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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930181/heart-transplant-recipient-with-mycophenolate-mofetil-induced-colitis-the-great-imitator
#1
Obada Tayyem, Hamzeh Saraireh, Muhannad Al Hanayneh, Heather L Stevenson
In this article, we report a case of a 55-year-old male heart transplant recipient who presented with diarrhoea. An extensive workup for infectious diseases was negative. The patient had a colonoscopy with biopsies showing colitis that mimicked graft-versus-host disease on histopathology. After excluding other potential causes and excluding acute cellular rejection, mycophenolate mofetil was discontinued, and the patient had significant clinical improvement with increased appetite and weight gain.
June 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922282/cord-blood-cd8-t-cells-have-a-natural-propensity-to-express-il-4-in-a-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-caspase-activation-dependent-manner
#2
Yuxia Zhang, Jovana Maksimovic, Bing Huang, David Peter De Souza, Gaetano Naselli, Huan Chen, Li Zhang, Kai Weng, Hanquan Liang, Yanhui Xu, John M Wentworth, Nicholas D Huntington, Alicia Oshlack, Sitang Gong, Axel Kallies, Peter Vuillermin, Min Yang, Leonard C Harrison
How T cells differentiate in the neonate may critically determine the ability of the infant to cope with infections, respond to vaccines and avert allergies. Previously, we found that naïve cord blood CD4+ T cells differentiated toward an IL-4-expressing phenotype when activated in the presence of TGF-β and monocyte-derived inflammatory cytokines, the latter are more highly secreted by infants who developed food allergy. Here, we show that in the absence of IL-2 or IL-12, naïve cord blood CD8+ T cells have a natural propensity to differentiate into IL-4-producing non-classic TC 2 cells when they are activated alone, or in the presence of TGF-β and/or inflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907869/bves-is-required-for-maintenance-of-colonic-epithelial-integrity-in-experimental-colitis-by-modifying-intestinal-permeability
#3
Yash A Choksi, Vishruth K Reddy, Kshipra Singh, Caitlyn W Barrett, Sarah P Short, Bobak Parang, Cody E Keating, Joshua J Thompson, Thomas G Verriere, Rachel E Brown, M Blanca Piazuelo, David M Bader, M Kay Washington, Mukul K Mittal, Thomas Brand, Alain P Gobert, Lori A Coburn, Keith T Wilson, Christopher S Williams
Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES), or POPDC1, is a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein that modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via junctional signaling pathways. There have been no in vivo studies investigating the role of BVES in colitis. We hypothesized that BVES is critical for maintaining colonic epithelial integrity. At baseline, Bves -/- mouse colons demonstrate increased crypt height, elevated proliferation, decreased apoptosis, altered intestinal lineage allocation, and dysregulation of tight junctions with functional deficits in permeability and altered intestinal immunity...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866904/a-novel-role-of-visp-and-the-wzz-system-during-o-antigen-assembly-in-salmonella-typhimurium-pathogenesis
#4
Patrick da Silva, Fernanda Z Manieri, Carmen M Herrera, M Stephen Trent, Cristiano G Moreira
Salmonella enterica serovars are associated with diarrhea and gastroenteritis and are a helpful model for understanding host-pathogen mechanisms. Salmonella Typhimurium regulates the distribution of O-antigen (OAg) and presents a trimodal distribution based on Wzy polymerase, WzzST (long chain length OAg, L-OAg) and WzzfepE (very long chain length OAg, VL-OAg) co-polymerases; however, several mechanisms regulating this process remain unclear. Here, we report that LPS modifications modulate the infectious process and that OAg chain length determination plays an essential role during infection...
June 4, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788385/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-vedolizumab-and-postoperative-complications-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Diana E Yung, Nir Horesh, Amy L Lightner, Shomron Ben-Horin, Rami Eliakim, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Uri Kopylov
Background: Several studies have reported the surgical outcomes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exposed to vedolizumab (VDZ) preoperatively, with conflicting results. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the risk of postoperative complications in IBD patients preoperatively exposed to VDZ in comparison with patients exposed to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment or no biologic therapy. Methods: A systematic review with a meta-analysis of the existing literature was conducted...
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783922/lethal-phlegmonous-colitis
#6
John D Gilbert, Roger W Byard
A 52-year-old man died soon after admission to hospital with a severe metabolic acidosis and likely sepsis. He had a past history of alcohol abuse with withdrawal seizures. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed thickened bowel loops but no obvious ischaemic changes, and a blood culture yielded a pure growth of Escherichia coli. At autopsy, the liver showed well-established micro-nodular cirrhosis with steatosis. The peritoneal cavity contained 200 mL of turbid yellow-brown fluid, and the caecum and ascending colon were unusually thickened...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770281/intestinal-spirochetosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#7
Patricia Guzman Rojas, Jelena Catania, Jignesh Parikh, Tran C Phung, Glenn Speth
Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is an infestation defined by the presence of spirochetes on the surface of the colonic mucosa. The implicated organisms can be Brachyspira aalborgi or Brachyspira pilosicoli . We present the case of a 66-year-old man with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, morbid obesity, and gastroesophageal reflux. The patient was sent to the gastroenterology clinic for a screening colonoscopy due to a prior history of colonic polyps. The patient was completely asymptomatic as he denies any abdominal pain, diarrhea, melena, or hematochezia...
March 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769275/-point-counterpoint-active-surveillance-for-carriers-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-should-be-performed-to-guide-prevention-efforts
#8
L Clifford McDonald, Daniel J Diekema
In 2017, we published a point-counterpoint on laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). At that time, Drs Ferric Fang, Christopher Polage, and Mark Wilcox discussed the strategies for diagnosing Clostridium difficile colitis in symptomatic patients. Since that manuscript new guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of American and the Society for Health Care Epidemiology have been published (1) and healthcare systems have begun to explore screening asymptomatic patients for C. difficile colonization...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764250/immunological-changes-with-kinase-inhibitor-therapy-for-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#9
Christopher Pleyer, Adrian Wiestner, Clare Sun
Ibrutinib and idelalisib are kinase inhibitors that have revolutionized the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Capable of inducing durable remissions, these agents also modulate the immune system. Both ibrutinib and idelalisib abrogate the tumor-supporting microenvironment by disrupting cell-cell interactions, modulating the T-cell compartment, and altering the cytokine milieu. Ibrutinib also partially restores T-cell and myeloid defects associated with CLL. In contrast, immune-related adverse effects, including pneumonitis, colitis, hepatotoxicity, and infections are of particular concern with idelalisib...
May 15, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760697/hookworm-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-interact-with-host-cells-and-prevent-inducible-colitis-in-mice
#10
Ramon M Eichenberger, Stephanie Ryan, Linda Jones, Geraldine Buitrago, Ramona Polster, Marcela Montes de Oca, Jennifer Zuvelek, Paul R Giacomin, Lindsay A Dent, Christian R Engwerda, Matthew A Field, Javier Sotillo, Alex Loukas
Gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, hookworms in particular, have evolved to cause minimal harm to their hosts, allowing them to establish chronic infections. This is mediated by creating an immunoregulatory environment. Indeed, hookworms are such potent suppressors of inflammation that they have been used in clinical trials to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease. Since the recent description of helminths (worms) secreting extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosome-like EVs from different helminths have been characterized and their salient roles in parasite-host interactions have been highlighted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739480/development-of-a-sensitive-immunochromatographic-kit-using-fluorescent-silica-nanoparticles-for-rapid-serodiagnosis-of-amebiasis
#11
Hiroshi Tachibana, Azumi Kakino, Makoto Kazama, Meng Feng, Satomi Asai, Kazuo Umezawa, Tsukasa Nozaki, Takashi Makiuchi, Takayuki Kamada, Hideki Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiki, Xunjia Cheng, Gohta Masuda
We have previously shown that the C-terminal region of the intermediate subunit of Entamoeba histolytica galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin (C-Igl) is a useful antigen for serodiagnosis of amebiasis. An immunochromatographic kit was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles coated with C-Igl prepared in Escherichia coli. Samples for examination were added to the freeze-dried particles and then applied to the immunochromatographic device, in which a test line on the membrane was also coated with C-Igl...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737553/post-operative-complications-in-elderly-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-population-based-study
#12
S-C Sacleux, H Sarter, M Fumery, C Charpentier, N Guillon-Dellac, H Coevoet, B Pariente, L Peyrin-Biroulet, C Gower-Rousseau, G Savoye
BACKGROUND: IBD diagnosed after the age of 60 is increasing. Data on post-operative complications in elderly onset IBD are scarce. AIM: To describe the incidence of and factors associated with post-operative complications in elderly onset IBD, diagnosed after the age of 60. METHODS: Using EPIMAD Cohort (1988-2006), among 841 incident IBD patients, 139 (17%) underwent intestinal surgery, including 100 Crohn's disease (CD) and 39 ulcerative colitis (UC)...
May 8, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719449/up-regulation-of-nhe8-by-somatostatin-ameliorates-the-diarrhea-symptom-in-infectious-colitis-mice-model
#13
Xuelian Lei, Lin Cai, Xiao Li, Hua Xu, Chong Geng, Chunhui Wang
Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) have been shown to be involved in regulating cell volume and maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Pooled evidences have suggested that loss of Na+ /H+ exchanger isoform 8 (NHE8) impairs intestinal mucosa. Whether NHE8 participates in the pathology of infectious colitis is still unknown. Our previous study demonstrated that somatostatin (SST) could stimulate the expression of intestinal NHE8 so as to facilitate Na+ absorption under normal condition. This study further explored whether NHE8 participates in the pathological processes of infectious colitis and the effects of SST on intestinal NHE8 expression in the setting of infectious colitis...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714463/a-survey-on-rectal-bleeding-in-children-a-report-from-iran
#14
Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Iraj Shahramian, Maryam Ataollahi, Ali Bazı, Nosaibe Seirfar, Mojtaba Delaramnasab, Alireza Sargazi, Mahsa Shariatrazavi
Background/aim: Studies on the epidemiology of rectal bleeding in children are limited in Iran. Our aim was to assess etiologies of rectal bleeding in children in Iran. Materials and methods: We enrolled 730 children with rectal bleeding. All the patients underwent colonoscopy, and 457 were further evaluated with histopathology. Results: According to colonoscopy and histopathology, respectively, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (29.4%, 15.8%), nodular hyperplasia (NH) (24.9%, 10%), and juvenile polyposis (JP) (12...
April 30, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712770/redd1-autophagy-pathway-is-associated-with-neutrophil-driven-il-1%C3%AE-inflammatory-response-in-active-ulcerative-colitis
#15
Iliana Angelidou, Akrivi Chrysanthopoulou, Alexandros Mitsios, Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Dimitrios Ritis, Victoria Tsironidou, Ioannis Moschos, Vasiliki Dalla, Dimitrios Stakos, Georgios Kouklakis, Ioannis Mitroulis, Konstantinos Ritis, Panagiotis Skendros
Infiltration of neutrophils into colonic mucosa has been associated with the severity of ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the effect of disease microenvironment on the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as well as the involved mechanisms in NETosis and whether certain NET proteins are correlated with disease phenotype. Peripheral blood neutrophils, sera, and colonic tissue were collected from treatment-naive and mesalazine-treated patients with active UC, treatment-naive patients with active Crohn's disease, patients suffering from infectious colitis, or healthy individuals (controls)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693127/association-between-gastrointestinal-motility-and-macrophage-mast-cell-distribution-in-mice-during-the-healing-stage-after-dss%C3%A2-induced-colitis
#16
Mio Kodani, Hirokazu Fukui, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) frequently occurs after infectious colitis or inflammatory bowel disease in patients with complete remission. This suggests that post‑inflammation‑associated factors may serve a role in the pathophysiology of IBS; however, the mechanism responsible remains unclear. In the present study, the involvement of macrophages and mast cells in alteration of gastrointestinal (GI) motility was investigated in mice in the remission stage after acute colitis. C57BL/6 mice were administered 2% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 5 days and their intestinal tissues were investigated at intervals for up to 24 weeks...
June 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685984/-salmonella-typhimurium-cpxra-two-component-system-contributes-to-gut-colonization-in-salmonella-induced-colitis
#17
Mayuka Fujimoto, Ryosuke Goto, Takeshi Haneda, Nobuhiko Okada, Tsuyoshi Miki
Salmonella enterica , a common cause of diarrhea, has to colonize the gut lumen to elicit the disease. In the gut, the pathogen encounters a vast array of environmental stresses that cause perturbations in the bacterial envelope. The CpxRA two-component system monitors envelope perturbations and responds by altering the bacteria gene expression profile. This allows Salmonella to survive under such harmful conditions. Therefore, CpxRA activation is likely to contribute to Salmonella gut infection. However, the role of CpxRA-mediated envelope stress response in Salmonella -induced diarrhea is unclear...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666980/epidemiology-of-uveitis-in-a-us-population-based-study
#18
Marta Mora González, Marissé Masís Solano, Travis C Porco, Catherine E Oldenburg, Nisha R Acharya, Shan C Lin, Matilda F Chan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between self-reported uveitis and purported demographic and clinical risk factors, using an American adult population extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2009 and 2010. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study using a sample of 5106 subjects between 20 and 69 years old. The main outcome for our study was the self-report of a diagnosis of uveitis. The demographic analysis included age, gender, and ethnicity...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663063/-treatment-with-pd-1-pd-l1-and-ctla-4-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-immune-mediated-side-effects
#19
REVIEW
M-O Grimm, H Oppel-Heuchel, S Foller
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new standard therapy for advanced or metastatic urothelial as well as renal cell carcinoma. Atezolizumab and Pembrolizumab have been approved for the treatment of cisplatin-ineligible patients with transitional call cancer in the 1st line setting; both antibodies and Nivolumab may also be used after platinum based prior therapy. Regarding renal cell carcinoma approval for 1st line treatment with the combination of Nivolumab and Ipilimumab for patients at intermediate or high risk (IMDC) is currently expected...
May 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608910/pre-clinical-and-translational-pharmacology-of-a-human-interleukin-22-igg-fusion-protein-for-potential-treatment-of-infectious-or-inflammatory-diseases
#20
Eric G Stefanich, Julie Rae, Siddharth Sukumaran, Jeff Lutman, Annemarie Lekkerkerker, Wenjun Ouyang, Xiaoting Wang, Donna Lee, Dimitry M Danilenko, Lauri Diehl, Kelly M Loyet, Ann Herman
Interleukin (IL)-22 plays protective roles in infections and in inflammatory diseases that have been linked to its meditation of innate immunity via multiple mechanisms. IL-22 binds specifically to its heterodimeric receptor, which is expressed on a variety of epithelial tissues. UTTR1147A is a recombinant fusion protein that links the human cytokine IL-22 with the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin (Ig) G4. Here, we report extensive in vitro and in vivo nonclinical studies that were conducted to characterize the pharmacological activity of UTTR1147A...
June 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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