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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333760/antibiotic-associated-apoptotic-enterocolitis-in-the-absence-of-a-defined-pathogen-the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-depletion
#1
Philipp Wurm, Walter Spindelboeck, Robert Krause, Johannes Plank, Gottfried Fuchs, Mina Bashir, Wolfgang Petritsch, Bettina Halwachs, Cord Langner, Christoph Högenauer, Gregor Gorkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic therapy is a major risk factor for the development of diarrhea and colitis with varying severity. Often the origin of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal deterioration remains elusive and no specific infectious agents could be discerned. PATIENTS: We represent three cases of intractable high-volume diarrhea associated with combined antibiotic and steroid therapy in critically ill patients not fitting into established disease entities. Cases presented with severe apoptotic enterocolitis resembling acute intestinal graft-versus-host-disease...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330075/a-novel-multiplex-pcr-method-for-the-detection-of-virulence-associated-genes-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-food
#2
Vo Van Giau, Thuy Trang Nguyen, Thi Kim Oanh Nguyen, Thi Thuy Hang Le, Tien Dung Nguyen
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) strains are foodborne infectious agents that cause a number of life-threatening diseases, including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin 1 (stx1), shiga toxin 2 (stx2), or a combination of both are responsible for most clinical symptoms of these diseases. Hence, various diagnostic methods have been developed so far to detect shiga toxins such as cell culture, ELISA, Rapid Latex Agglutination (RPLA) and hybridization, but due to high costs and labor time in addition to low sensitivity, they have not received much attention...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326205/shigella-sonnei-bacteremia-presenting-with-profound-hepatic-dysfunction
#3
Oluwaseun Shogbesan, Andrew Rettew, Bilal Shaikh, Abdullateef Abdulkareem, Anthony Donato
Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321153/p-glycoprotein-multidrug-transporter-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-more-questions-than-answers
#4
EDITORIAL
Elke Cario
The gastrointestinal barrier is constantly exposed to numerous environmental substrates that are foreign and potentially harmful. These xenobiotics can cause shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition, affect mucosal immune responses, disturb tissue integrity and impair regeneration. The multidrug transporter ABCB1/MDR1 p-glycoprotein (p-gp) plays a key role at the front line of host defence by efficiently protecting the gastrointestinal barrier from xenobiotic accumulation. This Editorial discusses how altered expression and function of ABCB1/MDR1 p-gp may contribute to the development and persistence of chronic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304317/early-onset-necrotizing-enterocolitis-nec-in-premature-twins
#5
B Afzal, V Elberson, C McLaughlin, V Hs Kumar
Twin infants born at 34 week gestation had frank blood in stools on day three of life on mixed feeds of formula and maternal breast milk. Sepsis work up was negative in these relatively well appearing infants with pneumatosis in the colon on abdominal x-ray. Blood in stools recurred on reintroduction of breast milk in Twin A. Both infants recovered from episodes of bloody stools on amino-acid based formula and were thriving at discharge. Early necrotizing enterocolitis in both twins is rare and has not been reported...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267992/clostridium-difficile-disease-diagnosis-pathogenesis-and-treatment-update
#6
REVIEW
Lena M Napolitano, Charles E Edmiston
Clostridium difficile infections are the leading cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea, posing a significant risk for both medical and surgical patients. Because of the significant morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infections, knowledge of the epidemiology of C difficile in combination with a high index of suspicion and susceptible patient populations (including surgical, postcolectomy, and inflammatory bowel disease patients) is warranted. C difficile infections present with a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis or small bowel enteritis and recurrent C difficile infections...
March 3, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260714/a-case-of-collagenous-colitis-associated-with-novel-oral-anticoagulants-use
#7
Juri Ikemoto, Kouichi Nakadoi, Seiji Onogawa, Motomitsu Fukuhara, Takayoshi Shishido, Keiji Hanada, Shuji Yonehara
An 84-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of watery diarrhea. Due to cerebral infarction, he had started treatment with a novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) 1 month prior to admission. The patient underwent blood tests, enhanced computed tomography, and colonoscopy, which indicated infectious or medicinal colitis. The diarrhea persisted and he developed hypokalemia, so a second colonoscopy was performed, which showed edematous mucosa. Colonic mucosal biopsies showed a thick collagen band in the subepithelial region, and collagenous colitis was diagnosed...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245991/trem-1-and-its-potential-ligands-in-non-infectious-diseases-from-biology-to-clinical-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Alessandra Tammaro, Marc Derive, Sebastien Gibot, Jaklien C Leemans, Sandrine Florquin, Mark C Dessing
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is expressed on the majority of innate immune cells and to a lesser extent on parenchymal cells. Upon activation, TREM-1 can directly amplify an inflammatory response. Although it was initially demonstrated that TREM-1 was predominantly associated with infectious diseases, recent evidences shed new light into its role in sterile inflammatory diseases. Indeed, TREM-1 receptor and its signaling pathways contribute to the pathology of several non-infectious acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, ischemia reperfusion-induced tissue injury, colitis, fibrosis and cancer...
February 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245739/the-conundrum-of-feline-trichomonosis
#9
Jody L Gookin, Katherine Hanrahan, Michael G Levy
Practical relevance: Trichomonosis of the large intestine of the cat was described as a cause of chronic diarrhea over 20 years ago. The trichomonad was identified as Tritrichomonas foetus, with a genotype that is distinct from venereal T foetus of cattle. Clinical challenges: Despite multiple means for diagnosis of the infection, including light microscopy, protozoal culture and PCR amplification using species-specific primers, tests with even greater sensitivity are needed. Feline trichomonosis is resistant to all commonly used antiprotozoal drugs...
March 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239315/single-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-failed-to-change-intestinal-microbiota-and-had-limited-effectiveness-against-ulcerative-colitis-in-japanese-patients
#10
Shinta Mizuno, Kosaku Nanki, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Keiichiro Saigusa, Keiko Ono, Mari Arai, Shinya Sugimoto, Hiroki Kiyohara, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Makoto Naganuma, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent developments in analytical techniques including next-generation sequencing have clarified the correlation between intestinal microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is proposed as a potential approach to resolving their dysbiosis; however, its safety and efficacy have not been confirmed. This single-arm, open-label, non-randomized study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FMT for Japanese patients with UC as the first registered clinical trial in Japan...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230274/epidemiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-among-participants-of-the-millennium-cohort-incidence-deployment-related-risk-factors-and-antecedent-episodes-of-infectious-gastroenteritis
#11
C K Porter, M Welsh, M S Riddle, C Nieh, E J Boyko, G Gackstetter, T I Hooper
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two pathotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with unique pathology, risk factors and significant morbidity. AIM: To estimate incidence and identify IBD risk factors in a US military population, a healthy subset of the US population, using information from the Millennium Cohort Study. METHODS: Incident IBD was identified from medical encounters from 2001 to 2009 or by self-report...
February 23, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195066/successful-therapy-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-with-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#12
P C Konturek, J Koziel, W Dieterich, D Haziri, S Wirtz, I Glowczyk, K Konturek, M F Neurath, Y Zopf
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea and represents an important burden for healthcare worldwide. Symptoms of severe CDI include watery, foul-smelling diarrhea, peripheral leucocytosis, increased C-reactive protein (CRP), acute renal failure, hypotension and pseudomembranous colitis. Recent studies indicate that the main cause of CDI is dysbiosis, an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. The restoration of a healthy gut microbiota composition via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) recently became more popular...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172464/op012-perioperative-use-of-vedolizumab-is-not-associated-with-short-term-postoperative-infectious-complications-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-undergoing-procto-colectomy-with-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis
#13
M Ferrante, N Schils, A De Buck van Overstraeten, S Vermeire, G Van Assche, A Wolthuis, A D'Hoore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147350/late-onset-of-acute-severe-ulcerative-colitis-clinical-case
#14
A E Dorofeyev, O A Rassokhina, A A Dorofeyeva
Ulcerative colitis (UC) in adult age requires more careful examination because more often it turns out to be a complication related to the precancer condition. The onset of colitis in older age is predicted to follow a more aggressive clinical course and requires more frequent hospitalizations and steroids prescription in contrast to its onset in young patients. Even as this remains unclear, we present here a clinical case of late onset of acute severe UC to represent interesting clinical peculiarities and response to the therapy...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104319/the-mexican-consensus-on-probiotics-in-gastroenterology
#15
M A Valdovinos, E Montijo, A T Abreu, S Heller, A González-Garay, D Bacarreza, M Bielsa-Fernández, M C Bojórquez-Ramos, F Bosques-Padilla, A I Burguete-García, R Carmona-Sánchez, A Consuelo-Sánchez, E Coss-Adame, J A Chávez-Barrera, M de Ariño, J Flores-Calderón, O Gómez-Escudero, M S González-Huezo, M E Icaza-Chávez, A Larrosa-Haro, M Morales-Arámbula, C Murata, J A Ramírez-Mayans, J M Remes-Troche, T Rizo-Robles, M Peláez-Luna, E M Toro-Monjaraz, A Torre, M E Urquidi-Rivera, R Vázquez, J K Yamamoto-Furusho, F Guarner
INTRODUCTION: Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. AIM: To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102757/dysbiosis-in-crohn-s-disease-joint-action-of-stochastic-injuries-and-focal-inflammation-in-the-gut
#16
Ludovica F Buttó, Dirk Haller
Gut homeostasis involves interrelated biological networks that include the immune system, specialized cells of the epithelium, such as Paneth and goblet cells, as well as triggers derived from the microbiota. Disruption of these homeostatic interactions may lead to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To develop more targeted and individual treatments in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it becomes more and more important to link key mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis to distinct IBD subsets...
January 2, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025783/idelalisib-induced-colitis-and-skin-eruption-mimicking-graft-versus-host-disease
#17
Muhammad Bader Hammami, Ahmad Al-Taee, Marshall Meeks, Mark Fesler, M Yadira Hurley, Dengfeng Cao, Jin-Ping Lai
INTRODUCTION: Idelalisib is a selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which was approved by the United States Federal Drug Administration in 2014 for the treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Drug-induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract is a relatively frequent but usually under-recognized disease entity. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 56-year-old male with a history of relapsed follicular lymphoma status post allogenic bone marrow transplant who developed severe diarrhea with a skin eruption mimicking graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) 6 months after starting idelalisib...
April 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951586/nlrc3-is-an-inhibitory-sensor-of-pi3k-mtor-pathways-in-cancer
#18
Rajendra Karki, Si Ming Man, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Sannula Kesavardhana, Qifan Zhu, Amanda R Burton, Bhesh Raj Sharma, Xiaopeng Qi, Stephane Pelletier, Peter Vogel, Philip Rosenstiel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats) belong to a large family of cytoplasmic sensors that regulate an extraordinarily diverse range of biological functions. One of these functions is to contribute to immunity against infectious diseases, but dysregulation of their functional activity leads to the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Cytoplasmic innate immune sensors, including NLRs, are central regulators of intestinal homeostasis. NLRC3 (also known as CLR16.2 or NOD3) is a poorly characterized member of the NLR family and was identified in a genomic screen for genes encoding proteins bearing leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and nucleotide-binding domains...
December 12, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926694/involvement-of-activated-cdc42-kinase1-in-colitis-and-colorectal-neoplasms
#19
Chaolan Lv, Xinmei Zhao, Hongxiang Gu, Liyun Huang, Sanxi Zhou, Fachao Zhi
BACKGROUND Activated Cdc42 kinase1 (ACK1) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is critical for cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Genomic amplification of ACK1 has been reported in multiple human cancers. We aimed to investigate ACK1 protein expression in colorectal mucosa with inflammation and neoplasm, and to evaluate its correlation with disease activity and severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 250 individuals who underwent total colonoscopy were collected randomly from January 2007 to May 2013 in Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China...
December 7, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920706/ipilimumab-induced-enteritis-without-colitis-a-new-challenge
#20
Marcus Messmer, Sunita Upreti, Yaman Tarabishy, Nikhilesh Mazumder, Reezwana Chowdhury, Mark Yarchoan, Matthias Holdhoff
INTRODUCTION: Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. CASE REPORT: An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
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