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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224883/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-zoo-and-domestic-animals-in-jiangxi-province-china
#1
Houqiang Luo, Kun Li, Hui Zhang, Ping Gan, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaoxing Wu, Yanfang Lan, Jiaxiang Wang
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217865/caching-reduces-kleptoparasitism-in-a-solitary-large-felid
#2
Guy A Balme, Jennifer R B Miller, Ross T Pitman, Luke T B Hunter
Food caching is a common strategy used by a diversity of animals, including carnivores, to store and/or secure food. Despite its prevalence, the drivers of caching behaviour, and its impacts on individuals, remain poorly understood, particularly for short-term food cachers. Leopards Panthera pardus exhibit a unique form of short-term food caching, regularly hoisting, storing, and consuming prey in trees. We explored the factors motivating such behaviour among leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa, associated with four not mutually exclusive hypotheses: food-perishability, consumption-time, resource-pulse, and kleptoparasitism-avoidance...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210544/cataracts-and-strabismus-associated-with-hand-rearing-using-artificial-milk-formulas-in-bengal-tiger-panthera-tigris-spp-tigris-cubs
#3
Rogério Ribas Lange, Leandro Lima, Erika Frühvald, Vera Sônia Nunes da Silva, Aparecida Sônia de Souza, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira
The aim of this investigation is to describe the potential contributing nutritional factors involved in the development of ophthalmic and dermatologic changes in four Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris spp tigris) cubs fed an artificial milk formula. The affected animals were compared with two other tiger cubs that had been nursed by their dam naturally. After the first clinical signs appeared, the tiger cubs underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Severe symmetric generalized alopecia over the trunk, sparing the head and distal portion of the front and rear limbs, bilateral cataracts and strabismus were noticed...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207298/hepatozoon-spp-infects-free-ranging-jaguars-panthera-onca-in-brazil
#4
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Betina Metzger, Anah Tereza Almeida Jácomo, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Lucia Helena O'Dwyer, Karinados Santos Paduan, Grasiela Edith Oliveira Porfírio, Leandro Silveira, Rahel Sollmann, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Natália Mundim Tôrres, JoséSoares Ferreira Neto
This study investigated the presence of Hepatozoon spp. in jaguars (Panthera onca) and domestic animals in the Cerrado, Amazon and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, blood samples were collected from 30 jaguars, 129 domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and 22 domestic cats (Felis catus) for molecular tests. All of the jaguars from the Pantanal (n=22) and Cerrado (n=4) and 3 of 4 jaguars from the Amazon were positive for Hepatozoon spp. Domestic dogs (62.8%) and cats (31.8%) were also positive for the agent...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196774/is-the-free-ranging-jaguar-panthera-onca-a-reservoir-for-cytauxzoon-felis-in-brazil
#5
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Betina Metzger, Karina Dos Santos Paduan, Helena Lucia O'Dwyer, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Grasiela E O Porfírio, Leandro Silveira, Rahel Sollmann, Natália Mundim Tôrres, José Soares Ferreira Neto
This study investigated the occurrence of Cytauxzoon felis and Babesia spp. in free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca), domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and domestic cats (Felis catus) from the Cerrado, Amazon and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 30 jaguars, 129 dogs and 22 cats for detection of the 18S rRNA genes of piroplasmids. All of the jaguars from the Pantanal (n=22) and Cerrado (n=4) and three of four jaguars from the Amazon were positive for C. felis, but no dogs or cats were positive for the agent...
February 6, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186700/retrospective-study-of-mortality-in-asiatic-lions-panthera-leo-persica-in-the-european-breeding-population-between-2000-and-2014
#6
Olivia Metz, Jonathan Williams, Rikke Kruse Nielsen, Nic Masters
Although the European population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) has been managed under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP) since 1990, little is known about the health status of the population. This study was designed to characterize mortality for this population through examination of the studbook and other records on 392 Asiatic lions living in the EEP between 2000 and 2014. A total of 270 animals died during the period with 80% of them being under 1 year old. The mortality rate for under 1 year olds was 54%, while the odds of survival of cubs within a litter increased if the dam had had litters previously...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179511/spatio-temporal-interactions-facilitate-large-carnivore-sympatry-across-a-resource-gradient
#7
K Ullas Karanth, Arjun Srivathsa, Divya Vasudev, Mahi Puri, Ravishankar Parameshwaran, N Samba Kumar
Species within a guild vary their use of time, space and resources, thereby enabling sympatry. As intra-guild competition intensifies, such behavioural adaptations may become prominent. We assessed mechanisms of facilitating sympatry among dhole (Cuon alpinus), leopard (Panthera pardus) and tiger (Panthera tigris) in tropical forests of India using camera-trap surveys. We examined population-level temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal segregation among them across four reserves representing a gradient of carnivore and prey densities...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149682/bells-bomas-and-beefsteak-complex-patterns-of-human-predator-conflict-at-the-wildlife-agropastoral-interface-in-zimbabwe
#8
Andrew J Loveridge, Timothy Kuiper, Roger H Parry, Lovemore Sibanda, Jane Hunt Hunt, Brent Stapelkamp, Lovelater Sebele, David W Macdonald
Reports of livestock depredation by large predators were systematically collected at three study sites in northwestern Zimbabwe from 2008-2013. We recorded 1,527 incidents (2,039 animals killed and 306 injured). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) were mostly responsible, and cattle and donkeys most frequently attacked. Patterns of predation were variable among study sites. Nevertheless, some overall patterns were apparent. Predators selected livestock close to the size of their preferred wild prey, suggesting behaviours evolved to optimise foraging success may determine the domestic species primarily preyed upon...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135338/from-attitudes-to-actions-predictors-of-lion-killing-by-maasai-warriors
#9
Leela Hazzah, Alistair Bath, Stephanie Dolrenry, Amy Dickman, Laurence Frank
Despite legal protection, deliberate killing by local people is one of the major threats to the conservation of lions and other large carnivores in Africa. Addressing this problem poses particular challenges, mainly because it is difficult to uncover illicit behavior. This article examined two groups of Maasai warriors: individuals who have killed African lions (Panthera leo) and those who have not. We conducted interviews to explore the relationship between attitudes, intentions and known lion killing behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122192/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-african-lions-panthera-leo-in-the-kruger-national-park
#10
Tashnica Taime Sylvester, Laura Elizabeth Rosen Martin, Peter Buss, Andre Gareth Loxton, Guy Anton Hausler, Leana Rossouw, Paul van Helden, Sven David Charles Parsons, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Michele Ann Miller
Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), is endemic in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. African lions ( Panthera leo ) are susceptible to BTB, but the impact of the disease on lion populations is unknown. In this study, we used a novel gene expression assay for chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) to measure the prevalence of M. bovis infection in 70 free-ranging lions that were opportunistically sampled in the southern and central regions of the KNP. In the southern region of the KNP, the apparent prevalence of M...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120342/morphological-study-of-the-persian-leopard-panthera-pardus-saxicolor-tongue
#11
J Sadeghinezhad, M T Sheibani, I Memarian, R Chiocchetti
This study described the morphological features of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) tongue using light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The keratinized filiform papillae were distributed all over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue and contained small processes. They were changed into a cylindrical shape in the body and conical shape in the root. The fungiform papillae were found on the apex and margin of the tongue. Few taste pores were observed on the dorsal surface of each papilla...
January 24, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092905/endocranial-morphology-of-the-extinct-north-american-lion-panthera-atrox
#12
Andrew R Cuff, Christopher Stockey, Anjali Goswami
The extinct North American lion (Panthera atrox) is one of the largest felids (Mammalia, Carnivora) to have ever lived, and it is known from a plethora of incredibly well-preserved remains. Despite this abundance of material, there has been little research into its endocranial anatomy. CT scans of a skull of P. atrox from the Pleistocene La Brea Tar pits were used to generate the first virtual endocranium for this species and to elucidate previously unknown details of its brain size and gross structure, cranial nerves, and inner-ear morphology...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070283/spatial-and-temporal-avoidance-of-risk-within-a-large-carnivore-guild
#13
Egil Dröge, Scott Creel, Matthew S Becker, Jassiel M'soka
Within a large carnivore guild, subordinate competitors (African wild dog, Lycaon pictus, and cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus) might reduce the limiting effects of dominant competitors (lion, Panthera leo, and spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta) by avoiding them in space, in time, or through patterns of prey selection. Understanding how these competitors cope with one other can inform strategies for their conservation. We tested how mechanisms of niche partitioning promote coexistence by quantifying patterns of prey selection and the use of space and time by all members of the large carnivore guild within Liuwa Plain National Park in western Zambia...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043366/semen-cryopreservation-and-radical-reduction-capacity-of-seminal-fluid-in-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo
#14
I Luther, U Jakop, I Lueders, A Tordiffe, C Franz, J Schiller, A Kotze, K Müller
Optimizing cryopreservation protocols for nondomestic felids contributes to the successful development of assisted reproduction techniques and genetic resource banking. In this study, we describe a simple cryopreservation procedure for African lion (Panthera leo) ejaculates, which was tested with different packaging options and different sperm numbers per dose. By applying urethral catheterization and electroejaculation, 17 ejaculates with greater than 20% motile and greater than 5% progressively motile sperm were collected...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043351/reproductive-analysis-of-male-and-female-captive-jaguars-panthera-onca-in-a-colombian-zoological-park
#15
Santiago Jimenez Gonzalez, Jo Gayle Howard, Janine Brown, Henry Grajales, Jorge Pinzón, Haydy Monsalve, María Angélica Moreno, Claudia Jimenez Escobar
A reproductive analysis of a captive group of jaguars (Panthera onca; n = 6) at the Santacruz Zoological Foundation in Cundinamarca, Colombia, was conducted by performing a longitudinal, noninvasive, hormonal analysis of estradiol and progestogens in females and of androgens in males. During four seasons, female jaguars confined in solitary were evaluated for ovarian activity and spontaneous ovulation, male jaguars for testicular activity. A second hormonal follow-up was conducted in the females after administration of gonadotropins...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031792/migratory-herds-of-wildebeests-and-zebras-indirectly-affect-calf-survival-of-giraffes
#16
Derek E Lee, Bernard M Kissui, Yustina A Kiwango, Monica L Bond
In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012903/multiple-host-pathogens-in-domestic-hunting-dogs-in-nicaragua-s-bosaw%C3%A3-s-biosphere-reserve
#17
Christine V Fiorello, Mary H Straub, Laura M Schwartz, James Liu, Amanda Campbell, Alexa K Kownacki, Janet E Foley
Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp...
March 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973584/implications-of-fine-grained-habitat-fragmentation-and-road-mortality-for-jaguar-conservation-in-the-atlantic-forest-brazil
#18
Laury Cullen, Jessica C Stanton, Fernando Lima, Alexandre Uezu, Miriam L L Perilli, H Reşit Akçakaya
Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958641/towards-accurate-and-precise-estimates-of-lion-density
#19
Nicholas B Elliot, Arjun M Gopalaswamy
Reliable estimates of animal density are fundamental to our understanding of ecological processes and population dynamics. Furthermore, their accuracy is vital to conservation biology since wildlife authorities rely on these figures to make decisions. However, it is notoriously difficult to accurately estimate density for wide-ranging species such as carnivores that occur at low densities. In recent years, significant progress has been made in density estimation of Asian carnivores, but the methods have not been widely adapted to African carnivores...
December 13, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928654/using-certified-timber-extraction-to-benefit-jaguar-and-ecosystem-conservation
#20
REVIEW
John Polisar, Benoit de Thoisy, Damián I Rumiz, Fabricio Díaz Santos, Roan Balas McNab, Rony Garcia-Anleu, Gabriela Ponce-Santizo, Rosario Arispe, Claudia Venegas
The jaguar Panthera onca requires large areas of relatively intact habitats containing adequate amounts of prey to survive. Since a substantial portion of jaguar range occurs outside of strict protected areas, there is a need for economic incentives for habitat conservation, which carefully managed selective logging can provide. Forest Stewardship Council and Pan European Forest Council certifications intended to regulate wood extraction to maintain the ecological functions of forests require evidence of biodiversity and ecosystem conservation...
December 7, 2016: Ambio
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