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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928654/using-certified-timber-extraction-to-benefit-jaguar-and-ecosystem-conservation
#1
REVIEW
John Polisar, Benoit de Thoisy, Damián I Rumiz, Fabricio Díaz Santos, Roan Balas McNab, Rony Garcia-Anleu, Gabriela Ponce-Santizo, Rosario Arispe, Claudia Venegas
The jaguar Panthera onca requires large areas of relatively intact habitats containing adequate amounts of prey to survive. Since a substantial portion of jaguar range occurs outside of strict protected areas, there is a need for economic incentives for habitat conservation, which carefully managed selective logging can provide. Forest Stewardship Council and Pan European Forest Council certifications intended to regulate wood extraction to maintain the ecological functions of forests require evidence of biodiversity and ecosystem conservation...
December 7, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925009/characteristics-and-fertility-of-sumatran-tiger-spermatozoa-cryopreserved-with-different-sugars
#2
Ni Wayan Kurniani Karja, Mokhamad Fahrudin, Mohamad Agus Setiadi, Ligaya Ita Tumbelaka, Retno Sudarwati, Yohana Tri Hastuti, Bongot Huas Mulia, Ardyta Widianti, Keni Sultan, Tsukasa Terazono, Zhao Namula, Masayasu Taniguchi, Fuminori Tanihara, Tatsuya Takemoto, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Yoko Sato, Takeshige Otoi
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation of semen is one of the most important methods for the preservation of endangered tigers. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of sugar supplementation on the cryosurvival of spermatozoa from Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The post-thaw characteristics and fertility of spermatozoa cryopreserved with different sugars (glucose, lactose, and trehalose) were evaluated using heterologous in-vitro fertilisation with cat oocytes...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881765/improved-homeothermy-and-hypothermia-in-african-lions-during-gestation
#3
Paul D Trethowan, Tom Hart, Andrew J Loveridge, Anna Haw, Andrea Fuller, David W Macdonald
Mammals use endogenously produced heat to maintain a high and relatively constant core body temperature (Tb). How they regulate their Tb during reproduction might inform us as to what thermal conditions are necessary for optimal development of offspring. However, few studies have measured Tb in free-ranging animals for sufficient periods of time to encounter reproductive events. We measured Tb continuously in six free-ranging adult female African lions (Panthera leo) for approximately 1 year. Lions reduced the 24 h amplitude of Tb by about 25% during gestation and decreased mean 24 h Tb by 1...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878881/beneficial-effect-of-extracellular-adenosine-5-triphosphate-treatment-on-the-indochinese-leopard-panthera-pardus-delacouri-sperm-quality-after-cryopreservation
#4
P Thuwanut, W Tipkantha, B Siriaroonrat, P Comizzoli, K Chatdarong
The Indochinese leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri) population, included in CITES Appendix I, has been declining for decades. Proper gamete preservation condition is critical for breeding programme management using artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization (IVF). The present study aimed at investigating the impact of post-thawing treatment of leopard semen with extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATPe) on sperm quality (including morphological traits and ability to fertilize an oocyte). Semen from six adult male leopards was collected by electroejaculation (one ejaculation per cat)...
November 22, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853599/prey-depletion-as-a-threat-to-the-world-s-large-carnivores
#5
Christopher Wolf, William J Ripple
Large terrestrial carnivores are an ecologically important, charismatic and highly endangered group of species. Here, we assess the importance of prey depletion as a driver of large carnivore endangerment globally using lists of prey species for each large carnivore compiled from the literature. We consider spatial variation in prey endangerment, changes in endangerment over time and the causes of prey depletion, finding considerable evidence that loss of prey base is a major and wide-ranging threat among large carnivore species...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829977/behavioral-correlates-between-daily-activity-and-sociality-in-wild-and-captive-origin-african-lions
#6
Emma J Dunston, Jackie Abell, Rafael Freire
Study of behavioral correlations within and across populations has long been of interest to ethologists. An exploration of behavioral correlations between sociality and behavior of African lions (Panthera leo) was undertaken to examine if this approach is better able to reveal important aspects of lion behavior not easily discernible by looking at these behaviors separately. Resting behavior and received play interactions were correlated in 2 captive-origin prides and one wild pride, attributable to the involvement of cubs and sub-adults...
2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812324/big-cat-coalitions-a-comparative-analysis-of-regional-brain-volumes-in-felidae
#7
Sharleen T Sakai, Bradley M Arsznov, Ani E Hristova, Elise J Yoon, Barbara L Lundrigan
Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788055/diagnosis-and-implications-of-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-banded-mongooses-mungos-mungo-in-the-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#8
Angela C Brüns, Manfred Tanner, Mark C Williams, Louise Botha, Amanda O'Brien, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Paul D Van Helden, John Clarke, Anita L Michel
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was first diagnosed in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in 1990. Research has since focused on the maintenance host, the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ) and clinically affected lion ( Panthera leo ). However, little is known about the role of small predators in tuberculosis epidemiology. During 2011-12, we screened banded mongooses ( Mungos mungo ) in the bTB high-prevalence zone of the KNP for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members. Fecal swabs, tracheal swabs, and tracheal lavages of 76 banded mongooses caught in cage traps within a 2-km radius of Skukuza Rest Camp were submitted for Mycobacterium culture, isolation, and species identification...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786283/estimating-lion-abundance-using-n-mixture-models-for-social-species
#9
Jerrold L Belant, Florent Bled, Clay M Wilton, Robert Fyumagwa, Stanslaus B Mwampeta, Dean E Beyer
Declining populations of large carnivores worldwide, and the complexities of managing human-carnivore conflicts, require accurate population estimates of large carnivores to promote their long-term persistence through well-informed management We used N-mixture models to estimate lion (Panthera leo) abundance from call-in and track surveys in southeastern Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Because of potential habituation to broadcasted calls and social behavior, we developed a hierarchical observation process within the N-mixture model conditioning lion detectability on their group response to call-ins and individual detection probabilities...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783697/under-the-skin-of-a-lion-unique-evidence-of-upper-paleolithic-exploitation-and-use-of-cave-lion-panthera-spelaea-from-the-lower-gallery-of-la-garma-spain
#10
Marián Cueto, Edgard Camarós, Pedro Castaños, Roberto Ontañón, Pablo Arias
Pleistocene skinning and exploitation of carnivore furs have been previously inferred from archaeological evidence. Nevertheless, the evidence of skinning and fur processing tends to be weak and the interpretations are not strongly sustained by the archaeological record. In the present paper, we analyze unique evidence of patterned anthropic modification and skeletal representation of fossil remains of cave lion (Panthera spelaea) from the Lower Gallery of La Garma (Cantabria, Spain). This site is one of the few that provides Pleistocene examples of lion exploitation by humans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783617/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-mesoamerican-jaguars-panthera-onca-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#11
Claudia Wultsch, Anthony Caragiulo, Isabela Dias-Freedman, Howard Quigley, Salisa Rabinowitz, George Amato
Mesoamerican jaguars (Panthera onca) have been extirpated from over 77% of their historic range, inhabiting fragmented landscapes at potentially reduced population sizes. Maintaining and restoring genetic diversity and connectivity across human-altered landscapes has become a major conservation priority; nonetheless large-scale genetic monitoring of natural populations is rare. This is the first regional conservation genetic study of jaguars to primarily use fecal samples collected in the wild across five Mesoamerican countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763827/serosurvey-for-selected-viral-pathogens-among-sympatric-species-of-the-african-large-predator-guild-in-northern-botswana
#12
Anne-Lise Chaber, Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, Robyn Hartley, John W McNutt
The recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area of which Botswana's Okavango Delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ), four leopards ( Panthera pardus ), 19 spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ), and six cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Okavango...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734631/home-range-establishment-and-utilization-by-reintroduced-lions-panthera-leo-in-a-small-south-african-wildlife-reserve
#13
Sze-Wing Yiu, Francesca Parrini, Leszek Karczmarski, Mark Keith
Understanding of animal spatial behavior is essential for informed management decisions. In southern Africa, reintroduction of lions (Panthera leo) to small reserves (<1000 km(2) ) has increased in recent years but studies on their ranging behavior in these enclosed systems remain lacking. We applied Time Local Convex Hull (T-LoCoH) methods to study the home range establishment and utilization of 11 lions reintroduced to Dinokeng Game Reserve, South Africa, during 2011 through 2014. Lions established home ranges close to their release sites and during the following three years their home range sizes continued to increase, but in each individual case it remained smaller than half of the reserve area (< 70 km(2) )...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723084/isolation-of-primary-fibroblast-culture-from-wildlife-the-panthera-onca-case-to-preserve-a-south-american-endangered-species
#14
Ana Cecilia Mestre-Citrinovitz, Adrián Jorge Sestelo, María Belén Ceballos, José Lino Barañao, Patricia Saragüeta
Cell line establishment of somatic cells is a valuable resource to preserve genetic material of rare, difficult-to-find, endangered and giant species like Jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest South American felid. This unit focuses on the isolation and culture of fibroblasts from Jaguar skin and muscle biopsies, and ear cartilage dissection immediately after death to preserve one of the several endangered species in this biome. These culture techniques enabled us to contribute 570 samples from 45 autochthonous and endangered species, including Jaguar...
October 10, 2016: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669009/surveillance-for-viral-and-parasitic-pathogens-in-a-vulnerable-african-lion-panthera-leo-population-in-the-northern-tuli-game-reserve-botswana
#15
Kimberly R McDermid, Andrei Snyman, Frederick J Verreynne, John P Carroll, Banie L Penzhorn, Michael J Yabsley
African lion ( Panthera leo ) numbers are decreasing rapidly and populations are becoming smaller and more fragmented. Infectious diseases are one of numerous issues threatening free-ranging lion populations, and low-density populations are particularly at risk. We collected data on the prevalence and diversity of viral and parasitic pathogens in a small lion population in eastern Botswana. During 2012 and 2014, blood samples were collected from 59% (n=13) of the adult-subadult lions in the Northern Tuli Game Reserve in eastern Botswana...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661997/divergent-sapovirus-strains-and-infection-prevalence-in-wild-carnivores-in-the-serengeti-ecosystem-a-long-term-study
#16
Ximena A Olarte-Castillo, Heribert Hofer, Katja V Goller, Vito Martella, Patricia D Moehlman, Marion L East
The genus Sapovirus, in the family Caliciviridae, includes enteric viruses of humans and domestic animals. Information on sapovirus infection of wildlife is limited and is currently lacking for any free-ranging wildlife species in Africa. By screening a large number of predominantly fecal samples (n = 631) obtained from five carnivore species in the Serengeti ecosystem, East Africa, sapovirus RNA was detected in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta, family Hyaenidae), African lion (Panthera leo, family Felidae), and bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, family Canidae), but not in golden or silver-backed jackals (Canis aureus and C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648566/sustainability-and-long-term-tenure-lion-trophy-hunting-in-tanzania
#17
Henry Brink, Robert J Smith, Kirsten Skinner, Nigel Leader-Williams
It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638113/ehrlichia-sp-infection-in-carthorses-of-low-income-owners-southern-brazil
#18
Thállitha S Vieira, Rafael F Vieira, Felipe S Krawczak, Herbert S Soares, Ana M Guimarães, Ivan R Barros-Filho, Mary Marcondes, Marcelo B Labruna, Alexander W Biondo, Odilon Vidotto
Although well established in dogs, Ehrlichia sp. infection has been scarcely reported in horses. The aim was to perform a comprehensive serological and molecular survey for the detection of Ehrlichia spp. in carthorses from Southern Brazil. Blood samples from 190 carthorses from Paraná State were sampled. Horses were also tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies were detected by a commercial rapid ELISA, and immunofluorescence antibody assays (IFA) with E...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634400/accuracy-of-mandibular-force-profiles-for-bite-force-estimation-and-feeding-behavior-reconstruction-in-extant-and-extinct-carnivorans
#19
François Therrien, Annie Quinney, Kohei Tanaka, Darla K Zelenitsky
Mandibular force profiles apply the principles of beam theory to identify mandibular biomechanical properties that reflect the bite force and feeding strategies of extant and extinct predators. While this method uses the external dimensions of the mandibular corpus to determine its biomechanical properties, more accurate results could potentially be obtained by quantifying its internal cortical bone distribution. To test this possibility, mandibular force profiles were calculated using both external mandibular dimensions ('solid mandible model') and quantification of internal bone distribution of the mandibular corpus obtained from computed tomography scans ('hollow mandible model') for five carnivorans (Canis lupus, Crocuta crocuta, Panthera leo, Neofelis nebulosa and the extinct Canis dirus)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631966/de-novo-transcriptomic-analysis-and-development-of-est-ssr-markers-in-the-siberian-tiger-panthera-tigris-altaica
#20
Taofeng Lu, Yujiao Sun, Qin Ma, Minghao Zhu, Dan Liu, Jianzhang Ma, Yuehui Ma, Hongyan Chen, Weijun Guan
The Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, is an endangered species, and much more work is needed to protect this species, which is still vulnerable to extinction. Conservation efforts may be supported by the genetic assessment of wild populations, for which highly specific microsatellite markers are required. However, only a limited amount of genetic sequence data is available for this species. To identify the genes involved in the lung transcriptome and to develop additional simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the Siberian tiger, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq to characterize the Siberian tiger transcriptome in lung tissue (designated 'PTA-lung') and a pooled tissue sample (designated 'PTA')...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
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