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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333349/annual-and-spatial-variation-in-composition-and-activity-of-terrestrial-mammals-on-two-replicate-plots-in-lowland-forest-of-eastern-ecuador
#1
John G Blake, Bette A Loiselle
Terrestrial mammals are important components of lowland forests in Amazonia (as seed dispersal agents, herbivores, predators) but there are relatively few detailed studies from areas that have not been affected by human activities (e.g., hunting, logging). Yet, such information is needed to evaluate effects of humans elsewhere. We used camera traps to sample medium to large-sized terrestrial mammals at a site in lowland forests of eastern Ecuador, one of the most biologically rich areas in the world. We deployed cameras on two study plots in terra firme forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298311/when-roads-appear-jaguars-decline-increased-access-to-an-amazonian-wilderness-area-reduces-potential-for-jaguar-conservation
#2
Santiago Espinosa, Gerardo Celis, Lyn C Branch
Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructure development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297812/canine-distemper-in-a-vaccinated-snow-leopard-panthera-uncia
#3
Sathya K Chinnadurai, Michael J Kinsel, Michael J Adkesson, Karen Terio
A 6-yr-old male snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) presented with acute seizures, hyperthermia, and tachypnea. Because of a diagnosis of anuric renal failure, the animal was euthanized. On histopathologic examination, numerous intralesional intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions were found in the lungs, lymph nodes, and stomach. Positive immunohistochemical staining for canine distemper virus (CDV) was found in the lungs and, to a lesser extent, in the lymph nodes and brain. Molecular testing yielded a CDV H gene sequence that was closely related to CDV isolates concurrently found in wild raccoons from adjacent forested areas...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297795/pharmacokinetic-parameters-of-cefovecin-sodium-convenia-in-captive-tigers-panthera-tigris
#4
Andrew C Cushing, Edward C Ramsay, James Steeil, Sherry Cox
A single 8 mg/kg dose of Cefovecin (Convenia®) was administered intramuscularly in the hindlimb of eight anesthetized captive tigers ( Panthera tigris) and serial blood samples were collected over the next 56 days to determine pharmacokinetic characteristics. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine plasma levels, and demonstrated a mean terminal half-life of 227.8 ± 29.3 hr. Cefovecin, >1 μg/ml, was detected in plasma levels up to 56 days postinjection. Protein binding of tiger plasma for cefovecin was 98%...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289677/endocardial-fibroelastosis-in-two-related-tiger-cubs-panthera-tigris
#5
Kiira T Rodriguez, Andrew C Cushing, Carla Bernal, Ed C Ramsay, Linden E Craig, Rebecca E Gompf
Two tiger cubs (Panthera tigris) from the same litter were evaluated for suspected cardiac disease. Two cubs with a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype were diagnosed with endocardial fibroelastosis based on necropsy and histopathologic examinations. Echocardiography revealed salient anatomic and functional aspects of this cardiac disorder. This is the first report of endocardial fibroelastosis in this species.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282580/savanna-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-verus-nesting-ecology-at-bagnomba-kedougou-senegal
#6
REVIEW
L Badji, P I Ndiaye, S M Lindshield, C T Ba, J D Pruetz
We studied the nesting behavior of the critically endangered West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). We assumed that the nesting data stemmed from a single, unhabituated community at the Bagnomba hill site in the savanna-woodlands of southeastern Senegal. The aim of this study was to examine chimpanzees' nesting habits in terms of the tree species utilized and sleeping nest heights. We recorded a total of 550 chimpanzee nests at Bagnomba between January 2015 and December 2015. The chimpanzees here made nests in particular tree species more often than others...
December 27, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208916/sumatran-tiger-survival-threatened-by-deforestation-despite-increasing-densities-in-parks
#7
Matthew Scott Luskin, Wido Rizki Albert, Mathias W Tobler
The continuing development of improved capture-recapture (CR) modeling techniques used to study apex predators has also limited robust temporal and cross-site analyses due to different methods employed. We develop an approach to standardize older non-spatial CR and newer spatial CR density estimates and examine trends for critically endangered Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) using a meta-regression of 17 existing densities and new estimates from our own fieldwork. We find that tiger densities were 47% higher in primary versus degraded forests and, unexpectedly, increased 4...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168444/prevalence-and-molecular-identification-of-trichinella-species-isolated-from-wildlife-originating-from-limpopo-and-mpumalanga-provinces-of-south-africa
#8
S Mukaratirwa, L J La Grange, M P Malatji, B Reininghaus, J Lamb
Trichinella species are widely distributed on all continents with the exception of Antarctica, although the full spectrum of Trichinella species found in sub-Saharan African countries, and their hosts, has not been fully documented. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Trichinella in wildlife from the Greater Kruger National Park (GKNP) and adjacent areas located in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa, and to identify the species and/or genotypes of Trichinella larvae isolated from muscle tissues, using molecular techniques...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138744/multiple-myeloma-in-an-amur-tiger-panthera-tigris-altaica
#9
Alison M Lee, Naomi Guppy, John Bainbridge, Hanne Jahns
The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is an endangered tiger subspecies. An adult zoo-bred female was found collapsed, and died despite supportive treatment. Hematology and biochemistry showed pancytopenia and hyperglobulinemia, and serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal band in the β-globulin region. Necropsy demonstrated hemoabdomen, multifocal lytic bone marrow lesions, splenomegaly, and hemorrhagic hepatic nodules, with left medial lobe rupture. There were mutifocal hemorrhages in the subcutis, lung, epicardium, and intestinal mucosa...
2017: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134982/electrocardiographic-and-blood-pressure-measurements-in-captive-african-lions-panthera-leo-immobilized-with-xylazine-ketamine-combination
#10
T O Omóbòwálé, P I Otuh, O A Adejumobi, J O Abiola, T Adebiyi, B N Ogunro, A O Adeogun
Electrocardiographic and blood pressure measurements are extremely valuable diagnostic tools in the evaluationof the cardiovascular system of living animals. In this study, 6-lead electrocardiograms were recorded from five male captiveAfrican lions (Panthera leo). Also, blood pressure measurements were recorded and compared from three different sites;fore limb, hind limb and the tail, were recorded. Immobilization was done with a combination of Ketamine Hydrochloride(10mg/kg) and Xylazine (3mg/kg). Measurements were recorded as mean ± standard deviation...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114438/assessment-of-fine-scale-resource-selection-and-spatially-explicit-habitat-suitability-modelling-for-a-re-introduced-tiger-panthera-tigris-population-in-central-india
#11
Mriganka Shekhar Sarkar, Ramesh Krishnamurthy, Jeyaraj A Johnson, Subharanjan Sen, Goutam Kumar Saha
Background: Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals' ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger (Panthera tigris), which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081476/sterile-nodular-panniculitis-with-lung-and-lymph-node-involvement-in-a-siberian-tiger-panthera-tigris-altica
#12
Shou-Ping Hu, Zhuo Zhang, Jiao-Er Zhang, Xue-Hui Cai, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Xi-Jun He
A 2- to 4-year-old uncastrated male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altica) bred in a local wild animal park presented with generalized clinical signs including abdominal pain, fever, lethargy, and anorexia, along with subcutaneous nodules along the trunk. The patient subsequently died of chronic, progressive dyspnea despite 45 days of antibiotic treatment. At necropsy, mesenteric fat inflammation and multiple subcutaneous, peritoneal, and intraabdominal nodules were observed. The lungs demonstrated congestion and heavy coagulation, and necrotic foci were observed on the cut surface...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065143/a-roaring-trade-the-legal-trade-in-panthera-leo-bones-from-africa-to-east-southeast-asia
#13
Vivienne L Williams, Andrew J Loveridge, David J Newton, David W Macdonald
The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053427/canine-distemper-virus-in-a-wild-far-eastern-leopard-panthera-pardus-orientalis
#14
Nadezhda S Sulikhan, Martin Gilbert, Ekaterina Yu Blidchenko, Sergei V Naidenko, Galina V Ivanchuk, Tatiana Yu Gorpenchenko, Mikhail V Alshinetskiy, Elena I Shevtsova, John M Goodrich, John C M Lewis, Mikhail S Goncharuk, Olga V Uphyrkina, Vyatcheslav V Rozhnov, Sergey V Shedko, Denise McAloose, Dale G Miquelle
The critically endangered population of Far Eastern leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) may number as few as 60 individuals and is at risk from stochastic processes such as infectious disease. During May 2015, a case of canine distemper virus (CDV) was diagnosed in a wild leopard exhibiting severe neurologic disease in the Russian territory of Primorskii Krai. Amplified sequences of the CDV hemagglutinin gene and phosphoprotein gene aligned within the Arctic-like clade of CDV, which includes viruses from elsewhere in Russia, China, Europe, and North America...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049374/correction-age-estimation-of-african-lions-panthera-leo-by-ratio-of-tooth-areas
#15
Paula A White, Dennis Ikanda, Luigi Ferrante, Philippe Chardonnet, Pascal Mesochina, Roberto Cameriere
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153648.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029632/fatal-haemorrhage-and-neoplastic-thrombosis-in-a-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo-with-metastatic-testicular-sex-cord-stromal-tumour
#16
Omar Antonio Gonzales-Viera, Angélica María Sánchez-Sarmiento, Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo Fernandes, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Rodrigo Albergaria Ressio, José Luiz Catão-Dias
BACKGROUND: The study of neoplasia in wildlife species contributes to the understanding of cancer biology, management practices, and comparative pathology. Higher frequencies of neoplasms among captive non-domestic felids have been reported most commonly in aging individuals. However, testicular tumours have rarely been reported. This report describes a metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour leading to fatal haemorrhage and thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo). CASE PRESENTATION: During necropsy of a 16-year-old male African lion, the left testicle and spermatic cord were found to be intra-abdominal (cryptorchid), semi-hard and grossly enlarged with multiple pale-yellow masses...
October 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979344/giardia-duodenalis-in-captive-tigers-panthera-tigris-palawan-bearcats-arctictis-binturong-whitei-and-asian-palm-civet-paradoxurus-hermaphroditus-at-a-wildlife-facility-in-manila-philippines
#17
Nick Angelo P Velante, Rey B Oronan, Marco F Reyes, Billy P Divina
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in captive animals in a wildlife facility. This is the first study conducted in these animals from the facility. METHODS: Eight captive tigers (Panthera tigris), two Palawan bearcats (Arctictis binturong whitei) and one Asian Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) currently housed at a wildlife facility in Manila, Philippines were considered in 2012. These animals were apparently healthy with no signs of disease during the study...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971533/growth-rate-and-stable-carbon-and-nitrogen-isotope-trophic-discrimination-factors-of-lion-and-leopard-whiskers
#18
Ruwimbo Mutirwara, Frans G T Radloff, Daryl Codron
RATIONALE: Stable isotope analysis (SIA) of whiskers has been used to identify temporal feeding habits, intra-population diet variation, as well as individual dietary specialisation of marine and terrestrial carnivores. However, the potential of the method to disclose such dietary information for large wild felids is hampered by lack of information on species-specific whisker growth rates, whisker growth patterns and whisker-diet trophic discrimination factors (TDFs). METHODS: Whisker growth rates and growth patterns were measured for four lions Panthera leo and one leopard Panthera pardus held at the National Zoological Gardens, Pretoria, South Africa...
October 3, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953899/did-saber-tooth-kittens-grow-up-musclebound-a-study-of-postnatal-limb-bone-allometry-in-felids-from-the-pleistocene-of-rancho-la-brea
#19
Katherine Long, Donald Prothero, Meena Madan, Valerie J P Syverson
Previous studies have demonstrated that the Pleistocene saber-toothed cat Smilodon fatalis had many forelimb adaptations for increased strength, presumably to grapple with and subdue prey. The Rancho La Brea tar pits yield large samples of juvenile limb bones forming a growth series that allow us to examine how Smilodon kittens grew up. Almost all available juvenile limb bones were measured, and reduced major axis fits were calculated to determine the allometric growth trends. Contrary to expectations based on their robust limbs, Smilodon kittens show the typical pattern of growth found in other large felids (such as the Ice Age lion, Panthera atrox, as well as living tigers, cougars, servals, and wildcats) where the limb grows longer and more slender faster than they grow thick...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920823/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-a-unilateral-renal-cystadenoma-in-an-african-lion-panthera-leo
#20
Ronan Eustace, Jacob Rubin, Kimberly A Thompson, Kyle Snowdon, James G Sikarskie, Colleen Monahan, Rebecca C Smedley
A renal tubular cystadenoma was diagnosed in a 14-yr-old male African lion (Panthera leo). During a routine health evaluation, a left renal mass was identified via physical examination, radiographs, and abdominal ultrasonography. The mass was 30 × 15 cm in size and had a thin capsule with central hypoechoic fluid, suggestive of a perirenal cyst. An exploratory celiotomy with partial nephrectomy was performed without complications. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a thick fibrous capsule surrounding multiple, variable-sized cysts that markedly compressed the adjacent fibrotic and atrophied renal cortex...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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