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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791136/range-contractions-of-the-world-s-large-carnivores
#1
Christopher Wolf, William J Ripple
The majority of the world's terrestrial large carnivores have undergone substantial range contractions and many of these species are currently threatened with extinction. However, there has been little effort to fully quantify the extent of large carnivore range contractions, which hinders our ability to understand the roles and relative drivers of such trends. Here we present and analyse a newly constructed and comprehensive set of large carnivore range contraction maps. We reveal the extent to which ranges have contracted since historical times and identify regions and biomes where range contractions have been particularly large...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776029/genome-wide-signatures-of-complex-introgression-and-adaptive-evolution-in-the-big-cats
#2
Henrique V Figueiró, Gang Li, Fernanda J Trindade, Juliana Assis, Fabiano Pais, Gabriel Fernandes, Sarah H D Santos, Graham M Hughes, Aleksey Komissarov, Agostinho Antunes, Cristine S Trinca, Maíra R Rodrigues, Tyler Linderoth, Ke Bi, Leandro Silveira, Fernando C C Azevedo, Daniel Kantek, Emiliano Ramalho, Ricardo A Brassaloti, Priscilla M S Villela, Adauto L V Nunes, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Ronaldo G Morato, Damian Loska, Patricia Saragüeta, Toni Gabaldón, Emma C Teeling, Stephen J O'Brien, Rasmus Nielsen, Luiz L Coutinho, Guilherme Oliveira, William J Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik
The great cats of the genus Panthera comprise a recent radiation whose evolutionary history is poorly understood. Their rapid diversification poses challenges to resolving their phylogeny while offering opportunities to investigate the historical dynamics of adaptive divergence. We report the sequence, de novo assembly, and annotation of the jaguar (Panthera onca) genome, a novel genome sequence for the leopard (Panthera pardus), and comparative analyses encompassing all living Panthera species. Demographic reconstructions indicated that all of these species have experienced variable episodes of population decline during the Pleistocene, ultimately leading to small effective sizes in present-day genomes...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751224/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-eleven-subtypes-of-interferon-%C3%AE-in-amur-tigers-panthera-tigris-altaica
#3
Hongjing Zhao, Jian Ma, Yu Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Yizhi Shao, Jinglun Li, Guangshun Jiang, Mingwei Xing
Interferon has a broad-spectrum of antiviral effects and represents an ideal choice for the development of antiviral drugs. Nonetheless, information about alpha interferon (IFN-α) is vacant in Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), an endangered species and indigenous to northeast Asia. Herein, 11 PtIFN-αs genes, which encoded proteins of 164-165 amino acids, were amplified. Afterwards, expression and purification were conducted in Escherichia coli. In physicochemical analysis, PtIFN-αs were shown to be highly sensitive to trypsin and remained stable despite changes in pH and temperature...
July 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749304/investigation-of-enrofloxacin-associated-retinal-toxicity-in-nondomestic-felids
#4
Kim M Newkirk, L Kathryn Beard, Xiaocun Sun, Edward C Ramsay
Enrofloxacin is known to cause retinal toxicity in domestic cats. The hallmark lesion of enrofloxacin-associated retinal toxicity in domestic cats is thinning of the outer nuclear layer of the retina. Enrofloxacin is commonly used to treat bacterial infections in nondomestic felids because of its action against a wide spectrum of bacteria and the ability for it to be given orally. No previous studies have investigated the potential retinal toxicity of enrofloxacin in nondomestic felids. This retrospective study evaluated 81 eyes from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ) and 33 tigers ( Panthera tigris ) that had been enucleated or collected postmortem...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749296/bridging-gaps-between-zoo-and-wildlife-medicine-establishing-reference-intervals-for-free-ranging-african-lions-panthera-leo
#5
Heather M Broughton, Danny Govender, Purvance Shikwambana, Patrick Chappell, Anna Jolles
The International Species Information System has set forth an extensive database of reference intervals for zoologic species, allowing veterinarians and game park officials to distinguish normal health parameters from underlying disease processes in captive wildlife. However, several recent studies comparing reference values from captive and free-ranging animals have found significant variation between populations, necessitating the development of separate reference intervals in free-ranging wildlife to aid in the interpretation of health data...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749292/molecular-detection-of-infectious-pathogens-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-in-captive-nondomestic-felids
#6
Valéria M Lara, Julia C Benassi, Shayne P Bisetto, Trícia M de Oliveira, Helena L Ferreira, João P Araújo Júnior, Adriano B Carregaro
Upper respiratory tract disease is a complex infectious disease process with multiple pathogens involved. Identification of infectious agents in wild animals is of great importance for wildlife conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular detection of feline herpesvirus type 1, feline calicivirus (FCV), Bordetella bronchiseptica , Chlamydophila felis , and Mycoplasma felis using ocular and nasal swabs in three species of captive nondomestic felids. Mycoplasma felis was detected in two ocular samples of Puma concolor and in one nasal sample of one Panthera onca ...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698649/characterizing-the-scent-and-chemical-composition-of-panthera-leo-marking-fluid-using-solid-phase-microextraction-and-multidimensional-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-olfactometry
#7
Simone B Soso, Jacek A Koziel
Lions (Panthera leo) use chemical signaling to indicate health, reproductive status, and territorial ownership. To date, no study has reported on both scent and composition of marking fluid (MF) from P. leo. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a novel method for simultaneous chemical and scent identification of lion MF in its totality (urine + MF), 2) identify characteristic odorants responsible for the overall scent of MF as perceived by human panelists, and 3) compare the existing library of known odorous compounds characterized as eliciting behaviors in animals in order to understand potential functionality in lion behavior...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690147/novel-anaplasma-and-ehrlichia-organisms-infecting-the-wildlife-of-two-regions-of-the-brazilian-amazon
#8
Herbert S Soares, Arlei Marcili, Amália R M Barbieri, Antonio H H Minervino, Antonio F Malheiros, Solange M Gennari, Marcelo B Labruna
During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene...
July 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680665/impact-of-wild-prey-availability-on-livestock-predation-by-snow-leopards
#9
Kulbhushansingh R Suryawanshi, Stephen M Redpath, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Uma Ramakrishnan, Vaibhav Chaturvedi, Sophie C Smout, Charudutt Mishra
An increasing proportion of the world's poor is rearing livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing. Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern. A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey populations based on the assumption that the carnivores will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation, however, could either reduce or intensify with increases in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in carnivore abundance...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677421/molecular-detection-of-viral-agents-in-free-ranging-and-captive-neotropical-felids-in-brazil
#10
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Iracema Nunes de Barros, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Sandra Cavalcanti, Laury Cullen, Claudia Filoni, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Rodrigo Silva Pinto Jorge, Nairléia Dos Santos Silva, Leandro Silveira, José Soares Ferreira Neto
We describe molecular testing for felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), alphacoronavirus 1 (feline coronavirus [FCoV]), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) in whole blood samples of 109 free-ranging and 68 captive neotropical felids from Brazil. Samples from 2 jaguars ( Panthera onca) and 1 oncilla ( Leopardus tigrinus) were positive for FHV-1; 2 jaguars, 1 puma ( Puma concolor), and 1 jaguarundi ( Herpairulus yagouaroundi) tested positive for CPPV-1; and 1 puma was positive for FIV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638674/role-of-personality-in-behavioral-responses-to-new-environments-in-captive-asiatic-lions-panthera-leo-persica
#11
Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Anna Viau, Giulio Curone, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Massimo Faustini, Daniele Vigo, Silvia Michela Mazzola, Richard Preziosi
Studying personality in captive animals may enable the development of individual-based management decisions, which may improve animal welfare. Asiatic lions at London Zoo represent an opportunity to research an understudied species' response to new environments since they have experienced social and physical changes, such as new enclosures and increased social interaction with humans. This project aimed to investigate the role of personality in behavioral responses to these changes. Lion personality questionnaires completed by keepers and direct focal animal observations were used to create personality profiles...
2017: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589259/molecular-identification-of-victim-species-and-its-sex-from-the-ash-a-case-of-burning-alive-leopard-panthera-pardus
#12
Vipin, Vinita Sharma, Sandeep Kumar Gupta
In a case of negative human-leopard (Panthera pardus) interaction, an animal was burnt alive in South Rajasthan, India. We identified the species and sex of the victim animal from the ash using forensic DNA analysis. We recovered three objects (half burnt clot, stone, and shrub twig) from the ash having suspected blood stains. We extracted DNA from these items and amplified a partial fragment of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and 12S RNA genes. The sequence generated from these amplicons suggested that the victim animal was a leopard...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584709/increasing-game-prices-may-alter-farmers-behaviours-towards-leopards-panthera-pardus-and-other-carnivores-in-south-africa
#13
Tara J Pirie, Rebecca L Thomas, Mark D E Fellowes
Human-carnivore conflict occurs globally, particularly in regions where large carnivores predate livestock. Retaliatory killings do occur, and although predation of livestock by carnivores happens, losses from other factors such as disease or injury can be misattributed because of landowner perceptions. Game farming for both trophy hunting and eco-tourism is becoming increasingly common in South Africa, and there has been a rapid increase in the cost of game animals (in some species as much as five-fold) between 2010 and 2015...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498961/range-wide-snow-leopard-phylogeography-supports-three-subspecies
#14
Jan E Janecka, Jan E Janecka, Zhang Yu-Guang, Li Di-Qiang, Bariushaa Munkhtsog, Munkhtsog Bayaraa, Naranbaatar Galsandorj, Tshewang R Wangchuk, Dibesh Karmacharya, Thomas McCarthy, Juan Li, Lu Zhi, Kubanychbek Zhumabai Uulu, Ajay Gaur, Satish Kumar, B Kesav Kumar, Shafqat Hussain, Ghulam Muhammad, Matthew Jevit, Charlotte Hacker, Pamela Burger, Claudia Wultsch, Mary J Janecka, Kristofer Helgen, William J Murphy, Rodney Jackson
The snow leopard, Panthera uncia, is an elusive high-altitude specialist that inhabits vast, inaccessible habitat across Asia. We conducted the first range-wide genetic assessment of snow leopards based on noninvasive scat surveys. Thirty-three microsatellites were genotyped and a total of 683-bp of mitochondrial DNA sequenced in 70 individuals. Snow leopards exhibited low genetic diversity at microsatellites (AN = 5.8, HO = 0.433, HE = 0.568), virtually no mtDNA variation, and underwent a bottleneck in the Holocene (~8,000 years ago) coinciding with increased temperatures, precipitation, and upward treeline shift in the Tibetan Plateau...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493999/leopard-in-a-tea-cup-a-study-of-leopard-habitat-use-and-human-leopard-interactions-in-north-eastern-india
#15
Aritra Kshettry, Srinivas Vaidyanathan, Vidya Athreya
There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples' lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities. In order to understand the ecology of leopards in a human use landscape and the nature of human-leopard interactions, we studied (i) the spatial and temporal distribution and the characteristics of leopard attacks on people, (ii) the spatial variability in the pattern of habitat use by the leopard, and (iii) the spatial relationship between attack locations and habitat use by leopards...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484625/population-dynamics-and-threats-to-an-apex-predator-outside-protected-areas-implications-for-carnivore-management
#16
Samual T Williams, Kathryn S Williams, Bradley P Lewis, Russell A Hill
Data on the population dynamics and threats to large carnivores are vital to conservation efforts, but these are hampered by a paucity of studies. For some species, such as the leopard (Panthera pardus), there is such uncertainty in population trends that leopard trophy hunting has been banned in South Africa since 2016 while further data on leopard abundance are collected. We present one of the first assessments of leopard population dynamics, and identify the key threats to a population of leopards outside of protected areas in South Africa...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445499/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-of-the-bengal-tiger-panthera-tigris-tigris-in-a-human-dominated-western-terai-arc-landscape-india
#17
Sujeet Kumar Singh, Jouni Aspi, Laura Kvist, Reeta Sharma, Puneet Pandey, Sudhanshu Mishra, Randeep Singh, Manoj Agrawal, Surendra Prakash Goyal
Despite massive global conservation strategies, tiger populations continued to decline until recently, mainly due to habitat loss, human-animal conflicts, and poaching. These factors are known to affect the genetic characteristics of tiger populations and decrease local effective population sizes. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) at the foothills of the Himalaya is one of the 42 source sites of tigers around the globe. Therefore, information on how landscape features and anthropogenic factors affect the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and variation of tigers in TAL is needed to develop proper management strategies for achieving long-term conservation goals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435002/systemic-arterial-hypertension-secondary-to-chronic-kidney-disease-in-two-captive-born-large-felids
#18
A Leclerc, E Trehiou-Sechi, E M Greunz, C Damoiseaux, J Bouvard, V Chetboul
Systemic arterial hypertension (SHT) has been widely described in the domestic cat (Felis catus). In these feline patients, SHT is considered as the most common vascular disorder of middle-aged to older animals, and secondary SHT related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents the most common form of the disease. We describe here the first two cases of spontaneous SHT in large felids, i.e. one 18-year old, 34.4 kg, male North-Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, case #1) and one 20-year old, 28...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424462/dietary-behaviour-of-man-eating-lions-as-revealed-by-dental-microwear-textures
#19
Larisa R G DeSantis, Bruce D Patterson
Lions (Panthera leo) feed on diverse prey species, a range that is broadened by their cooperative hunting. Although humans are not typical prey, habitual man-eating by lions is well documented. Fathoming the motivations of the Tsavo and Mfuwe man-eaters (killed in 1898 in Kenya and 1991 in Zambia, respectively) may be elusive, but we can clarify aspects of their behaviour using dental microwear texture analysis. Specifically, we analysed the surface textures of lion teeth to assess whether these notorious man-eating lions scavenged carcasses during their depredations...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423965/historical-mitochondrial-diversity-in-african-leopards-panthera-pardus-revealed-by-archival-museum-specimens
#20
Corey Anco, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Philipp Henschel, Seth W Cunningham, George Amato, Evon Hekkala
Once found throughout Africa and Eurasia, the leopard (Panthera pardus) was recently uplisted from Near Threatened to Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Historically, more than 50% of the leopard's global range occurred in continental Africa, yet sampling from this part of the species' distribution is only sparsely represented in prior studies examining patterns of genetic variation at the continental or global level. Broad sampling to determine baseline patterns of genetic variation throughout the leopard's historical distribution is important, as these measures are currently used by the IUCN to direct conservation priorities and management plans...
April 19, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
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