5 days, and 6 to 8 days after aSAH. Concentrations of cytokines were measured with a 41-plex human immunoassay kit, and the Pearson correlation coefficients between all possible cytokine pairs were computed...
March 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303407/evodiamine-attenuates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-fibroblast-activation-and-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#9
Qing-Qing Wu, Yang Xiao, Xiao-Han Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Zheng Yang, Wei Chang, Zhou-Yan Bian, Qi-Zhu Tang
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of evodiamine on fibroblast activation in cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were stimulated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) to induce fibroblast activation. After co-cultured with evodiamine (5, 10 μM), the proliferation and pro-fibrotic proteins expression of cardiac fibroblasts were evaluated. HUVECs were also stimulated with TGF-β1 to induce EndMT and treated with evodiamine (5, 10 μM) at the same time...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303237/the-effect-of-biomechanical-stimulation-on-osteoblast-differentiation-of-human-jaw-periosteum-derived-stem-cells
#10
Ju-Min Lee, Min-Gu Kim, June-Ho Byun, Gyoo-Cheon Kim, Jung-Hoon Ro, Dae-Seok Hwang, Byul-Bora Choi, Geun-Chul Park, Uk-Kyu Kim
BACKGROUND: This study was to investigate the effect of biomechanical stimulation on osteoblast differentiation of human periosteal-derived stem cell using the newly developed bioreactor. METHODS: Human periosteal-derived stem cells were harvested from the mandible during the extraction of an impacted third molar. Using the new bioreactor, 4% cyclic equibiaxial tension force (0.5 Hz) was applied for 2 and 8 h on the stem cells and cultured for 3, 7, and 14 days on the osteogenic medium...
December 2017: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302824/drugging-ras-know-the-enemy
#11
REVIEW
Bjoern Papke, Channing J Der
The three RAS oncogenes make up the most frequently mutated gene family in human cancer. The well-validated role of mutationally activated RAS genes in driving cancer development and growth has stimulated comprehensive efforts to develop therapeutic strategies to block mutant RAS function for cancer treatment. Disappointingly, despite more than three decades of research effort, clinically effective anti-RAS therapies have remained elusive, prompting a perception that RAS may be undruggable. However, with a greater appreciation of the complexities of RAS that thwarted past efforts, and armed with new technologies and directions, the field is experiencing renewed excitement that mutant RAS may finally be conquered...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302721/involvement-of-notch1-signaling-in-malignant-progression-of-a549-cells-subjected-to-prolonged-cadmium-exposure
#12
Kota Fujiki, Hisako Inamura, Takamitsu Miyayama, Masato Matsuoka
Cadmium exposure is known to increase lung cancer risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms in cadmium-stimulated progression of malignancy are unclear. Here, we examined the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure on the malignant progression of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and the roles of Notch1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-α), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R)/Akt/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) signaling pathways. Exposing A549 cells to 10 or 20 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 9-15 weeks induced a high proliferative potential, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stress fiber formation, high cell motility, and resistance to anti-tumor drugs...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300842/cd95-ligand-induces-senescence-in-mismatch-repair-deficient-human-colon-cancer-via-chronic-caspase-mediated-induction-of-dna-damage
#13
Danielle A Raats, Nicola Frenkel, Susanne J van Schelven, Inne HMBorel Rinkes, Jamila Laoukili, Onno Kranenburg
CD95 is best known for its ability to induce apoptosis via a well-characterized pathway involving caspase-mediated proteolytic events. However, in apoptosis-resistant cell lines of diverse cancer types stimulation of CD95 primarily has pro-tumorigenic effects that affect many of the hallmarks of cancer. For instance, in colon cancer cells with a mutant KRAS gene CD95 primarily promotes invasion and metastasis. In the current study, we further investigated the context dependency of the consequences of CD95 activation in colon cancer...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300638/astaxanthin-attenuated-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-myocardial-fibrosis-partially-by-activating-sirt1
#14
Jun Zhang, Quan-Zhen Wang, Shao-Hua Zhao, Xiang Ji, Jie Qiu, Jian Wang, Yi Zhou, Qian Cai, Jie Zhang, Hai-Qing Gao
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Astaxanthin (AST), a member of the carotenoid family, is a well-known antioxidant, but its effect on and underlying mechanisms in myocardial fibrosis are poorly understood. METHODS: In vivo, myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction were induced using transverse aortic constriction (TAC). AST was administered to mice for 12weeks post-surgery. In vitro, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was used to stimulate human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs)...
March 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296468/foxp3-regulatory-t-cell-expression-of-keratinocyte-growth-factor-enhances-lung-epithelial-proliferation
#15
Catherine F Dial, Miriya K Tune, Claire M Doerschuk, Jason R Mock
Repair of the lung epithelium after injury is a critical component for resolution; however, the processes necessary to drive epithelial resolution are not clearly defined. Published data demonstrate that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) enhance alveolar epithelial proliferation after injury, and Tregs in vitro directly promote type II alveolar epithelial cell (AT2) proliferation in part by a contact-independent mechanism. Therefore, we sought to determine the contribution of Treg-specific expression of a growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor (Kgf), known to be important in lung repair...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292562/a-quantitative-analysis-of-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-muse-cells-in-human-adipose-tissue-and-efficacy-of-melanocytes-induction
#16
Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Saaya Koike, Setsuya Aiba
We have shown previously that multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in neonatal fibroblasts can differentiate into functional melanocytes. In this study, we quantitate Muse cells in adipose-mesenchymal stem cells (adipose-MSCs) of human subcutaneous tissue obtained from 11 subjects of various ages, and measured efficacy of melanocytes induction from Adipose-MSC-derived Muse cells (hASC-Muse cells). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the age of donors and the numbers of adipose-MSCs recovered per g fat as well as the percentage of SSEA3+ cells in the adipose-MSC populations, but isolated hASC-Muse cells showed pluripotency and growth curves equally regardless the age of donors...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288160/efficient-and-robust-differentiation-of-endothelial-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-via-lineage-control-with-vegf-and-cyclic-amp
#17
Takeshi Ikuno, Hidetoshi Masumoto, Kohei Yamamizu, Miki Yoshioka, Kenji Minakata, Tadashi Ikeda, Ryuzo Sakata, Jun K Yamashita
Blood vessels are essential components for many tissues and organs. Thus, efficient induction of endothelial cells (ECs) from human pluripotent stem cells is a key method for generating higher tissue structures entirely from stem cells. We previously established an EC differentiation system with mouse pluripotent stem cells to show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential to induce ECs and that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synergistically enhances VEGF effects. Here we report an efficient and robust EC differentiation method from human pluripotent stem cell lines based on a 2D monolayer, serum-free culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287533/isolation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-from-healthy-volunteers-and-their-migratory-potential-influenced-by-serum-samples-after-cardiac-surgery
#18
Christoph Emontzpohl, David Simons, Sandra Kraemer, Andreas Goetzenich, Gernot Marx, Jürgen Bernhagen, Christian Stoppe
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited from the bone marrow under pathological conditions like hypoxia and are crucially involved in the neovascularization of ischemic tissues. The origin, classification and characterization of EPCs are complex; notwithstanding, two prominent sub-types of EPCs have been established: so-called "early" EPCs (subsequently referred to as early-EPCs) and late-outgrowth EPCs (late-EPCs). They can be classified by biological properties as well as by their appearance during in vitro culture...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286736/overexpression-of-heparanase-attenuated-tgf-%C3%AE-stimulated-signaling-in-tumor-cells
#19
Tahira Batool, Jianping Fang, Uri Barash, Aristidis Moustakas, Israel Vlodavsky, Jin-Ping Li
Heparan sulfate (HS) mediates the activity of various growth factors including TGF-β. Heparanase is an endo-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves and modifies HS structure. In this study, we examined the effect of heparanase expression on TGF-β1-dependent signaling activities. We found that overexpression of heparanase in human tumor cells (i.e., Fadu pharyngeal carcinoma, MCF7 breast carcinoma) attenuated TGF-β1-stimulated Smad phosphorylation and led to a slower cell proliferation. TGF-β1-stimulated Akt and Erk phosphorylation was also affected in the heparanase overexpression cells...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285860/a-discussion-about-public-health-lead-and-legionella-pneumophila-in-drinking-water-supplies-in-the-united-states
#20
Michael B Rosen, Lok R Pokhrel, Mark H Weir
Lead (Pb) in public drinking water supplies has garnered much attention since the outset of the Flint water crisis. Pb is a known hazard in multiple environmental matrices, exposure from which results in long-term deleterious health effects in humans. This discussion paper aims to provide a succinct account of environmental Pb exposures with a focus on water Pb levels (WLLs) in the United States. It is understood that there is a strong correlation between WLLs and blood Pb levels (BLLs), and the associated health effects...
March 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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