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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666980/epidemiology-of-uveitis-in-a-us-population-based-study
#1
Marta Mora González, Marissé Masís Solano, Travis C Porco, Catherine E Oldenburg, Nisha R Acharya, Shan C Lin, Matilda F Chan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between self-reported uveitis and purported demographic and clinical risk factors, using an American adult population extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2009 and 2010. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study using a sample of 5106 subjects between 20 and 69 years old. The main outcome for our study was the self-report of a diagnosis of uveitis. The demographic analysis included age, gender, and ethnicity...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663063/-treatment-with-pd-1-pd-l1-and-ctla-4-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-immune-mediated-side-effects
#2
REVIEW
M-O Grimm, H Oppel-Heuchel, S Foller
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new standard therapy for advanced or metastatic urothelial as well as renal cell carcinoma. Atezolizumab and Pembrolizumab have been approved for the treatment of cisplatin-ineligible patients with transitional call cancer in the 1st line setting; both antibodies and Nivolumab may also be used after platinum based prior therapy. Regarding renal cell carcinoma approval for 1st line treatment with the combination of Nivolumab and Ipilimumab for patients at intermediate or high risk (IMDC) is currently expected...
April 16, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608910/pre-clinical-and-translational-pharmacology-of-a-human-interleukin-22-igg-fusion-protein-for-potential-treatment-of-infectious-or-inflammatory-diseases
#3
Eric G Stefanich, Julie Rae, Siddharth Sukumaran, Jeff Lutman, Annemarie Lekkerkerker, Wenjun Ouyang, Xiaoting Wang, Donna Lee, Dimitry M Danilenko, Lauri Diehl, Kelly M Loyet, Ann Herman
Interleukin (IL)-22 plays protective roles in infections and in inflammatory diseases that have been linked to its meditation of innate immunity via multiple mechanisms. IL-22 binds specifically to its heterodimeric receptor, which is expressed on a variety of epithelial tissues. UTTR1147A is a recombinant fusion protein that links the human cytokine IL-22 with the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin (Ig) G4. Here, we report extensive in vitro and in vivo nonclinical studies that were conducted to characterize the pharmacological activity of UTTR1147A...
March 30, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606934/vedolizumab-treatment-for-ulcerative-colitis-in-an-elderly-multimorbid-patient-with-hemophilia-a
#4
Holger Schäffler, Astrid Huth, Georg Lamprecht, Olaf Anders
The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) can be challenging, especially in elderly multimorbid patients. Since incidence and prevalence rates of IBD are rising steadily, treatment of older patients with relevant and also rare comorbidities will be of increasing relevancy for caregivers. Here we report on a 74-year-old multimorbid patient with severe ulcerative colitis (UC) and hemophilia A. Because of the chronic active disease, therapy with a tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor was started. He suffered from a severe infectious complication (pneumonia) under therapy with infliximab...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573336/the-impact-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-lower-gastrointestinal-tract-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Christina Parvinder Kaur, Jamuna Vadivelu, Samudi Chandramathi
The 2016 Global Burden of Disease report by WHO revealed that diseases of the gastrointestinal tract had one of the highest incidence rates worldwide. The plethora of factors that contribute to the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) related illnesses can be divided into genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Apart from that, the role that infectious agents play in the development of GIT diseases has piqued the interest of researchers worldwide. The human gut harbours approximately 101 to 1012 cfu/ml bacteria in it with increasing concentration towards the lower GIT...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569483/pathological-assessment-of-gastrointestinal-biopsies-from-patients-with-idelalisib-associated-diarrhea-and-colitis
#6
Cecilia Cs Yeung, David M Hockenbery, Maria Westerhoff, Steven E Coutre, Ruth H Sedlak, Ronald L Dubowy, Veerendra Munugalavadla, Kerry Taylor, Francesc Bosch
AIM: Idelalisib (IDELA) treatment is associated with diarrhea/colitis (incidence of ∼15% grade ≥3). We performed a retrospective analysis of gastrointestinal biopsies from 29 patients treated with IDELA across 9 clinical trials. METHODS: A central core laboratory performed histopathologic review, immunohistochemistry, and droplet digital PCR viral studies. These results were correlated with tissue immune profiling data and morphologic features per modified Geboes score...
March 23, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569035/-radiological-imaging-of-acute-infectious-and-non-infectious-enterocolitis
#7
REVIEW
J Wessling
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is often used as the initial diagnostic test in patients with inflammatory and infectious types of enterocolitis. The differential diagnosis is broad, including infectious, non-infectious and vascular causes, which have substantially different management strategies. Although a definitive diagnosis often relies on endoscopic biopsy results, stool culture results or other clinical features, radiologists often help to guide the diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the CT appearance of different infectious and inflammatory forms of enterocolitis...
March 22, 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566254/new-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-microbiota-epigenetics-and-common-signalling-pathways
#8
Gerhard Rogler, Biedermann Luc, Michael Scharl
The exact pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unknown. However, over the years important insights allowed the development of novel therapeutic approaches that are at the threshold of introduction into clinical practice, or at least in clinical trials. After being first described by Burrill B. Crohn, Crohn's disease, one of the two major forms of IBD, was perceived as an infectious disease. When the concept of autoimmune diseases was formulated, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were thought to be members of this disease group...
March 22, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562276/enhanced-contribution-of-hla-in-pediatric-onset-ulcerative-colitis
#9
Suresh Venkateswaran, Jarod Prince, David J Cutler, Urko M Marigorta, David T Okou, Sampath Prahalad, David Mack, Brendan Boyle, Thomas Walters, Anne Griffiths, Cary G Sauer, Neal LeLeiko, David Keljo, James Markowitz, Susan S Baker, Joel Rosh, Marian Pfefferkorn, Melvin B Heyman, Ashish Patel, Anthony Otley, Robert Baldassano, Joshua Noe, Paul Rufo, Maria Oliva-Hemker, Sonia Davis, Michael E Zwick, Greg Gibson, Lee A Denson, Jeffrey Hyams, Subra Kugathasan
Background: The genetic contributions to pediatric onset ulcerative colitis (UC), characterized by severe disease and extensive colonic involvement, are largely unknown. In adult onset UC, Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) has identified numerous loci, most of which have a modest susceptibility risk (OR 0.84-1.14), with the exception of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region on Chromosome 6 (OR 3.59). Method: To study the genetic contribution to exclusive pediatric onset UC, a GWAS was performed on 466 cases with 2099 healthy controls using UK Biobank array...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545196/high-muc2-mucin-expression-and-misfolding-induce-cellular-stress-reactive-oxygen-production-and-apoptosis-in-goblet-cells
#10
Adelaide Tawiah, Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Hayley Gorman, Manish Kumar, Sameer Tiwari, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is a large glycoprotein produced by goblet cells that forms the protective mucus blanket overlying the intestinal epithelium as the first line of innate host defense. High MUC2 production in inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis depletes goblet cells and the mucus layer by an unknown mechanism. Here, we analyzed the effect of high MUC2 biosynthesis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in goblet cells using a high MUC2-producing human goblet cell line (HT29-H) and a HT29-H clone (HT29-L) silenced for MUC2 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529083/pleiotropic-roles-of-clostridium-difficile-sin-locus
#11
Brintha Parasumanna Girinathan, Junjun Ou, Bruno Dupuy, Revathi Govind
Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522431/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-is-optimal-tigecycline-pk-pd-parameters-predict-clinical-effectiveness
#12
Jeffrey Baron, Shuntao Cai, Natalie Klein, Burke A Cunha
OBJECTIVE: The clinical effectiveness of tigecycline depends on appropriate use, and PK/PD (pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic) parameters related to dose and dosing interval. METHODS: In our 600-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital, we conducted a tigecycline efficacy review over a three-month period in 34 evaluable patients. Parameters assessed included clinical response, cure or treatment failure, once daily as q12h dosing, maintenance dosing, high dose vs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522170/malignancy-and-mortality-in-pediatric-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-systematic-review
#13
Martine A Aardoom, Maria E Linda Joosse, Andrica C H de Vries, Arie Levine, Lissy de Ridder
Background: Cancer and death are the most severe outcomes that affect patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These outcomes are even more severe if they occur at a young age but are rare, even in the general population. We conducted a systematic review to provide an overview of all reported pediatric (PIBD) patients with severe outcome. Methods: A literature search identified publications that reported development of cancer or fatal outcome in PIBD patients...
March 7, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487233/phosphotyrosine-mediated-regulation-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-virulence
#14
Colin D Robertson, Tracy H Hazen, James B Kaper, David A Rasko, Anne-Marie Hansen
Enteric pathogens with low infectious doses rely on the ability to orchestrate the expression of virulence and metabolism-associated genes in response to environmental cues for successful infection. Accordingly, the human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) employs a complex multifaceted regulatory network to link the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS) components to nutrient availability. While phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues on two-component system response regulators is recognized as an integral part of bacterial signaling, the involvement of phosphotyrosine-mediated control is minimally explored in Gram-negative pathogens...
February 27, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479439/treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-colitis-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Roy J Hopkins, Robert B Wilson
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacillus that was originally isolated from the stool of a healthy neonate in 1935. In high-income countries, C. difficile is the most common cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. The incidence of C. difficile infection in the USA has increased markedly since 2000, with hospitalizations for C. difficile infections in non-pregnant adults doubling between 2000 and 2010. Between 20% and 35% of patients with C. difficile infection will fail initial antibiotic treatment and, of these, 40-60% will have a second recurrence...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443839/how-common-and-how-serious-is-clostridium-difficile-colitis-after-geriatric-hip-fracture-findings-from-the-nsqip-dataset
#16
Patawut Bovonratwet, Daniel D Bohl, Glenn S Russo, Nathaniel T Ondeck, Denis Nam, Craig J Della Valle, Jonathan N Grauer
BACKGROUND: Patients with geriatric hip fractures may be at increased risk for postoperative Clostridium difficile colitis, which can cause severe morbidity and can influence hospital quality metrics. However, to our knowledge, no large database study has calculated the incidence of, factors associated with, and effect of C. difficile colitis on geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To use a large national database with in-hospital and postdischarge data (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program [NSQIP®]) to (1) determine the incidence and timing of C...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439003/impact-of-red-and-processed-meat-and-fibre-intake-on-treatment-outcomes-among-patients-with-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-prognostic-factors-and-personalised-medicine
#17
Robin Christensen, Berit L Heitmann, Karina Winther Andersen, Ole Haagen Nielsen, Signe Bek Sørensen, Mohamad Jawhara, Anette Bygum, Lone Hvid, Jakob Grauslund, Jimmi Wied, Henning Glerup, Ulrich Fredberg, Jan Alexander Villadsen, Søren Geill Kjær, Jan Fallingborg, Seyed A G R Moghadd, Torben Knudsen, Jacob Brodersen, Jesper Frøjk, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Anders Bo Bojesen, Grith Lykke Sorensen, Steffen Thiel, Nils J Færgeman, Ivan Brandslund, Tue Bjerg Bennike, Allan Stensballe, Erik Berg Schmidt, Andre Franke, David Ellinghaus, Philip Rosenstiel, Jeroen Raes, Mette Boye, Lars Werner, Charlotte Lindgaard Nielsen, Heidi Lausten Munk, Anders Bathum Nexøe, Torkell Ellingsen, Uffe Holmskov, Jens Kjeldsen, Vibeke Andersen
INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) are frequently treated with biological medications, specifically tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi)). These medications inhibit the pro-inflammatory molecule TNF alpha, which has been strongly implicated in the aetiology of these diseases. Up to one-third of patients do not, however, respond to biologics, and lifestyle factors are assumed to affect treatment outcomes. Little is known about the effects of dietary lifestyle as a prognostic factor that may enable personalised medicine...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422811/duodenal-amyloidosis-secondary-to-ulcerative-colitis
#18
Seung Woon Park, Sam Ryong Jee, Ji Hyun Kim, Sang Heon Lee, Jin Won Hwang, Ji Geon Jang, Dong Woo Lee, Sang Yong Seol
Amyloidosis is defined as the extracellular deposition of non-branching fibrils composed of a variety of serum-protein precursors. Secondary amyloidosis is associated with several chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatologic or intestinal diseases, familial Mediterranean fever, or chronic infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. Although the association of amyloidosis with inflammatory bowel disease is known, amyloidosis secondary to ulcerative colitis (UC) is rare. A 36-year-old male patient with a 15-year history of UC presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420567/outcome-and-clinical-course-of-ehec-o104-infection-in-hospitalized-patients-a-prospective-single-center-study
#19
J P Albersmeier, J P Bremer, W Dammermann, S Lüth, F Hagenmüller, C Rüther, H Otto, A M Nielsen, U Schumacher, S Ullrich
OBJECTIVES: Shiga-toxin producing O157:H7 Entero Haemorrhagic E. coli [STEC/EHEC] are the most common cause of Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome [HUS] related to infectious haemorrhagic colitis. Nearly all recommendations on long term treatment of EHEC infections refer to this strain. The 2011 outbreak in Northern Europe was the first of this dimension to be caused by the serotype O104:H4. We report on the 3.5 year follow up of 61 patients diagnosed with symptomatic EHEC O104:H4 infection in spring 2011...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390512/venous-thromboembolism-related-to-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Amar H Kelkar, Kavitha S Jacob, Eman B Yousif, John J Farrell
RATIONALE: Herein, we present a case of seemingly unprovoked portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurring in the context of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prolonged debilitating fatigue. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male airline pilot presented with a 2 week history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and daily recurrent fevers. This was in the context of progressive, debilitating fatigue for 3 months forcing the patient to leave his job...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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