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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920706/ipilimumab-induced-enteritis-without-colitis-a-new-challenge
#1
Marcus Messmer, Sunita Upreti, Yaman Tarabishy, Nikhilesh Mazumder, Reezwana Chowdhury, Mark Yarchoan, Matthias Holdhoff
INTRODUCTION: Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. CASE REPORT: An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885390/ct-angiography-in-the-setting-of-suspected-acute-mesenteric-ischemia-prevalence-of-ischemic-and-alternative-diagnoses
#2
Frank Oliver Henes, Perry J Pickhardt, Andrzej Herzyk, Scott J Lee, Utaroh Motosugi, Thorsten Derlin, Meghan G Lubner, Gerhard Adam, Gerhard Schön, Peter Bannas
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of ischemic and alternative diagnoses and the diagnostic accuracy of CT angiography (CTA) in the setting of suspected acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 959 patients undergoing CTA for the evaluation of suspected AMI. The final clinical diagnosis was used to determine the prevalence of ischemic and alternative diagnoses and to calculate the diagnostic accuracy of CTA...
November 24, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879485/patients-views-on-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-an-acceptable-therapeutic-option-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Jonas Zeitz, Marina Bissig, Christiane Barthel, Luc Biedermann, Sylvie Scharl, Daniel Pohl, Pascal Frei, Stephan R Vavricka, Michael Fried, Gerhard Rogler, Michael Scharl
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents a new therapeutic option that has been studied in two randomized-controlled trials in ulcerative colitis patients. Our study aimed to identify patients' views on the use of this novel therapeutic approach. METHODS: Using an anonymous questionnaire, we obtained data from 574 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients on their knowledge and willingness to undergo FMT. RESULTS: A large proportion of IBD patients (53...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876571/fusobacterium-nucleatum-increases-proliferation-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-and-tumor-development-in-mice-by-activating-tlr4-signaling-to-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-upregulating-expression-of-microrna-21
#4
Yongzhi Yang, Wenhao Weng, Junjie Peng, Leiming Hong, Lei Yang, Yuji Toiyama, Renyuan Gao, Minfeng Liu, Mingming Yin, Cheng Pan, Hao Li, Bomin Guo, Qingchao Zhu, Qing Wei, Mary-Pat Moyer, Ping Wang, Sanjun Cai, Ajay Goel, Huanlong Qin, Yanlei Ma
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nearly 20% of the global cancer burden can be linked to infectious agents. Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes tumor formation by epithelial cells via unclear mechanisms. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by F nucleatum and evaluate their ability to promote colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines were incubated with F nucleatum or control reagents and analyzed in proliferation and would healing assays...
November 19, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856521/gleaning-insights-from-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-probiotic-studies-for-the-rational-design-of-combination-microbial-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Lauren E Hudson, Sarah E Anderson, Anita H Corbett, Tracey J Lamb
Beneficial microorganisms hold promise for the treatment of numerous gastrointestinal diseases. The transfer of whole microbiota via fecal transplantation has already been shown to ameliorate the severity of diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and others. However, the exact mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplant efficacy and the particular strains conferring this benefit are still unclear. Rationally designed combinations of microbial preparations may enable more efficient and effective treatment approaches tailored to particular diseases...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829823/a-new-lab-developed-real-time-pcr-assay-for-direct-detection-of-c-difficle-from-stool-sample-without-dna-extraction
#6
Brandon Li
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Detection of C. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool EIA, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the C. difficile toxin genes tcdB. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having C. difficile-associated disease were prospectively collected...
September 2016: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799881/accuracy-of-three-different-fecal-calprotectin-tests-in-the-diagnosis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Hui Won Jang, Hyun Sook Kim, Soo Jung Park, Sung Pil Hong, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several studies have found that the measurement of fecal calprotectin is useful for the early diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We compared the effectiveness of three different fecal calprotectin kits for initial diagnosis in patients with suspected IBD. METHODS: We enrolled 31 patients with IBD (18 Crohn's disease [CD], 11 ulcerative colitis [UC], and two intestinal Behçet's disease), five with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and five with other colitis (four infectious colitis and one intestinal tuberculosis)...
October 2016: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792061/fibrin-ring-granulomas-in-checkpoint-inhibitor-induced-hepatitis
#8
Jamie Everett, Amitabh Srivastava, Joseph Misdraji
Fibrin ring granulomas are an uncommon finding in liver biopsies although they have been described in liver injury secondary to several infectious and noninfectious entities, most notably Q fever. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are recent advances in cancer therapy, and stimulate the immune system to cause antitumoral effects but may also lead to adverse immune events such as hepatitis and colitis. We report 2 patients on combination ipilimumab/nivolumab who developed hepatitis and had fibrin ring granulomas in their liver biopsies...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785322/common-inflammatory-disorders-and-neoplasia-of-the-ileal-pouch-a-review-of-histopathology
#9
REVIEW
David Hernandez Gonzalo, Amy L Collinsworth, Xiuli Liu
Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the standard restorative procedure after proctocolectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who require colectomy. The ileal pouch is susceptible to a variety of insults including mechanical injury, ischemia, fecal stasis, and infectious agents. In addition, the development of recurrent and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and neoplasia may occur in the ileal pouch. Although clinical, endoscopic, and radiographic examination can diagnose many ileal pouch diseases, histologic examination plays an essential role in diagnosis and management, particularly in cases with antibiotic refractory chronic pouchitis and pouch neoplasia...
June 2016: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785317/facing-terminal-ileitis-going-beyond-crohn-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cassio Alves de Carvalho
Terminal ileitis (TI) is an inflammatory condition of the terminal portion of the ileum that may occur acutely with right lower quadrant pain followed or not by diarrhea, or exhibit chronic obstructive symptoms and bleeding and normally it is associated to Crohn's disease (CD) although it may be associated to other different conditions. This review intended to contribute to a better understanding of TI in order to help in the diagnosis, medical approach and patient care. This work was performed on a survey of articles collected in different databases and a retrospective search was carried out to identify relevant studies in the field...
February 2016: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766695/invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-patients-treated-with-tumor-necrosis-alpha-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitors
#11
Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ioannis Kyriakidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
Macromolecular immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity represent a recent and important addition to our therapeutic armamentarium. Tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and clinical utilization of its antagonists has revolutionized treatment of juvenile rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and plaque psoriasis. Clinical utility has also been demonstrated for use against steroid-refractory graft-vs-host disease and other immune-mediated conditions...
October 21, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743501/mucosal-and-systemic-immune-modulation-by-trichuris-trichiura-in-a-self-infected-individual
#12
Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Peter Nejsum, Rikke Hagemann-Madsen, Andrew R Williams, Jørgen Agnholt, Jens F Dahlerup, Christian L Hvas
Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741172/probiotics-and-liver-disease-where-are-we-now-and-where-are-we-going
#13
Abdel-Naser Elzouki
Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic bacteria capable of colonizing the colonic mucosa. The most common probiotics include strains of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria, which are part of the normal gastrointestinal microbiota. Initial studies of selected probiotic species have suggested potential efficacy in several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (particularly pouchitis), antibiotic-related diarrhea, Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis, infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and allergy...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733707/systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-biological-therapy-for-inflammatory-conditions-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#14
D L Fink, L Hedley, R F Miller
Biologic therapies are injectable immunomodulatory agents directed against specific immune cell or chemical targets. They have transformed the lives of HIV-uninfected individuals with severe inflammatory conditions including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. The perceived increased infection risk associated with these agents means that HIV-infected individuals have not been included in randomised control trials of these drugs. The literature for use of biologic therapies in HIV-infected populations is limited to case reports and case series...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708211/can-mutations-in-the-gene-encoding-transcription-factor-eklf-erythroid-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-protect-us-against-infectious-and-parasitic-diseases
#15
Krzysztof Mikołajczyk, Radosław Kaczmarek, Marcin Czerwiński
Transcription factor EKLF (Erythroid Krüppel-Like Factor) belongs to the group of Krüppellike factors, which regulate proliferation, differentiation, development and apoptosis of mammalian cells. EKLF factor is present in erythroid cells, where it participates in regulation of hematopoiesis, expression of genes encoding transmembrane proteins (including blood group antigens), and heme biosynthesis enzymes. It is also a key factor in downregulation of γ-globins and activation of β-globin gene expression...
October 6, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701886/nodular-colitis-endoscopic-image-an-unusual-finding
#16
L A Loza Vargas, Henar Núñez Rodríguez, Marina Benito Sanz, Tomás Zamora Martínez, Pilar Díez Redondo, Manuel Pérez Miranda
An 82-year-old male with a history of high blood pressure, COPD, chronic myeloid leukemia, and stage-4 chronic renal failure. Admitted to hospital for lower-limb cellulitis and severe COPD exacerbation, he received antibiotic therapy and bronchodilators. During his hospital stay he developed severe anemia and had an hematochezia event with no diarrhea. A complete colonoscopy found small (4-7 mm) nacreous elevated lesions, circumferential in shape, in the cecum and ascending colon with some bleeding stigmata and submucosal bleeding suggestive of infectious colitis; stool culture was negative and Clostridium difficile toxins were positive...
October 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693863/host-response-to-clostridium-difficile-infection-diagnostics-and-detection
#17
REVIEW
Elena A Usacheva, Jian-P Jin, Lance R Peterson
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant healthcare concern worldwide, and C. difficile is recognised as the most frequent aetiological agent of infectious healthcare-associated diarrhoea in hospitalised adult patients. The clinical manifestation of CDI varies from self-limited diarrhoea to life-threatening colitis. Such a broad disease spectrum can be explained by the impact of host factors. Currently, a complex CDI aetiology is widely accepted, acknowledging the interaction between bacteria and the host...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690475/-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-as-the-cause-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a%C3%A2-female-patient-with-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-and-clostridium-colitis-time-for-off-label-tigecycline
#18
B Lipový, H Řihová, M Hanslianová, I Suchánek, P Brychta
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an autoimmune disease which is usually caused by a reaction to drugs. It affects mainly the skin and mucous membranes. It is a rare condition with a high mortality rate. Fatal outcomes in patients with TEN are mostly due to infectious complications. As antimicrobial drugs may induce this syndrome, the management of this condition is very complicated. Tigecycline is still a relatively new antibiotic approved in Europe for use in complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated skin and soft tissue infections...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688648/segmental-colitis-associated-diverticulosis-syndrome
#19
EDITORIAL
Hugh J Freeman
Segmental colitis associated diverticulosis (SCAD) has become increasingly appreciated as a form of inflammatory disease of the colon. Several features suggest that SCAD is a distinct disorder. SCAD tends to develop almost exclusively in older adults, predominately, but not exclusively, males. The inflammatory process occurs mainly in the sigmoid colon, and usually remains localized to this region of the colon alone. SCAD most often presents with rectal bleeding and subsequent endoscopic visualization reveals a well localized process with non-specific histopathologic inflammatory changes...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640344/fecal-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-ngal-as-a-biomarker-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Silje Thorsvik, Jan Kristian Damås, Atle van Beelen Granlund, Trude Helen Flo, Kåre Bergh, Ann Elisabet Østvik, Arne Kristian Sandvik
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Accurate, non-invasive biomarkers are needed to diagnose and monitor inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), also known as Lipocalin 2, is expressed in inflamed colonic epithelium and neutrophilic granulocytes. This study explores its properties as a biomarker in feces and plasma and, for the first time, compares fecal NGAL systematically with the existing fecal biomarker calprotectin. METHODS: NGAL was measured in feces from 73 patients with IBD, 21 patients with infectious enterocolitis, 21 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 23 healthy subjects using ELISA...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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