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Applied physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#1
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544958/impact-of-triblock-copolymers-on-the-biophysical-function-of-naturally-derived-lung-surfactant
#2
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter, Christian A Ruge, Adam Bohr
The current study aimed at investigating the general applicability of triblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene glycol) (Pluronic(®)) as excipients for lung delivery. After thorough physicochemical characterization of the diverse polymers, their cytotoxicity was evaluated using alveolar epithelial cells. Next, a naturally-derived lung surfactant was challenged with the distinct triblock copolymers with respect to changes in microstructure, adsorption to the air/liquid interface and dynamic surface tension behavior under bubble pulsation...
May 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544448/using-pymol-to-explore-the-effects-of-ph-on-noncovalent-interactions-between-immunoglobulin-g-and-protein-a-a-guided-inquiry-biochemistry-activity
#3
Zahilyn D Roche Allred, Heeyoung Tai, Stacey Lowery Bretz, Richard C Page
Students' understandings of foundational concepts such as noncovalent interactions, pH and pKa are crucial for success in undergraduate biochemistry courses. We developed a guided-inquiry activity to aid students in making connections between noncovalent interactions and pH/pKa . Students explore these concepts by examining the primary and tertiary structures of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Protein A. Students use PyMOL, an open source molecular visualization application, to (1) identify hydrogen bonds and salt bridges between and within the proteins at physiological pH and (2) apply their knowledge of pH/pKa to association rate constant data for these proteins at pH 4 and pH 11...
May 24, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543640/electric-properties-tomography-biochemical-physical-and-technical-background-evaluation-and-clinical-applications
#4
REVIEW
Ulrich Katscher, Cornelius A T van den Berg
Electric properties tomography (EPT) derives the patient's electric properties, i.e. conductivity and permittivity, using standard magnetic resonance (MR) systems and standard MR sequences. Thus, EPT does not apply externally mounted electrodes, currents or radiofrequency (RF) probes, as is the case in competing techniques. EPT is quantitative MR, i.e. it yields absolute values of conductivity and permittivity. This review summarizes the physical equations underlying EPT, the corresponding basic and advanced reconstruction techniques and practical numerical aspects to realize these reconstruction techniques...
May 24, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542457/genet-specific-dna-methylation-probabilities-detected-in-a-spatial-epigenetic-analysis-of-a-clonal-plant-population
#5
Kiwako S Araki, Takuya Kubo, Hiroshi Kudoh
In sessile organisms such as plants, spatial genetic structures of populations show long-lasting patterns. These structures have been analyzed across diverse taxa to understand the processes that determine the genetic makeup of organismal populations. For many sessile organisms that mainly propagate via clonal spread, epigenetic status can vary between clonal individuals in the absence of genetic changes. However, fewer previous studies have explored the epigenetic properties in comparison to the genetic properties of natural plant populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542308/lipid-content-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-porosira-glacialis-and-attheya-longicornis-in-response-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-aeration
#6
E Y Artamonova, T Vasskog, H C Eilertsen
In the current study two novel psychrophilic diatoms Porosira glacialis and Attheya longicornis were tested for suitability to CO2 mitigation coupled with production of the physiologically requisite omega- 3 fatty acids. This study is in line with the worldwide conducted research aimed at applying biorefinery concept to heavy polluting industries. Since the production of algal high value compounds, i.e. essential fatty acids, relies on utilization of residual CO2 emissions coming from industry, the costs of such production maybe substantially reduced...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541852/the-pennsylvania-trauma-outcomes-study-risk-adjusted-mortality-model-results-of-a-statewide-benchmarking-program
#7
Douglas J Wiebe, Daniel N Holena, M Kit Delgado, Nathan McWilliams, Juliet Altenburg, Brendan G Carr
Trauma centers need objective feedback on performance to inform quality improvement efforts. The Trauma Quality Improvement Program recently published recommended methodology for case mix adjustment and benchmarking performance. We tested the feasibility of applying this methodology to develop risk-adjusted mortality models for a statewide trauma system. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients ≥16 years old at Pennsylvania trauma centers from 2011 to 2013 (n = 100,278). Our main outcome measure was observed-to-expected mortality ratios (overall and within blunt, penetrating, multisystem, isolated head, and geriatric subgroups)...
May 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541412/association-study-of-common-variants-in-pfn1-with-hypertension-in-a-han-chinese-population-a-case-control-study-and-a-follow-up-study
#8
Song Yang, Yanchun Chen, Chunlan Liu, Xianghai Zhao, Qian Zhuang, Junxiang Sun, Pengfei Wei, Hailong Zhao, Xiaotian Chen, Chong Shen
BACKGROUND: Animal researches reported that the dysfunction of profilin1 (PFN1) was involved in the physiological arterial stiffness and vascular remodeling linking to the etiology of hypertension (HT). This study mainly aims at evaluating the association of PFN1 and HT in a Han Chinese population. METHODS: A case-control study consisted of 2,012 HT cases and 2,210 controls was conducted and 2,116 participants from the healthy controls were further followed up for average 5...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539894/modulation-of-brain-activity-with-noninvasive-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-clinical-applications-and-safety-concerns
#9
REVIEW
Haichao Zhao, Lei Qiao, Dongqiong Fan, Shuyue Zhang, Ofir Turel, Yonghui Li, Jun Li, Gui Xue, Antao Chen, Qinghua He
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a widely-used tool to induce neuroplasticity and modulate cortical function by applying weak direct current over the scalp. In this review, we first introduce the underlying mechanism of action, the brief history from discovery to clinical scientific research, electrode positioning and montages, and parameter setup of tDCS. Then, we review tDCS application in clinical samples including people with drug addiction, major depression disorder, Alzheimer's disease, as well as in children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539087/artificial-intelligence-methodologies-and-their-application-to-diabetes
#10
Mercedes Rigla, Gema García-Sáez, Belén Pons, Maria Elena Hernando
In the past decade diabetes management has been transformed by the addition of continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pump data. More recently, a wide variety of functions and physiologic variables, such as heart rate, hours of sleep, number of steps walked and movement, have been available through wristbands or watches. New data, hydration, geolocation, and barometric pressure, among others, will be incorporated in the future. All these parameters, when analyzed, can be helpful for patients and doctors' decision support...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539064/recent-advances-in-applying-mass-spectrometry-and-systems-biology-to-determine-brain-dynamics
#11
Enzo Scifo, Giulio Calza, Martin Fuhrmann, Rabah Soliymani, Marc Baumann, Maciej Lalowski
Neurological disorders encompass various pathologies which disrupt normal brain physiology and function. Poor understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms and their societal burden argues for the necessity of novel prevention strategies, early diagnostic techniques and alternative treatment options to reduce the scale of their expected increase. Areas Covered: This review scrutinizes mass spectrometry based approaches used to investigate brain dynamics in various conditions, including neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders...
May 24, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538593/dynamic-response-of-the-lumbar-spine-to-whole-body-vibration-under-a-compressive-follower-preload
#12
Li-Xin Guo, Wei Fan
STUDY DESIGN: A finite element study of dynamic response of the lumbar spine to whole-body vibration. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a finite element model for exploring the impact of whole-body vibration on the entire lumbar spine with a compressive follower preload applied. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several finite element studies have investigated the biodynamic characteristics of the human lumbar spine when exposed to whole-body vibration...
May 22, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538300/the-influence-of-pitch-size-on-running-performance-and-physiological-responses-during-hurling-specific-small-sided-games
#13
Shane Malone, Kieran D Collins
Malone, S and Collins, K. The Influence of pitch size on running performance and physiological responses during hurling-specific small-sided games. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1518-1524, 2017-The current study examined how the impact of pitch dimensions influences physiological and running performance during 4-minute small-sided games (SSGs). Twenty-four (n = 24) hurling players were monitored with global positioning system and heart rate monitors during the in-season training period. Total distance (in meters), high-speed running distance (in meters) (≥17 km·h), very high-speed running distance (≥22 km·h) (in meters), total accelerations (n), acceleration distance (in meters), and peak and mean velocity (in kilometers per hour) were calculated...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537229/-genomics-and-transcriptomics-of-the-chinese-liver-fluke-clonorchis-sinensis-opisthorchiidae-trematoda
#14
G N Chelomina
The review summarizes the results of first genomic and transcriptomic investigations of the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (Opisthorchiidae, Trematoda). The studies mark the dawn of the genomic era for opisthorchiids, which cause severe hepatobiliary diseases in humans and animals. Their results aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of adaptation to parasitism, parasite survival in mammalian biliary tracts, and genome dynamics in the individual development and the development of parasite-host relationships...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536892/patient-specific-stress-analyses-in-the-ascending-thoracic-aorta-using-a-finite-element-implementation-of-the-constrained-mixture-theory
#15
S Jamaleddin Mousavi, Stéphane Avril
It is now a rather common approach to perform patient-specific stress analyses of arterial walls using finite-element models reconstructed from gated medical images. However, this requires to compute for every Gauss point the deformation gradient between the current configuration and a stress-free reference configuration. It is technically difficult to define such a reference configuration, and there is actually no guarantee that a stress-free configuration is physically attainable due to the presence of internal stresses in unloaded soft tissues...
May 23, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536890/progress-and-future-prospectives-in-skin-on-chip-development-with-emphasis-on-the-use-of-different-cell-types-and-technical-challenges
#16
Lenie J van den Broek, Lambert I J C Bergers, Christianne M A Reijnders, Susan Gibbs
Understanding the healthy and diseased state of skin is important in many areas of basic and applied research. Although the field of skin tissue engineering has advanced greatly over the last years, current in vitro skin models still do not mimic the complexity of the human skin. Skin-on-chip and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) might be key technologies to improve in vitro skin models. This review summarizes the state of the art of in vitro skin models with regard to cell sources (primary, cell line, iPSC) and microfluidic devices...
May 24, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536714/systematic-investigation-of-protein-kinase-a-substrate-proteins-using-on-chip-protein-kinase-kinetic-profiling
#17
Se-Hui Jung, Deok-Hoon Kong, Hye-Yoon Jeon, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim, Kwon-Soo Ha
Protein kinases play a critical role in a wide variety of cellular processes through post-translational protein phosphorylation and identification of their substrate proteins is important for understanding the enzymes' mechanism of action and elucidating their functions in physiological and disease processes. However, there have been few systematic investigations of protein kinase substrates due to a lack of high-throughput kinetic assays. Thus, we designed an on-chip protein kinase assay for profiling kinase kinetic parameters by introducing the phosphorylation rate (Vp) under physiological conditions, instead of the maximal velocity (Vmax), in a high-throughput manner...
May 24, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536169/inflammatory-stroke-extracellular-vesicles-induce-macrophage-activation
#18
Yvonne Couch, Naveed Akbar, Simon Davis, Roman Fischer, Alex M Dickens, Ain A Neuhaus, Annette I Burgess, Peter M Rothwell, Alastair M Buchan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are protein-lipid complexes released from cells, as well as actively exocytosed, as part of normal physiology, but also during pathological processes such as those occurring during a stroke. Our aim was to determine the inflammatory potential of stroke EVs. METHODS: EVs were quantified and analyzed in the sera of patients after an acute stroke (<24 hours; OXVASC [Oxford Vascular Study]). Isolated EV fractions were subjected to untargeted proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry/mass-spectrometry and then applied to macrophages in culture to investigate inflammatory gene expression...
May 23, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535043/identification-and-quantification-of-acylated-homoserine-lactones-in-shewanella-baltica-the-specific-spoilage-organism-of-pseudosciaena-crocea-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#19
Yanbo Wang, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Chong Wang, Linglin Fu, Yanyao Yi, Yan Zhang
Bacteria communicate with one another using chemical signal molecules called autoinducers, and the most prevalent autoinducers used by Gram-negative bacteria are N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, AHLs are hardly detected in Shewanella baltica, the specific spoilage organism of Pseudosciaena crocea. In this study, we applied ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) to determine AHLs. This method enabled the quantification of up to 11 AHLs within 5...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533386/metabolic-basis-to-sherpa-altitude-adaptation
#20
James A Horscroft, Aleksandra O Kotwica, Verena Laner, James A West, Philip J Hennis, Denny Z H Levett, David J Howard, Bernadette O Fernandez, Sarah L Burgess, Zsuzsanna Ament, Edward T Gilbert-Kawai, André Vercueil, Blaine D Landis, Kay Mitchell, Monty G Mythen, Cristina Branco, Randall S Johnson, Martin Feelisch, Hugh E Montgomery, Julian L Griffin, Michael P W Grocott, Erich Gnaiger, Daniel S Martin, Andrew J Murray
The Himalayan Sherpas, a human population of Tibetan descent, are highly adapted to life in the hypobaric hypoxia of high altitude. Mechanisms involving enhanced tissue oxygen delivery in comparison to Lowlander populations have been postulated to play a role in such adaptation. Whether differences in tissue oxygen utilization (i.e., metabolic adaptation) underpin this adaptation is not known, however. We sought to address this issue, applying parallel molecular, biochemical, physiological, and genetic approaches to the study of Sherpas and native Lowlanders, studied before and during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia on a gradual ascent to Mount Everest Base Camp (5,300 m)...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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