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Applied physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050441/the-physiological-response-of-broiler-chickens-to-the-dietary-supplementation-of-the-bacteriocin-nisin-and-ionophore-coccidiostats
#1
B Kieronczyk, M Sassek, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, P Kolodziejski, M Rawski, S Swiatkiewicz, D Józefiak
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nisin alone or in combination with salinomycin or monensin on broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, selected blood parameters, digestive enzyme activity, apparent nutrient digestibility, and tibiotarsus mineralization, as well as selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organ weights, intestinal length, and central immune organ weights. Two independent experiments, each including 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks differing in ionophore coccidiostats, i...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050177/-application-of-three-dimensional-visualization-in-pancreatic-tumor-a-pilot-study
#2
S Z Wang, X B Wang, M Li, R X Shen, H Rong, J S Li
Objective: To study the value of three-dimensional(3D) visualization in the diagnosis and surgical treatment for pancreatic tumor. Methods: From June to September 2016, 26 patients with pancreatic tumors in Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University were involved. The study included 26 patients(8 females and 18 males) with mean age of (57±12)years (ranging from 23 to 77 years). And there were 20 malignant tumors and 6 benign tumors. All of them were examined with abdominal thin slice CT scanning and the CT images were imported into 3D visualization system for 3D visualization...
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048372/%C3%AE-synuclein-regulates-neuronal-cholesterol-efflux
#3
Jen-Hsiang T Hsiao, Glenda M Halliday, Woojin Scott Kim
α-Synuclein is a neuronal protein that is at the center of focus in understanding the etiology of a group of neurodegenerative diseases called α-synucleinopathies, which includes Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite much research, the exact physiological function of α-synuclein is still unclear. α-Synuclein has similar biophysical properties as apolipoproteins and other lipid-binding proteins and has a high affinity for cholesterol. These properties suggest a possible role for α-synuclein as a lipid acceptor mediating cholesterol efflux (the process of removing cholesterol out of cells)...
October 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047599/temperature-sensing-using-cdse-quantum-dot-doped-poly-methyl-methacrylate-microfiber
#4
Ninik Irawati, Sulaiman W Harun, Husna A Rahman, Su Sin Chong, Nur Aliya Hamizi, Harith Ahmad
This work describes noncontact temperature measurements using wavelength shifts of CdSe quantum dot (QD) doped poly(methyl methacrylate) microfiber. The sensor is fabricated using a drawing method by bridging two tapered single mode fibers with a polymer microfiber (PMF) approximately 3 μm in diameter. A set of a PMF section with and without the doping of the CdSe-ZnS core-shell QD was applied as sensing probes and used to measure temperatures over the range of 25°C-48°C. The experimental results show that the doped PMF is able to achieve a higher performance with a reasonably good sensitivity of 58...
June 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046547/mapping-the-global-potential-for-marine-aquaculture
#5
Rebecca R Gentry, Halley E Froehlich, Dietmar Grimm, Peter Kareiva, Michael Parke, Michael Rust, Steven D Gaines, Benjamin S Halpern
Marine aquaculture presents an opportunity for increasing seafood production in the face of growing demand for marine protein and limited scope for expanding wild fishery harvests. However, the global capacity for increased aquaculture production from the ocean and the relative productivity potential across countries are unknown. Here, we map the biological production potential for marine aquaculture across the globe using an innovative approach that draws from physiology, allometry and growth theory. Even after applying substantial constraints based on existing ocean uses and limitations, we find vast areas in nearly every coastal country that are suitable for aquaculture...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046531/diversity-in-stomatal-function-is-integral-to-modelling-plant-carbon-and-water-fluxes
#6
Kevin J Wolz, Timothy M Wertin, Mark Abordo, Dan Wang, Andrew D B Leakey
Stomatal pores on leaf surfaces respond to environmental and physiological signals to regulate leaf gas exchange. Mathematical models can predict stomatal conductance (g s), with one parameter (m or g l) reflecting the sensitivity of g s to the photosynthetic rate (A), atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and atmospheric humidity, and a second parameter (g 0) representing the minimum g s. Such models are solved iteratively with a photosynthesis model to form the core of many models of crop or ecosystem carbon and water fluxes...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045787/mechanistic-origin-of-the-combined-effect-of-surfaces-and-mechanical-agitation-on-amyloid-formation
#7
Fulvio Grigolato, Claudio Colombo, Raffaele Ferrari, Lenka Rezabkova, Paolo Arosio
Interactions between proteins and surfaces in combination with hydrodynamic flow and mechanical agitation can often trigger the conversion of soluble peptides and proteins into aggregates, including amyloid fibrils. Despite the extensive literature on the empirical effects of surfaces and mechanical forces on the formation of amyloids, the molecular details of the mechanisms underlying this behavior are still elusive. This limitation is, in part, due to the complex reaction network underlying the formation of amyloids, where several microscopic reactions of nucleation and growth can occur both at the interfaces and in bulk...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045669/genetic-decoupling-of-thermal-hardiness-across-metamorphosis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Philip J Freda, Jackson T Alex, Theodore J Morgan, Gregory J Ragland
As organisms age the environment fluctuates, exerting differential selection across ontogeny. In particular, highly seasonal environments expose life stages to often drastically different thermal environments. This developmental variation is particularly striking in organisms with complex life cycles, wherein life history stages also exhibit distinct morphologies, physiologies, and behaviors. Genes acting pleiotropically on thermal responses may produce genetic correlations across ontogeny, constraining the independent evolution of each life stage to their respective thermal environments...
October 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045612/fractional-flow-reserve-and-myocardial-perfusion-by-computed-tomography-a-guide-to-clinical-application
#9
Joanne D Schuijf, Brian S Ko, Marcelo F Di Carli, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich, Abdul-Rahman Ihdayhid, Sujith K Seneviratne, João A C Lima
The aim of this paper is to provide a guide to the clinical application of the functional computed tomography (CT) techniques fractional flow reserve (CT FFR) and myocardial perfusion (CTP) in patients presenting for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Both techniques have recently been introduced to complement coronary CT angiography (CTA) with physiological information. Evidence supporting their diagnostic accuracy accumulates at a fast pace, and both techniques are moving from research tools to clinical applications for specific subgroups of patients...
October 17, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045531/phylogenetic-and-functional-signals-in-gymnosperm-ovular-secretions
#10
Massimo Nepi, Stefan Little, Massimo Guarnieri, Daniele Nocentini, Natalie Prior, Julia Gill, P Barry Tomlinson, Stefanie M Ickert-Bond, Cary Pirone, Ettore Pacini, Patrick von Aderkas
Background and Aims: Gymnosperms are either wind-pollinated (anemophilous) or both wind- and insect-pollinated (ambophilous). Regardless of pollination mode, ovular secretions play a key role in pollen capture, germination and growth; they are likely also involved in pollinator reward. Little is known about the broad-scale diversity of ovular secretions across gymnosperms, and how these may relate to various reproductive functions. This study analyses the sugar and amino acid profiles of ovular secretions across a range of ambophilous (cycads and Gnetales) and anemophilous gymnosperms (conifers) to place them in an evolutionary context of their possible functions during reproduction...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045255/listening-to-relaxing-music-improves-physiological-responses-in-premature-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Rafael A Caparros-Gonzalez, Alejandro de la Torre-Luque, Carolina Diaz-Piedra, Francisco J Vico, Gualberto Buela-Casal
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are exposed to high levels of noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of a relaxing music therapy intervention composed by artificial intelligence on respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in the NICUs of 2 general public hospitals in Andalusia, Spain. Participants were 17 healthy premature infants, randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group (silence) at a 1:1 ratio...
October 17, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044509/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-fluid-shear-stress-altered-gene-expression-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#12
Steven J Kunnen, Tareq B Malas, Cornelis M Semeins, Astrid D Bakker, Dorien J M Peters
Renal epithelial cells are exposed to mechanical forces due to flow-induced shear stress within the nephrons. Shear stress is altered in renal diseases caused by tubular dilation, obstruction and hyperfiltration, which occur to compensate for lost nephrons. Fundamental in regulation of shear stress are primary cilia and other mechano-sensors, and defects in cilia formation and function have profound effects on development and physiology of kidneys and other organs. We applied RNA sequencing to get a comprehensive overview of fluid-shear regulated genes and pathways in renal epithelial cells...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044255/roles-of-conformational-disorder-and-downhill-folding-in-modulating-protein-dna-recognition
#13
Xiakun Chu, Victor Muñoz
Transcription factors are thought to efficiently search for their target DNA site via a combination of conventional 3D diffusion and 1D diffusion along the DNA molecule mediated by non-specific electrostatic interactions. This process requires the DNA-binding protein to quickly exchange between a search competent and a target recognition mode, but little is known as to how these two binding modes are encoded in the conformational properties of the protein. Here, we investigate this issue on the engrailed homeodomain (EngHD), a DNA-binding domain that folds ultrafast and exhibits a complex conformational behavior consistent with the downhill folding scenario...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043573/structural-and-physiological-responses-of-halodule-wrightii-to-ocean-acidification
#14
Geniane Schneider, Paulo Antunes Horta, Emiliano Nicolas Calderon, Clovis Castro, Adalto Bianchini, Camilla Reis Augusto da Silva, Isabel Brandalise, José Bonomi Barufi, João Silva, Ana Claudia Rodrigues
Coastal areas face high variability of seawater pH. Ocean acidification (OA) and local stressors are enhancing this variability, which poses a threat to marine life. However, these organisms present potential phenotypic plasticity that can offer physiological and structural tools to survive in these extreme conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of elevated CO2 levels and consequent pH reduction on the physiology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the seagrass Halodule wrightii. A mesocosm study was conducted in an open system during a 30-day experiment, where different concentrations of CO2 were simulated following the natural variability observed in coastal reef systems...
October 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042590/effects-of-short-term-heat-shock-and-physiological-responses-to-heat-stress-in-two-bradysia-adults-bradysia-odoriphaga-and-bradysia-difformis
#15
Guodong Zhu, Ming Xue, Yin Luo, Guixia Ji, Fang Liu, Haipeng Zhao, Xia Sun
Bradysia odoriphaga and Bradysia difformis are devastating pests of vegetable, ornamental crops and edible mushrooms causing significant losses. Temperature may be an important factor restricting their population abundance in the summer. To determine the effects of short-term heat shock on adults, their survival, longevity and fecundity data were collected, and antioxidant responses and heat shock protein expression levels were examined. Our results indicated that the survival rates of Bradysia adults decreased rapidly after heat shock ≥36 °C, and the longevity and reproductive capacities were significantly inhibited, indicating that short-term heat shock had lethal and sub-lethal effects...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042298/metabolism-of-the-fast-growing-bacterium-vibrio-natriegens-elucidated-by-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis
#16
Christopher P Long, Jacqueline E Gonzalez, Robert M Cipolla, Maciek R Antoniewicz
Vibrio natriegens is a fast-growing, non-pathogenic bacterium that is being considered as the next-generation workhorse for the biotechnology industry. However, little is known about the metabolism of this organism which is limiting our ability to apply rational metabolic engineering strategies. To address this critical gap in current knowledge, here we have performed a comprehensive analysis of V. natriegens metabolism. We constructed a detailed model of V. natriegens core metabolism, measured the biomass composition, and performed high-resolution (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) to estimate intracellular fluxes using parallel labeling experiments with the optimal tracers [1,2-(13)C]glucose and [1,6-(13)C]glucose...
October 14, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041985/simplified-prognostic-model-for-critically-ill-patients-in-resource-limited-settings-in-south-asia
#17
Rashan Haniffa, Mavuto Mukaka, Sithum Bandara Munasinghe, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu De Silva, Kosala Saroj Amarasiri Jayasinghe, Abi Beane, Nicolette de Keizer, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Current critical care prognostic models are predominantly developed in high-income countries (HICs) and may not be feasible in intensive care units (ICUs) in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing prognostic models cannot be applied without validation in LMICs as the different disease profiles, resource availability, and heterogeneity of the population may limit the transferability of such scores. A major shortcoming in using such models in LMICs is the unavailability of required measurements...
October 17, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041008/increase-of-substance-p-concentration-in-saliva-after-pharyngeal-electrical-stimulation-in-severely-dysphagic-stroke-patients-an-indicator-of-decannulation-success
#18
Paul Muhle, Sonja Suntrup-Krueger, Stefan Bittner, Tobias Ruck, Inga Claus, Thomas Marian, Jens B Schröder, Jens Minnerup, Tobias Warnecke, Sven G Meuth, Rainer Dziewas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide, likely acting as a neurotransmitter in the pharyngeal mucosa enhancing the swallow and cough reflex. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation (PES) induces a temporary increase of salivary SP levels in healthy adults. Previous evidence suggests that post-stroke dysphagia is related to reduced SP levels. Here, we investigated the effects of PES on SP levels in severely dysphagic stroke patients and a possible link between increase of SP and treatment success...
October 17, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040623/socio-economic-trajectories-and-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-older-people-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#19
Silvia Stringhini, Paola Zaninotto, Meena Kumari, Mika Kivimäki, Camille Lassale, G David Batty
Background: Socio-economic status from early life has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk, but the impact of life-course socio-economic trajectories, as well as the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cardiovascular disease risk, is uncertain. Objectives: We assessed the role of behavioural, psychosocial and physiological (including inflammatory) factors in the association between life-course socio-economic status and cardiovascular disease mortality in older adults...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040430/transcriptomic-landscape-of-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Hagar Taman, Christopher G Fenton, Inga V Hensel, Endre Anderssen, Jon Florholmen, Ruth H Paulssen
Background and Aims: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that effects the gastrointestinal tract and is considered one of the most prominent and common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to define and describe the entire transcriptomic landscape in a well-stratified, treatment-naïve UC patient population compared to control patients by using next-generation technology, RNA-Seq. Methods: Mucosal biopsies from treatment-naïve UC patients (n=14), and healthy controls (n=16) underwent RNA-Seq...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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