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Seema Sharma, Vipin Sharma, Milap Sharma, Bhanu Awasthi, Sanjeev Chaudhary
CONTEXT: One of the most important factors of medical education that can revolutionize the learning process in postgraduate students (PGs) is assessment for learning by means of formative assessment (FA). FA is directed at steering and fostering learning of the students by providing feedback to the learner. However, though theoretically well suited to postgraduate training, evidence are emerging that engaging stakeholders in FA in daily clinical practice is quite complex. AIMS: To explore perceptions of PGs and teachers (Ts) about factors that determines active engagement in FA...
August 2015: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
K Anders Ericsson
As a part of a special collection in this issue of Academic Medicine, which is focused on mastery learning in medical education, this Perspective describes how the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice is consistent with many characteristics of mastery learning. Importantly, this Perspective also explains how the expert-performance approach provides a very different perspective on the acquisition of skill. Whereas traditional education with mastery learning focuses on having students attain an adequate level of performance that is based on goals set by the existing curricula, the expert-performance approach takes an empirical approach and first identifies the final goal of training-namely, reproducibly superior objective performance (superior patient outcomes) for individuals in particular medical specialties...
November 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Nienke Bleijenberg, Hennie R Boeije, Astrid T Onderwater, Marieke J Schuurmans
The aim of the current study was to explore frail older adults' perceptions and experiences with a proactive, integrated nurse-led primary care program. A qualitative study nested within a randomized trial in primary care was conducted. In total, 11 semistructured interviews were conducted in a subsample of participants who received nurse-led care in the intervention group. Generally, proactive, nurse-led care was well-received and four different nursing roles were observed: (a) monitor, (b) director, (c) coach, and (d) visitor...
September 1, 2015: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Chunhua Shen, Guosheng Lin, Anton van den Hengel
Boosting is a method for learning a single accurate predictor by linearly combining a set of less accurate weak learners. Recently, structured learning has found many applications in computer vision. Inspired by structured support vector machines (SSVM), here we propose a new boosting algorithm for structured output prediction, which we refer to as StructBoost. StructBoost supports nonlinear structured learning by combining a set of weak structured learners. As SSVM generalizes SVM, our StructBoost generalizes standard boosting approaches such as AdaBoost, or LPBoost to structured learning...
October 2014: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Lyne St-Martin, Anastasia Harripaul, Rosetta Antonacci, Devon Laframboise, Margaret Purden
BACKGROUND: New graduate nurses (NGNs) are a precious resource, but their development from advanced beginners to competent nurses is challenging. METHOD: This qualitative descriptive study explored NGNs' perceptions of strategies that influenced their development in the first 2 years of employment. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 13 nurses. RESULTS: The study revealed that NGNs learn to master aspects of the nursing role as they construct a professional identity...
September 2015: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Patorn Piromchai, Alex Avery, Malinee Laopaiboon, Gregor Kennedy, Stephen O'Leary
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality simulation uses computer-generated imagery to present a simulated training environment for learners. This review seeks to examine whether there is evidence to support the introduction of virtual reality surgical simulation into ear, nose and throat surgical training programmes. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess whether surgeons undertaking virtual reality simulation-based training achieve surgical ('patient') outcomes that are at least as good as, or better than, those achieved through conventional training methods...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Beverly A Wright, Melissa M Baese-Berk, Nicole Marrone, Ann R Bradlow
Language acquisition typically involves periods when the learner speaks and listens to the new language, and others when the learner is exposed to the language without consciously speaking or listening to it. Adaptation to variants of a native language occurs under similar conditions. Here, speech learning by adults was assessed following a training regimen that mimicked this common situation of language immersion without continuous active language processing. Experiment 1 focused on the acquisition of a novel phonetic category along the voice-onset-time continuum, while Experiment 2 focused on adaptation to foreign-accented speech...
August 2015: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Joshua M Liao, John P Co, Allen Kachalia
Amid calls for graduate medical education (GME) to better prepare a workforce that can address growing challenges in health care quality and cost, institutions must find ways to more effectively educate and engage housestaff in quality improvement (QI) initiatives. Although the benefits for trainees and institutions alike can be significant, creating and maintaining successful strategies has proven challenging. Multiple barriers (e.g., variable backgrounds and needs of trainees) have clouded the educational and clinical effectiveness of many efforts...
September 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Zareen Zaidi, Daniëlle Verstegen, Rahat Naqvi, Page Morahan, Tim Dornan
Cross-cultural education is thought to develop critical consciousness of how unequal distributions of power and privilege affect people's health. Learners in different sociopolitical settings can join together in developing critical consciousness-awareness of power and privilege dynamics in society-by means of communication technology. The aim of this research was to define strengths and limitations of existing cross-cultural discussions in generating critical consciousness. The setting was the FAIMER international fellowship program for mid-career interdisciplinary health faculty, whose goal is to foster global advancement of health professions education...
May 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Maurits Graafland, Olle Ten Cate, Jan-Pieter van Seventer, Jan Maarten C Schraagen, Marlies P Schijven
OBJECTIVE: Serious games are potentially powerful tools for residency training and increasingly attract attention from medical educators. At present, serious games have little evidence-based relations with competency-based medical education, which may impede their incorporation into residency training programs. The aim of this study was to identify highly valued entrustable professional activities (EPAs) to support designers in the development of new, serious games built on a valid needs-assessment...
October 2015: Games for Health
Lalena M Yarris, David Jones, Joshua G Kornegay, Matthew Hansen
BACKGROUND: In July 2013, emergency medicine residency programs implemented the Milestone assessment as part of the Next Accreditation System. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that applying the Milestone framework to real-time feedback in the emergency department (ED) could affect current feedback processes and culture. We describe the development and implementation of a Milestone-based, learner-centered intervention designed to prompt real-time feedback in the ED. METHODS: We developed and implemented the Milestones Passport, a feedback intervention incorporating subcompetencies, in our residency program in July 2013...
September 2014: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
David Pearson, Robert Cooney, Michael C Bond
Social media (SM) is a form of electronic communication through which users create online communities and interactive platforms to exchange information, ideas, messages, podcasts, videos, and other user-generated content. Emergency medicine (EM) has embraced the healthcare applications of SM at a rapid pace and continues to explore the potential benefit for education. Free Open Access Meducation has emerged from the ever-expanding collection of SM interactions and now represents a virtual platform for sharing educational media...
July 2015: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marten Haesner, Anika Steinert, Julie Lorraine O'Sullivan, Markus Weichenberger
Decline of cognitive function is a part of aging. However, intensive cognitive training can improve important cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory. Because existing systems are not older adult-friendly and are usually not based on scientific evidence, an online platform was developed for cognitive training with information and communication features and evaluated in an 8-week field test. In a randomized clinical trial with 80 older adults, findings from log data analysis and questionnaires revealed a good use of the online platform...
August 2015: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Corinne Hart
Notions of competency development frequently underlie discussions of interprofessional education and practice. Yet, by focusing primarily on the development of competencies, the discourse remains at a surface level, thus obscuring the root of many of the tensions that commonly occur in interprofessional collaborative teamwork. This qualitative study explored how perceptions of status influenced participation on an interprofessional team. Findings indicate that underlying tensions exist, despite an overarching commitment in both interprofessional practice and client-centered care...
August 2015: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Thierry Pelaccia, Jacques Tardif, Emmanuel Triby, Christine Ammirati, Catherine Bertrand, Bernard Charlin, Valérie Dory
Clinical reasoning is a core competency in medical practice. No study has explored clinical reasoning occurring before a clinical encounter, when physicians obtain preliminary information about the patient, and during the first seconds of the observation phase. This paper aims to understand what happens in emergency physicians' minds when they acquire initial information about a patient, and when they first meet a patient. The authors carried out in-depth interviews based on the video recordings of emergency situations filmed in an "own-point-of-view-perspective"...
October 2015: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Nathan M Shumway, Jennifer J Dacus, Kate I Lathrop, Elizabeth P Hernandez, Maria Miller, Anand B Karnad
BACKGROUND: The Next Accreditation System (NAS) increases the focus on educational outcomes and meaningful evaluation of learners. This requires that key clinical faculty develop new assessment formats such as entrustable professional activities (EPAs). OBJECTIVES: To build and develop milestone-based assessment tools supporting 5 EPAs for a hematology/oncology fellow continuity clinic, and to educate key clinical faculty regarding the Clinical Competency Committee (CCC) and the NAS...
March 2015: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Henry A Ogoe, Shyam Visweswaran, Xinghua Lu, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Most 'transcriptomic' data from microarrays are generated from small sample sizes compared to the large number of measured biomarkers, making it very difficult to build accurate and generalizable disease state classification models. Integrating information from different, but related, 'transcriptomic' data may help build better classification models. However, most proposed methods for integrative analysis of 'transcriptomic' data cannot incorporate domain knowledge, which can improve model performance...
2015: BMC Bioinformatics
S Beth Bierer, Elaine F Dannefer, John E Tetzlaff
BACKGROUND: Remediation in the era of competency-based assessment demands a model that empowers students to improve performance. AIM: To examine a remediation model where students, rather than faculty, develop remedial plans to improve performance. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Private medical school, 177 medical students. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: A promotion committee uses student-generated portfolios and faculty referrals to identify struggling students, and has them develop formal remediation plans with personal reflections, improvement strategies, and performance evidence...
September 2015: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Esther K Choo, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, David Juurlink, Scott Kobner, Kevin Scott, Michelle Lin
In June 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine collaborated with the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) blog-based Web site to host an online discussion session featuring the Annals Residents' Perspective article "The Opioid Prescription Epidemic and the Role of Emergency Medicine" by Poon and Greenwood-Ericksen. This dialogue included a live videocast with the authors and other experts, a detailed discussion on the ALiEM Web site's comment section, and real-time conversations on Twitter. Engagement was tracked through various Web analytic tools, and themes were identified by content curation...
January 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Ewa Dąbrowska
Universal Grammar (UG) is a suspect concept. There is little agreement on what exactly is in it; and the empirical evidence for it is very weak. This paper critically examines a variety of arguments that have been put forward as evidence for UG, focussing on the three most powerful ones: universality (all human languages share a number of properties), convergence (all language learners converge on the same grammar in spite of the fact that they are exposed to different input), and poverty of the stimulus (children know things about language which they could not have learned from the input available to them)...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
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