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Applied physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223508/on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-two-inhaled-budesonide-formoterol-combinations-in-asthma-patients-using-modeling-approaches
#1
K Soulele, P Macheras, V Karalis
Dry powder inhalers containing the budesonide/formoterol combination have currently a well-established position among other inhaled products. Even though their efficacy mainly depends on the local concentrations of the drug they deliver within the lungs, their safety profile is directly related to their total systemic exposure. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the absorption and disposition kinetics of the budesonide/formoterol combination delivered via two different dry powder inhalers in asthma patients...
December 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222132/invasive-assessment-of-the-coronary-microvasculature-the-index-of-microcirculatory-resistance
#2
REVIEW
William F Fearon, Yuhei Kobayashi
Traditionally, invasive coronary physiological assessment has focused on the epicardial coronary artery. More recently, appreciation of the importance of the coronary microvasculature in determining patient outcomes has grown. Several invasive modalities for interrogating microvascular function have been proposed. Angiographic techniques have been limited by their qualitative and subjective nature. Doppler wire-derived coronary flow reserve has been applied in research studies, but its clinical role has been limited by its lack of reproducibility, its lack of a clear normal value, and the fact that it is not specific for the microvasculature but interrogates the entire coronary circulation...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222066/large-scale-randomized-clinical-trials-of-bioactives-and-nutrients-in-relation-to-human-health-and-disease-prevention-lessons-from-the-vital-and-cosmos-trials
#3
REVIEW
Susanne Rautiainen, Howard D Sesso, Joann E Manson
Several bioactive compounds and nutrients in foods have physiological properties that are beneficial for human health. While nutrients typically have clear definitions with established levels of recommended intakes, bioactive compounds often lack such a definition. Although a food-based approach is often the optimal approach to ensure adequate intake of bioactives and nutrients, these components are also often produced as dietary supplements. However, many of these supplements are not sufficiently studied and have an unclear role in chronic disease prevention...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221472/odontoblast-like-differentiation-and-mineral-formation-of-pulpsphere-derived-cells-on-human-root-canal-dentin-in-vitro
#4
Jörg Neunzehn, Sandra Pötschke, Christian Hannig, Hans-Peter Wiesmann, Marie-Theres Weber
BACKGROUND: The revitalization or regeneration of the dental pulp is a preferable goal in current endodontic research. In this study, human dental pulp cell (DPC) spheres were applied to human root canal samples to evaluate their potential adoption for physiological tissue-like regeneration of the dental root canal by odontoblastic differentiation as well as cell-induced mineral formation. METHODS: DPC were cultivated into three-dimensional cell spheres and seeded on human root canal specimens...
December 8, 2017: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220425/a-leaflet-plication-clip-is-an-effective-surgical-template-for-mitral-valve-foldoplasty
#5
Isaac Wamala, Mossab Saeed, Sunil J Ghelani, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Peter E Hammer, Nikolay V Vasilyev, Pedro J Del Nido
OBJECTIVES: During mitral valve repair using the foldoplasty technique, correct judgement of the necessary dimensions and orientation of the leaflet fold is a critical but challenging step that can affect the chances of successful repair. In this study, we investigated whether a leaflet plication clip can be used to guide suture foldoplasty for posterior leaflet prolapse of the mitral valve. METHODS: Complete posterior leaflet prolapse was created in both in vivo and ex vivo pig hearts by severing the chordae supporting the middle scallop...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220116/advances-in-microfluidics-applied-to-single-cell-operation
#6
REVIEW
Xudong Zhu, Ju Chu, Yonghong Wang
The field of microbiology has traditionally been concerned with and focused on studies at the population level. Microfluidic platforms have emerged as important tools for biology research at a small scale, even down to a single cell level. The spatial and temporal control of cells and stimuli transported by microfluidic channels in well-designed microsystems realized the studies of specific cells in a controlled microenvironment. The true cellular physiology responses, which were obtained mostly by inference from population-level data, could be revealed in this way...
December 8, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220088/multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-applied-through-seed-priming-influence-early-germination-root-hair-growth-and-yield-of-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#7
Anjali Joshi, Simranjeet Kaur, Keya Dharamvir, Harsh Nayyar, Gaurav Verma
BACKGROUND: Reports of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) incorporated into plants have indicated better yield and productivity, yet the phenomena needs in-depth understanding especially when agricultural crops are tested. We primed wheat seeds with MWCNT to understand the effects on germination, growth, anatomy, physiology and yield. RESULT: This study, carried out in field conditions is a step forward over the previous reports. Early germination, excessive root hair, denser stomata & larger root length result in faster growth and higher yield of wheat plants...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219102/canadian-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years-an-integration-of-physical-activity-sedentary-behaviour-and-sleep
#8
Mark S Tremblay, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Kristi B Adamo, Salomé Aubert, Joel D Barnes, Louise Choquette, Mary Duggan, Guy Faulkner, Gary S Goldfield, Casey E Gray, Reut Gruber, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Xanne Janssen, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Nicholas Kuzik, Claire LeBlanc, Joanna MacLean, Anthony D Okely, Veronica J Poitras, Mary-Ellen Rayner, John J Reilly, Margaret Sampson, John C Spence, Brian W Timmons, Valerie Carson
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, research experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children of the early years embrace the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218741/a-test-of-the-substitution-habitat-hypothesis-in-amphibians
#9
Alejandro Martínez-Abraín, Pedro Galán
Most examples that support the substitution-habitat hypothesis (human-made habitats act as substitutes of original habitat) deal with birds and mammals. We tested this hypothesis in 14 amphibians by using percentage occupancy as a proxy of habitat quality (i.e., higher occupancy percentages indicate higher quality). We classified water body types as original habitat (no or little human influence) depending on anatomical, behavioral, or physiological adaptations of each amphibian species. Ten species had relatively high probabilities (0...
December 8, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217439/in-patients-with-severe-peripheral-arterial-disease-revascularization-induced-improvement-in-lower-extremity-ischemia-can-be-detected-by-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-of-the-fluctuation-in-blood-perfusion-after-local-heating
#10
Sotaro Katsui, Yoshinori Inoue, Yohei Yamamoto, Kimihiro Igari, Toshifumi Kudo, Hiroyuki Uetake
BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of the perfusion value fluctuation slope for detecting severe ischemia in the lower limb. Our approach was based on a thermal load test mimicking the well-known physiological reaction termed "cold-induced vasodilation," which is known to occur as a three-phase phenomenon. The slope parameter quantifies the decrease in perfusion values accompanying the relative cooling (third phase) following the transient increase in blood flow (second phase) induced by the applied thermal load...
December 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216777/the-long-and-winding-road-stem-cells-for-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Massimo Conese, Elisa Beccia, Stefano Castellani, Sante Di Gioia, Carla Colombo, Antonella Angiolillo, Annalucia Carbone
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic syndrome with a high mortality rate due to severe lung disease. Despite having several drugs targeting specific mutated CFTR proteins already in clinical trials, new therapies, based on stem cells, are also emerging to treat those patients. Areas covered: The authors review the main sources of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), gestational stem cells, and adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the context of CF...
December 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216582/cellular-and-mitochondrial-determination-of-low-molecular-mass-organic-acids-by-lc-ms-ms
#12
Jessica Fiori, Elisa Amadesi, Flaminia Fanelli, Concetta Valentina Tropeano, Michela Rugolo, Roberto Gotti
A selective and sensitive method for the determination of low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) in cell and mitochondrial extracts is presented. The analytical method consists in the separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography and detection with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of the LMMOAs like malic, succinic, formic and citric acids. These acids are among the cellular intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), thus their quantitation can provide essential information about the catabolic and anabolic processes occurring in cells under physiological and pathological conditions...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216494/mutagenesis-of-the-fae1-genes-significantly-changes-fatty-acid-composition-in-seeds-of-camelina-sativa
#13
Mehmet E Ozseyhan, Jinling Kang, Xiaopeng Mu, Chaofu Lu
Camelina sativa is a re-emerging low-input oilseed crop that has great potentials. It is necessary to ameliorate camelina oils for optimized fatty acid composition that can meet different application requirements. Camelina seed contains significant amounts of C20-C24 very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that may not be desirable. We demonstrated that these VLCFAs can be effectively reduced by deactivating the Fatty Acid Elongase1 (FAE1) in camelina. The allohexaploid camelina contains three alleles of FAE1 genes...
December 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215602/proteomic-contributions-to-medicinal-plant-research-from-plant-metabolism-to-pharmacological-action
#14
REVIEW
Akiko Hashiguchi, Jingkui Tian, Setsuko Komatsu
Herbal medicine is a clinical practice of utilizing medicinal plant derivatives for therapeutic purposes. It has an enduring history worldwide and plays a significant role in the fight against various diseases. Herbal drug combinations often exhibit synergistic therapeutic action compared with single-constituent dosage, and can also enhance the cytotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. To explore the mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of herbs, proteomic approaches have been applied to the physiology of medicinal plants and its effects on animals...
December 7, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215443/scaffold-free-bone-regeneration-using-platelet-rich-fibrin-in-calvarial-defect-model
#15
Yeo Reum Jeon, Mi Jung Kim, Yong Oock Kim, Tai Suk Roh, Won Jai Lee, Eun Hye Kang, In Sik Yun
Bone regeneration is a complex process influenced by various physiological factors. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains many growth factors and has shown osteogenic effects. The PRP is usually activated before use. However, the authors showed that nonactivated PRP (nPRP) and activated PRP have comparable osteogenic effects in the previous study. Generally, a scaffold has been needed for the application of PRP in the cranial defect model. In this study, the authors aimed to compare the performance of scaffold free platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) to nPRP as an adjuvant for bone regeneration...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215365/physiologic-evaluation-of-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-and-respiratory-mechanics-at-different-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-patients-undergoing-protective-one-lung-ventilation
#16
Savino Spadaro, Salvatore Grasso, Dan Stieper Karbing, Alberto Fogagnolo, Marco Contoli, Giacomo Bollini, Riccardo Ragazzi, Gilda Cinnella, Marco Verri, Narciso Giorgio Cavallesco, Stephen Edward Rees, Carlo Alberto Volta
BACKGROUND: Arterial oxygenation is often impaired during one-lung ventilation, due to both pulmonary shunt and atelectasis. The use of low tidal volume (VT) (5 ml/kg predicted body weight) in the context of a lung-protective approach exacerbates atelectasis. This study sought to determine the combined physiologic effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and low VT during one-lung ventilation. METHODS: Data from 41 patients studied during general anesthesia for thoracic surgery were collected and analyzed...
December 6, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215281/metabolic-effect-of-dietary-taurine-supplementation-on-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-nilotictus-evaluated-by-nmr-based-metabolomics
#17
Guiping Shen, Ying Huang, Jiyang Dong, Xuexi Wang, Kian-Kai Cheng, Jianghua Feng, Jingjing Xu, Jidan Ye
Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214985/non-invasive-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-via-focused-ultrasound-i-in-vivo-i
#18
Matthew Eric Downs, Stephen A Lee, Georgiana Yang, Seaok Kim, Qi Wang, Elisa E Konofagou
Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been employed on a wide range of clinical applications to safely and non-invasively achieve desired effects that have previously required invasive and lengthy procedures with conventional methods. Conventional electrical neuromodulation therapies that are applied to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are invasive and/or non-specific. Recently, focused ultrasound has demonstrated the ability to modulate the central nervous system and ex vivo peripheral neurons. Here, for the first time, noninvasive stimulation of the sciatic nerve eliciting a physiological response in vivo is demonstrated with FUS...
December 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214534/development-of-a-sandwich-elisa-with-potential-for-selective-quantification-of-human-lactoferrin-protein-nitrated-through-disease-or-environmental-exposure
#19
Amani Y Alhalwani, John E Repine, Michelle K Knowles, J Alex Huffman
Lactoferrin (LF) is an important multifunctional protein that comprises a large fraction of the protein mass in certain human fluids and tissues, and its concentration is often used to assess health and disease. LF can be nitrated by multiple routes, leading to changes in protein structure, and nitrated proteins can negatively impact physiological health via nitrosative stress. Despite an awareness of the detrimental effects of nitrated proteins and the importance of LF within the body, cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying nitrated lactoferrin (NLF) are lacking...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214530/microfluidic-systems-for-studying-dynamic-function-of-adipocytes-and-adipose-tissue
#20
REVIEW
Xiangpeng Li, Christopher J Easley
Recent breakthroughs in organ-on-a-chip and related technologies have highlighted the extraordinary potential for microfluidics to not only make lasting impacts in the understanding of biological systems but also to create new and important in vitro culture platforms. Adipose tissue (fat), in particular, is one that should be amenable to microfluidic mimics of its microenvironment. While the tissue was traditionally considered important only for energy storage, it is now understood to be an integral part of the endocrine system that secretes hormones and responds to various stimuli...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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