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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698649/characterizing-the-scent-and-chemical-composition-of-panthera-leo-marking-fluid-using-solid-phase-microextraction-and-multidimensional-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-olfactometry
#1
Simone B Soso, Jacek A Koziel
Lions (Panthera leo) use chemical signaling to indicate health, reproductive status, and territorial ownership. To date, no study has reported on both scent and composition of marking fluid (MF) from P. leo. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a novel method for simultaneous chemical and scent identification of lion MF in its totality (urine + MF), 2) identify characteristic odorants responsible for the overall scent of MF as perceived by human panelists, and 3) compare the existing library of known odorous compounds characterized as eliciting behaviors in animals in order to understand potential functionality in lion behavior...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690147/novel-anaplasma-and-ehrlichia-organisms-infecting-the-wildlife-of-two-regions-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#2
Herbert S Soares, Arlei Marcili, Amália R M Barbieri, Antonio H H Minervino, Antonio F Malheiros, Solange M Gennari, Marcelo B Labruna
During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene...
July 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680665/impact-of-wild-prey-availability-on-livestock-predation-by-snow-leopards
#3
Kulbhushansingh R Suryawanshi, Stephen M Redpath, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Uma Ramakrishnan, Vaibhav Chaturvedi, Sophie C Smout, Charudutt Mishra
An increasing proportion of the world's poor is rearing livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing. Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern. A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey populations based on the assumption that the carnivores will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation, however, could either reduce or intensify with increases in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in carnivore abundance...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677421/molecular-detection-of-viral-agents-in-free-ranging-and-captive-neotropical-felids-in-brazil
#4
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Iracema Nunes de Barros, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Sandra Cavalcanti, Laury Cullen, Claudia Filoni, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Rodrigo Silva Pinto Jorge, Nairléia Dos Santos Silva, Leandro Silveira, José Soares Ferreira Neto
We describe molecular testing for felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), alphacoronavirus 1 (feline coronavirus [FCoV]), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) in whole blood samples of 109 free-ranging and 68 captive neotropical felids from Brazil. Samples from 2 jaguars ( Panthera onca) and 1 oncilla ( Leopardus tigrinus) were positive for FHV-1; 2 jaguars, 1 puma ( Puma concolor), and 1 jaguarundi ( Herpairulus yagouaroundi) tested positive for CPPV-1; and 1 puma was positive for FIV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638674/role-of-personality-in-behavioral-responses-to-new-environments-in-captive-asiatic-lions-panthera-leo-persica
#5
Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Anna Viau, Giulio Curone, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Massimo Faustini, Daniele Vigo, Silvia Michela Mazzola, Richard Preziosi
Studying personality in captive animals may enable the development of individual-based management decisions, which may improve animal welfare. Asiatic lions at London Zoo represent an opportunity to research an understudied species' response to new environments since they have experienced social and physical changes, such as new enclosures and increased social interaction with humans. This project aimed to investigate the role of personality in behavioral responses to these changes. Lion personality questionnaires completed by keepers and direct focal animal observations were used to create personality profiles...
2017: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589259/molecular-identification-of-victim-species-and-its-sex-from-the-ash-a-case-of-burning-alive-leopard-panthera-pardus
#6
Vipin, Vinita Sharma, Sandeep Kumar Gupta
In a case of negative human-leopard (Panthera pardus) interaction, an animal was burnt alive in South Rajasthan, India. We identified the species and sex of the victim animal from the ash using forensic DNA analysis. We recovered three objects (half burnt clot, stone, and shrub twig) from the ash having suspected blood stains. We extracted DNA from these items and amplified a partial fragment of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and 12S RNA genes. The sequence generated from these amplicons suggested that the victim animal was a leopard...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584709/increasing-game-prices-may-alter-farmers-behaviours-towards-leopards-panthera-pardus-and-other-carnivores-in-south-africa
#7
Tara J Pirie, Rebecca L Thomas, Mark D E Fellowes
Human-carnivore conflict occurs globally, particularly in regions where large carnivores predate livestock. Retaliatory killings do occur, and although predation of livestock by carnivores happens, losses from other factors such as disease or injury can be misattributed because of landowner perceptions. Game farming for both trophy hunting and eco-tourism is becoming increasingly common in South Africa, and there has been a rapid increase in the cost of game animals (in some species as much as five-fold) between 2010 and 2015...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498961/range-wide-snow-leopard-phylogeography-supports-three-subspecies
#8
Jan E Janecka, Jan E Janecka, Zhang Yu-Guang, Li Di-Qiang, Bariushaa Munkhtsog, Munkhtsog Bayaraa, Naranbaatar Galsandorj, Tshewang R Wangchuk, Dibesh Karmacharya, Thomas McCarthy, Juan Li, Lu Zhi, Kubanychbek Zhumabai Uulu, Ajay Gaur, Satish Kumar, B Kesav Kumar, Shafqat Hussain, Ghulam Muhammad, Matthew Jevit, Charlotte Hacker, Pamela Burger, Claudia Wultsch, Mary J Janecka, Kristofer Helgen, William J Murphy, Rodney Jackson
The snow leopard, Panthera uncia, is an elusive high-altitude specialist that inhabits vast, inaccessible habitat across Asia. We conducted the first range-wide genetic assessment of snow leopards based on noninvasive scat surveys. Thirty-three microsatellites were genotyped and a total of 683-bp of mitochondrial DNA sequenced in 70 individuals. Snow leopards exhibited low genetic diversity at microsatellites (AN = 5.8, HO = 0.433, HE = 0.568), virtually no mtDNA variation, and underwent a bottleneck in the Holocene (~8,000 years ago) coinciding with increased temperatures, precipitation, and upward treeline shift in the Tibetan Plateau...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493999/leopard-in-a-tea-cup-a-study-of-leopard-habitat-use-and-human-leopard-interactions-in-north-eastern-india
#9
Aritra Kshettry, Srinivas Vaidyanathan, Vidya Athreya
There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples' lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities. In order to understand the ecology of leopards in a human use landscape and the nature of human-leopard interactions, we studied (i) the spatial and temporal distribution and the characteristics of leopard attacks on people, (ii) the spatial variability in the pattern of habitat use by the leopard, and (iii) the spatial relationship between attack locations and habitat use by leopards...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484625/population-dynamics-and-threats-to-an-apex-predator-outside-protected-areas-implications-for-carnivore-management
#10
Samual T Williams, Kathryn S Williams, Bradley P Lewis, Russell A Hill
Data on the population dynamics and threats to large carnivores are vital to conservation efforts, but these are hampered by a paucity of studies. For some species, such as the leopard (Panthera pardus), there is such uncertainty in population trends that leopard trophy hunting has been banned in South Africa since 2016 while further data on leopard abundance are collected. We present one of the first assessments of leopard population dynamics, and identify the key threats to a population of leopards outside of protected areas in South Africa...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445499/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-of-the-bengal-tiger-panthera-tigris-tigris-in-a-human-dominated-western-terai-arc-landscape-india
#11
Sujeet Kumar Singh, Jouni Aspi, Laura Kvist, Reeta Sharma, Puneet Pandey, Sudhanshu Mishra, Randeep Singh, Manoj Agrawal, Surendra Prakash Goyal
Despite massive global conservation strategies, tiger populations continued to decline until recently, mainly due to habitat loss, human-animal conflicts, and poaching. These factors are known to affect the genetic characteristics of tiger populations and decrease local effective population sizes. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) at the foothills of the Himalaya is one of the 42 source sites of tigers around the globe. Therefore, information on how landscape features and anthropogenic factors affect the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and variation of tigers in TAL is needed to develop proper management strategies for achieving long-term conservation goals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435002/systemic-arterial-hypertension-secondary-to-chronic-kidney-disease-in-two-captive-born-large-felids
#12
A Leclerc, E Trehiou-Sechi, E M Greunz, C Damoiseaux, J Bouvard, V Chetboul
Systemic arterial hypertension (SHT) has been widely described in the domestic cat (Felis catus). In these feline patients, SHT is considered as the most common vascular disorder of middle-aged to older animals, and secondary SHT related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents the most common form of the disease. We describe here the first two cases of spontaneous SHT in large felids, i.e. one 18-year old, 34.4 kg, male North-Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, case #1) and one 20-year old, 28...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424462/dietary-behaviour-of-man-eating-lions-as-revealed-by-dental-microwear-textures
#13
Larisa R G DeSantis, Bruce D Patterson
Lions (Panthera leo) feed on diverse prey species, a range that is broadened by their cooperative hunting. Although humans are not typical prey, habitual man-eating by lions is well documented. Fathoming the motivations of the Tsavo and Mfuwe man-eaters (killed in 1898 in Kenya and 1991 in Zambia, respectively) may be elusive, but we can clarify aspects of their behaviour using dental microwear texture analysis. Specifically, we analysed the surface textures of lion teeth to assess whether these notorious man-eating lions scavenged carcasses during their depredations...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423965/historical-mitochondrial-diversity-in-african-leopards-panthera-pardus-revealed-by-archival-museum-specimens
#14
Corey Anco, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Philipp Henschel, Seth W Cunningham, George Amato, Evon Hekkala
Once found throughout Africa and Eurasia, the leopard (Panthera pardus) was recently uplisted from Near Threatened to Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Historically, more than 50% of the leopard's global range occurred in continental Africa, yet sampling from this part of the species' distribution is only sparsely represented in prior studies examining patterns of genetic variation at the continental or global level. Broad sampling to determine baseline patterns of genetic variation throughout the leopard's historical distribution is important, as these measures are currently used by the IUCN to direct conservation priorities and management plans...
April 19, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414723/prevalence-and-determinants-of-stereotypic-behaviours-and-physiological-stress-among-tigers-and-leopards-in-indian-zoos
#15
Janice Vaz, Edward J Narayan, R Dileep Kumar, K Thenmozhi, Krishnamoorthy Thiyagesan, Nagarajan Baskaran
India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387333/elemental-classification-of-the-tusks-of-dugong-dugong-dugong-by-hh-xrf-analysis-and-comparison-with-other-species
#16
Korakot Nganvongpanit, Kittisak Buddhachat, Promporn Piboon, Thippaporn Euppayo, Patcharaporn Kaewmong, Phaothep Cherdsukjai, Kongkiat Kittiwatanawong, Chatchote Thitaram
The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF)...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379997/wild-versus-domestic-prey-in-the-diet-of-reintroduced-tigers-panthera-tigris-in-the-livestock-dominated-multiple-use-forests-of-panna-tiger-reserve-india
#17
S S Kolipaka, W L M Tamis, M van 't Zelfde, G A Persoon, H H de Iongh
Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379961/mapping-black-panthers-macroecological-modeling-of-melanism-in-leopards-panthera-pardus
#18
Lucas G da Silva, Kae Kawanishi, Philipp Henschel, Andrew Kittle, Arezoo Sanei, Alexander Reebin, Dale Miquelle, Andrew B Stein, Anjali Watson, Laurence Bruce Kekule, Ricardo B Machado, Eduardo Eizirik
The geographic distribution and habitat association of most mammalian polymorphic phenotypes are still poorly known, hampering assessments of their adaptive significance. Even in the case of the black panther, an iconic melanistic variant of the leopard (Panthera pardus), no map exists describing its distribution. We constructed a large database of verified records sampled across the species' range, and used it to map the geographic occurrence of melanism. We then estimated the potential distribution of melanistic and non-melanistic leopards using niche-modeling algorithms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340564/erratum-to-schrodinger-s-scat-a-critical-review-of-the-currently-available-tiger-panthera-tigris-and-leopard-panthera-pardus-specific-primers-in-india-and-a-novel-leopard-specific-primer
#19
Pranay Amruth Maroju, Sonu Yadav, Vishnupriya Kolipakam, Shweta Singh, Qamar Qureshi, Yadvendradev Jhala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333126/cheetahs-have-a-stronger-constitutive-innate-immunity-than-leopards
#20
Sonja K Heinrich, Heribert Hofer, Alexandre Courtiol, Jörg Melzheimer, Martin Dehnhard, Gábor Á Czirják, Bettina Wachter
As a textbook case for the importance of genetics in conservation, absence of genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is thought to endanger species viability, since it is considered crucial for pathogen resistance. An alternative view of the immune system inspired by life history theory posits that a strong response should evolve in other components of the immune system if there is little variation in the MHC. In contrast to the leopard (Panthera pardus), the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has a relatively low genetic variability at the MHC, yet free-ranging cheetahs are healthy...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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