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Rashad R Karimov, John F Hartwig
Direct functionalization of natural products is important for studying structure-activity and structure-property relationships of these molecules. Recent advances in transition-metal-catalyzed functionalizations of C(sp3)-H bonds, the most abundant yet inert bonds in natural products, have been shown to create natural product derivatives selectively. Strategies to achieve such transformation are reviewed.
December 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Erika C Pierattini, Alessandra Francini, Andrea Raffaelli, Luca Sebastiani
Surfactants are widely used detergent ingredients and, thanks to their chemical properties, they are applied for remediation of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic contaminants, both in soil flushing and in phytoremediation. However, their direct effects on tree physiology especially in consociation with heavy metal pollution, as well as their possible absorption by plants, have not been appropriately investigated. In order to evaluate plant uptake/translocation of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the heavy metal zinc (Zn) in Populus alba L...
December 7, 2017: Tree Physiology
Jaroslav Nunvar, Vaclav Capek, Karel Fiser, Libor Fila, Pavel Drevinek
Burkholderia cenocepacia causes severe pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Since the bacterium is virtually untreatable by antibiotics, chronic infections persist for years and might develop into fatal septic pneumonia (cepacia syndrome, CS). To devise new strategies to combat chronic B. cenocepacia infections, it is essential to obtain comprehensive knowledge about their pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative genomic analysis of 32 Czech isolates of epidemic clone B. cenocepacia ST32 isolated from various stages of chronic infection in 8 CF patients...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Yinlong Xiao, Martina G Vijver, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
A full-factorial test design was applied to systematically investigate the contribution and significance of water chemistry parameters (pH, divalent cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration) and their interactions on the behavior and fate of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). The total amount of Cu remaining in the water column after 48 h of incubation was mostly influenced by divalent cation content, DOC concentration and the interaction of divalent cations and DOC. DOC concentration was the predominant factor influencing the dissolution of CuNPs, which was far more important than the effect of pH in the range from 6 to 9 on the dissolution of the CuNPs...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Juan Li, Xing Xing, Jiao Li, Mei Shi, Aijun Lin, Congbin Xu, Jianzhong Zheng, Ronghua Li
Sewage sludge produced from wastewater treatment is a pressing environmental issue. Mismanagement of the massive amount of sewage sludge would threat our valuble surface and shallow ground water resources. Use of activated carbon prepared from carbonization of these sludges for heavy metal removal can not only minimize and stabilize these hazardous materials but also realize resources reuse. In this study, thiol-functionalized activated carbon was synthesized from coal-blended sewage sludge, and its capacity was examined for removing Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from water...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yuanan Hu, Wenfeng Zhang, Gang Chen, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Because most chickens are reared in intensive farms, where a range of feed additives are used routinely, concerns have been raised on the potential public health risk of chicken product consumption. This study was conducted to characterize the contents of trace metals in fresh chicken tissues (354 samples) on the food markets in Guangdong province of southern China, a major region of chicken production with heavy per capita chicken consumption, and to assess the public health risk from chronic dietary exposure to the trace metals through chicken consumption...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Klaudia Kosek, Katarzyna Kozak, Krystyna Kozioł, Katarzyna Jankowska, Stanisław Chmiel, Żaneta Polkowska
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been a topic of interest in environmental sciences for >60years. POPs in the Arctic have been investigated since the 1970s, when first atmospheric measurements revealed the presence of these pollutants in the polar regions. Major contaminant transport routes to the Arctic include atmospheric and oceanic transport, as well as inflow from rivers and sea ice. The sources of pollutants, such as industry, power generators, vehicle and ship exhausts, introduce the PAHs, phenols, formaldehyde or metals into the Arctic...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Neha Mehta, Giovanna Antonella Dino, Franco Ajmone-Marsan, Manuela Lasagna, Chiara Romè, Domenico Antonio De Luca
Abandoned mine sites continue to present serious environmental hazards because the heavy metals associated with extractive waste are continuously released into the environment, where they threaten human life and the environment. Remediating and securing extractive waste are complex, lengthy and costly processes. Thus, in most European countries, a site is considered for intervention when it poses a risk to human health and the surrounding environment. As a consequence, risk analysis presents a viable decisional approach towards the management of extractive waste...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
H P Lu, Z A Li, G Gascó, A Méndez, Y Shen, J Paz-Ferreiro
Modified biochars, including magnetic biochars, have been tested in water for the removal of inorganic pollutants. However, at present it is unknown if they possess benefits over conventional biochar materials in relation to land remediation. A paddy soil was collected near Liantang village in Lechang Pb-Zn mine area in Guangdong Province (China). The soil was polluted with Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, with total contents of 1.4mg/kg, 80mg/kg, 1638mg/kg and 2463mg/kg, respectively. We prepared magnetic and conventional biochar from two feedstocks (poultry litter and Eucalyptus) at a temperature of 300 and 500°C...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xiangchao Meng, Hanna Qin, Zisheng Zhang
A bismuth-based compound, Bi2WO6, was successfully synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. Aiming to improve its photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, Pd/PdCl2 was first doped onto the surface of Bi2WO6 via a photo-reduction method. The prepared Pd/PdCl2-Bi2WO6 samples were characterized based on crystal structures, chemical states, atomic compositions, and morphologies as well as photoabsorption properties. In the screening tests for photocatalytic activity, the 4% Pd-Bi2WO6 sample performed with the highest removal efficiency with respect to the degradation of phenol in wastewater...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hai Guo, Cheng-Gang Niu, Xiao-Ju Wen, Lei Zhang, Chao Liang, Xue-Gang Zhang, Dan-Lin Guan, Ning Tang, Guang-Ming Zeng
In this work, the novel ternary AgBr/Ag/PbBiO2Br Z-scheme photocatalysts were synthesized via a CTAB-assisted calcination process. The AgBr/Ag/PbBiO2Br composites were employed for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and antibiotic bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation. Results showed that the obtained AgBr/Ag-3/PbBiO2Br displayed optimal photocatalytic performance, which could remove almost all RhB within 25 min and effectively decompose 82.3% of BPA in 120 min. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra (3D EEMs) were utilized for the purposes of fully grasping the behaviors of RhB molecules during the reaction process...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Magdalena Rowińska-Żyrek
Efficient nickel transport is crucial for the survival and virulence of various bacteria and fungi, with Ni2+ being required for the activity of nine enzymes such as [NiFe] hydrogenase, which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen for energy production. This work focuses on a region of transmembrane domain I from the HupE nickel transporter, highly conserved in the HupE/UreJ and NiCoT permease families, analyzing its interactions with native Ni2+ and two other metal ions (Cu2+ and Zn2+), which might interfere with nickel binding...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Zhu Li, Longhua Wu, Yongming Luo, Peter Christie
Phytoextraction is one of the most promising technologies for the decontamination of metal-polluted agricultural soils. Effects of repeated phytoextraction by the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola on metal (Cd, Zn, copper (Cu) and lead (Pb)) mobility were investigated in three contaminated soils with contrasting properties. EDTA kinetic extraction and the two first-order reactions model showed advantages in the assessment of soil metal mobility and clearly discriminated changes in metal fractions induced by phytoextraction...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Shuji Matsushita, Daisuke Komizo, Linh Thi Thuy Cao, Yoshiteru Aoi, Tomonori Kindaichi, Noriatsu Ozaki, Hiroyuki Imachi, Akiyoshi Ohashi
Biogenic manganese oxide (BioMnOx) can efficiently adsorb various minor metals. The production of BioMnOx in reactors to remove metals during wastewater treatment processes is a promising biotechnological method. However, it is difficult to preferentially enrich manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) to produce BioMnOx during wastewater treatment processes. A unique method of cultivating MnOB using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) to produce soluble microbial products is proposed here. MnOB were successfully enriched in a methane-fed reactor containing MOB...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Dawei Liu, Rong Qiang, Yunchen Du, Ying Wang, Chunhua Tian, Xijiang Han
A series of magnetic FeCo alloy/carbon composites have been successfully prepared through in situ pyrolysis of Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) with different Fe/Co ratios. The Fe/Co ratio can affect the crystalline phase, particle size, and magnetic property of the FeCo alloy particles, as well as the relative graphitization degree of the carbon frameworks. As a result, the electromagnetic functions of these composites will be highly associated with the Fe/Co ratio, where high Co content is beneficial to the formation of strong dielectric loss and moderate Co content can facilitate the magnetic loss...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Belal Elnady, Mohammad M El-Sharkawi, Mohamed El-Meshtawy, Faisal F Adam, Galal Zaki Said
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this prospective case series study is to document safety and effectiveness of high density pedicle screws through posterior only approach with intraoperative wake-up test in correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). METHODS: Between 2011 and 2015, all surgically treated patients for AIS were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using scoliosis research society-22 (SRS) questionnaire. All patients were classified according to Lenke classification...
2017: SICOT-J
James Paul Hitchcock, Alison Louise Tasker, Kirsty Stark, Andrew Leeson, Elaine Baxter, Simon R Biggs, Olivier Jean Cayre
Efficient encapsulation of small chemical molecules and their controlled targeted delivery provides a very important challenge to be overcome for a wide range of industrial applications. Typically rapid diffusion of these actives across capsule walls has so far prevented the development of a versatile widely applicable solution. In an earlier publication, we have shown that thin metal shells are able to permanently retain small molecules. The critical step in the microcapsule synthesis is the formation of a strongly adsorbed, dense monolayer of catalytic nanoparticles on the surface as this affects the secondary metal film quality...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Carmen C Mayorga-Martínez, Zdenek Sofer, Jan Luxa, Stepan Huber, David Sedmidubsky, Petr Brázda, Lukas Palatinus, Martin Mikulics, Petr Lazar, Rostislav Medlín, Martin Pumera
The layered materials like transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit broad spectra of outstanding properties with huge application potential, while another group of related materials, layered transition metal trichalcogenides remains unexplored. Here we show a broad application potential of this interesting structural type of layered tantalum trisulfide prepared in a form of nanofibers. This material shows tailorable attractive electronic properties dependent on the tensile strain applied to it. Structure of this so-called orthorhombic phase of TaS3 grown in a form of long nanofibers has been solved and refined...
December 11, 2017: ACS Nano
Sanghoon Park, Baekjun Kim, Sihoon Choi, Peter G Boyd, Berend Smit, Jihan Kim
We have developed a simple text mining algorithm that allows us to identify surface area and pore volumes of metal-organic frameworks using manuscript html files as inputs. The algorithm searches for common units (e.g. m2/g, cm3/g) associated with these two quantities to facilitate the search. From the training set data of over 200 MOFs, the algorithm managed to identify 90% and 88.8% of the correct surface area and pore volume values. Further application to test set of randomly chosen MOF html files yielded 73...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Aimin Ge, Benjamin Rudshteyn, Jingyi Zhu, Reinhard J Maurer, Victor S Batista, Tianquan Lian
A combination of time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory techniques have been applied to study the vibrational energy relaxation dynamics of the Re(4,4'-dicyano-2,2'-bipyridine)(CO)3Cl (Re(CO)3Cl) catalyst for CO2 to CO conversion bound to gold surfaces. The kinetics of vibrational relaxation exhibits a biexponential decay including an ultrafast initial relaxation and complete recovery of the ground vibrational state. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and time-dependent perturbation theory reveal the former to be due to vibrational population exchange between CO stretching modes and the latter to be a combination of intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) and electron-hole pair (EHP) induced energy transfer into the gold substrate...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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