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Katherine Moyer, Huanyu Wang, Douglas Salamon, Amy Leber, Asuncion Mejias
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) caused severe respiratory illness in 2014. The disease spectrum of EV-D68 infections in children with underlying medical conditions other than asthma, the role of EV-D68 loads on clinical illness, and the variation of EV-D68 strains within the same institution over time have not been described. We sought to define the association between EV-D68 loads and sequence variation, and the clinical characteristic in hospitalized children at our institution from 2011 to 2014...
2016: PloS One
Mira C Patel, Wei Wang, Lioubov M Pletneva, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Yi Tan, Tina V Hartert, Marina S Boukhvalova, Stefanie N Vogel, Suman R Das, Jorge C G Blanco
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in detection of Enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) among patients with severe respiratory infections worldwide. EV-D68 is now recognized as a re-emerging pathogen; however, due to lack of a permissive animal model for EV-D68, a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and immune response against EV-D68 has been hampered. Recently, it was shown that EV-D68 has a strong affinity for α2,6-linked sialic acids (SAs) and we have shown previously that α2,6-linked SAs are abundantly present in the respiratory tract of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus)...
2016: PloS One
Adrienne G Randolph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Tie Gang Zhang, Hong Quan Li, Ai Hua Li, Meng Chen, Cheng Gong, Ming Luo, Mei Dong, Fang Huang
A retrospective surveillance study on enterovirus D68 was performed in Beijing, China, following the largest and most widespread EV-D68 infection, which occurred in the USA. From January 2011 to July 2015, EV-D68 was identified in 12 individuals with respiratory infections in Beijing, China. The phylogenetic relationships based on the genomic sequence alignment showed that there were two lineages circulating in Beijing from 2011 to 2015. Eight EV-D68 strains belonged to group 1 and four belonged to group 3...
September 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Laura Bubba, Marianna Martinelli, Laura Pellegrinelli, Valeria Primache, Elisabetta Tanzi, Elena Pariani, Sandro Binda
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) infections are widespread and can lead to a broad range of symptoms, from the common cold to severe disease. Due to the lack of Italian data, this 4-year retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the frequency, seasonality and molecular characteristics of EV and HPeV circulating in children younger than 5 years. METHODS: 812 samples were collected from children ≤5 years (56.5% males; median age: 20...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
David Isaacs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Lauren T Shapiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Gregory P Conners, Stacy J Doyle, Milton A Fowler, Lisa L Schroeder, Thomas W Tryon
OBJECTIVE: To describe the association of an unprecedented large-scale Enterovirus-D68 outbreak in 2014 with changes in patient volume and acuity and system stress in 2 pediatric emergency departments and 2 pediatric urgent care centers of a single children's hospital. METHODS: We compared measures of patient volume, acuity, and system stress during the 2014 Enterovirus-D68 outbreak and the corresponding dates of the previous year. RESULTS: Both settings experienced large census increases during the Enterovirus-D68 outbreak; patient census increased significantly more in the pediatric urgent care setting (20...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Susanna Esposito, Maria Roberta Longo
The term Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the most frequent cause of acute paralytic neuropathy, covers a number of recognisably distinct variants. The exact cause of GBS is unknown, but 50-70% of cases appear 1-2weeks after a respiratory or gastrointestinal infection, or another immune stimulus that induces an aberrant autoimmune response targeting peripheral nerves and their spinal roots. The interplay between the microbial and host factors that dictate whether and how the immune response shifts towards autoreactivity is still unclear, and nothing is known about the genetic and environmental factors that affect an individual's susceptibility to the disease...
September 23, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Marjolein Knoester, Elisabeth H Schölvinck, Randy Poelman, Sylvia Smit, Clementien L Vermont, Hubert G M Niesters, Coretta C Van Leer-Buter
In June and July 2016, we identified 8 adults and 17 children with respiratory enterovirus D68 infections. Thirteen children required intensive care unit admission because of respiratory insufficiency, and 1 had concomitant acute flaccid myelitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of 20 sequences obtained belong to the recently described clade B3.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Long Chen, Lei Shi, Hong Yang, Da-Yong Gu, Jun Meng, Yun-Qing Xu, Xiang-Jie Yao, Hai-Long Zhang, Jin-Quan Cheng, Han-Wu Ma, Ren-Li Zhang, Ya-Qing He
Four enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) strains from four children with influenza-like illness were identified in Shenzhen, southern China, in late 2015. Here, we announce the availability of these viral genomes in GenBank. The genomic sequences of these EV-D68 strains showed the closest phylogenetic relationship to strains from northern China.
2016: Genome Announcements
Georgina Martin, Rachel Li, Victoria E Cook, Matthew Carwana, Peter Tilley, Laura Sauve, Patrick Tang, Akshat Kapur, Connie L Yang
Background. In the fall of 2014, a North American outbreak of enterovirus D68 resulted in a significant number of pediatric hospital admissions for respiratory illness throughout North America. This study characterized the clinical presentation and risk factors for a severe clinical course in children admitted to British Columbia Children's Hospital during the 2014 outbreak. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients with confirmed EV-D68 infection admitted to BCCH with respiratory symptoms in the fall of 2014...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Suchitra Rao, Kevin Messacar, Michelle R Torok, Anne-Marie Rick, Jeffrey Holzberg, Aaron Montano, Dayanand Bagdure, Donna J Curtis, M Steven Oberste, W Allan Nix, Gina de Masellis, Christine C Robinson, Samuel R Dominguez
OBJECTIVE: In 2014, the Unites States experienced an outbreak of enterovirus D68 associated with severe respiratory illness. The clinical characteristics associated with severe illness from enterovirus D68 during this outbreak compared with those associated with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus outbreak are unknown. DESIGN AND SETTING: In this retrospective cohort study, we characterized the clinical features of children with enterovirus D68 admitted to the PICU between August 1, 2014, and November 1, 2014, and compared them with critically ill children infected with H1N1 influenza during the pandemic admitted between May 1, 2009, and January 31, 2010...
November 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Yu-Nong Gong, Shu-Li Yang, Shin-Ru Shih, Yhu-Chering Huang, Pi-Yueh Chang, Chung-Guei Huang, Kuo-Chin Kao, Han-Chung Hu, Yi-Chun Liu, Kuo-Chien Tsao
Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was first reported in the United States in 1962; thereafter, a few cases were reported from 1970 to 2005, but 2 outbreaks occurred in the Philippines (2008) and the United States (2014). However, little is known regarding the molecular evolution of this globally reemerging virus due to a lack of whole-genome sequences and analyses. Here, all publically available sequences including 147 full and 1248 partial genomes from GenBank were collected and compared at the clade and subclade level; 11 whole genomes isolated in Taiwan (TW) in 2014 were also added to the database...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zichun Xiang, Jianwei Wang
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of the species Enterovirus D in the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. EV-D68 was first isolated in the United States in 1962 and is primarily an agent of respiratory disease. Infections with EV-D68 have been rarely reported until recently, when reports of EV-D68 associated with respiratory disease increased notably worldwide. An outbreak in 2014 in the United States, for example, involved more than 1,000 cases of severe respiratory disease that occurred across almost all states...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Negar Aliabadi, Kevin Messacar, Daniel M Pastula, Christine C Robinson, Eyal Leshem, James J Sejvar, W Allan Nix, M Steven Oberste, Daniel R Feikin, Samuel R Dominguez
During August 8, 2014-October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case-control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection)...
August 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kevin Messacar, Teri L Schreiner, Keith Van Haren, Michele Yang, Carol A Glaser, Kenneth L Tyler, Samuel R Dominguez
This review highlights clinical features of the increasing cases of acute flaccid paralysis associated with anterior myelitis noted in the United States from 2012 to 2015. Acute flaccid myelitis refers to acute flaccid limb weakness with spinal cord gray matter lesions on imaging or evidence of spinal cord motor neuron injury on electrodiagnostic testing. Although some individuals demonstrated improvement in motor weakness and functional deficits, most have residual weakness a year or more after onset. Epidemiological evidence and biological plausibility support an association between enterovirus D68 and the recent increase in acute flaccid myelitis cases in the United States...
September 2016: Annals of Neurology
Christopher W Holmes, Sharon S F Koo, Husam Osman, Steven Wilson, Jacqueline Xerry, Chris I Gallimore, David J Allen, Julian W Tang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Enteroviruses are the most common cause of aseptic or lymphocytic meningitis, particularly in children. With reports of unusually severe neurological disease in some patients infected with enterovirus D68 in North America, and a recent increase in the number of paediatric enterovirus meningitis cases presenting in this UK Midlands population, a retrospective regional surveillance study was performed. STUDY DESIGN: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples received were tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV-1/2, VZV, enteroviruses and parechoviruses...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Uladzimir U Karniychuk
Understanding the codon usage pattern of a pathogen and relationship between pathogen and host's codon usage patterns has fundamental and applied interests. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen with a potentially high public health significance. In the present study, the synonymous codon usage bias of 27 recently emerged, and historical EV-D68 strains was analyzed. In contrast to previously studied enteroviruses (enterovirus 71 and poliovirus), EV-D68 and human host have a high discrepancy between favored codons...
September 2, 2016: Virus Research
Kevin Messacar, Mark J Abzug, Samuel R Dominguez
Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) is a unique enterovirus, similar to human rhinoviruses, spread via the respiratory route and primarily causing respiratory disease. Increasing clusters of EV-D68 associated respiratory disease have been reported since 2008, with the largest reported outbreak occurring in North America in 2014. Epidemiologic data and biological plausibility support an association of EV-D68 with the neurologic condition, acute flaccid myelitis. Diagnosis requires EV-D68 specific PCR or viral sequencing of respiratory specimens...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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