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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782514/quantifying-lion-panthera-leo-demographic-response-following-a-three-year-moratorium-on-trophy-hunting
#1
Thandiwe Mweetwa, David Christianson, Matt Becker, Scott Creel, Elias Rosenblatt, Johnathan Merkle, Egil Dröge, Henry Mwape, Jones Masonde, Twakundine Simpamba
Factors that limit African lion populations are manifold and well-recognized, but their relative demographic effects remain poorly understood, particularly trophy hunting near protected areas. We identified and monitored 386 individual lions within and around South Luangwa National Park, Zambia, for five years (2008-2012) with trophy hunting and for three additional years (2013-2015) during a hunting moratorium. We used these data with mark-resight models to estimate the effects of hunting on lion survival, recruitment, and abundance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722132/a-comparison-of-food-habits-and-prey-preferences-of-amur-tiger-panthera-tigris-altaica-temminck-1844-at-the-southwest-primorskii-krai-in-russia-and-hunchun-in-china
#2
Jiayin Gu, Lan Yu, Yan Hua, Yao Ning, Bao Heng, Jinzhe Qi, Zexv Long, Mingyuan Yao, Chong Huang, Zhilin Li, Jianming Lang, Guangshun Jiang, Jianzhang Ma
A small, isolated Amur tiger population is living at the southwest Primorskii Krai in Russia and Hunchun in China region. Many of them with "dual nationality" cross the border frequently. Formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger food requirements in both Russia and China sides, while Russia side already have clear results of it. We used scat analysis combined with data on the abundance of four prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and prey preferences in Hunchun...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719005/anchoring-and-adjusting-amidst-humans-ranging-behavior-of-persian-leopards-along-the-iran-turkmenistan-borderland
#3
Mohammad S Farhadinia, Paul J Johnson, David W Macdonald, Luke T B Hunter
Understanding the space use and movement ecology of apex predators, particularly in mosaic landscapes encompassing different land-uses, is fundamental for formulating effective conservation policy. The top extant big cat in the Middle East and the Caucasus, the Persian leopard Panthera pardus saxicolor, has disappeared from most of its historic range. Its spatial ecology in the areas where it remains is almost unknown. Between September 2014 and May 2017, we collared and monitored six adult leopards (5 males and 1 female) using GPS-satellite Iridium transmitters in Tandoureh National Park (355 km2) along the Iran-Turkmenistan borderland...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694391/persian-leopard-s-panthera-pardus-saxicolor-unnatural-mortality-factors-analysis-in-iran
#4
Morteza Naderi, Azita Farashi, Mehdi Alipour Erdi
Due to the relatively low offspring survival rate, surviving adult leopards play a critical role in the species' viability. The unnatural mortality of leopards, caused by human activities can seriously compromise the species' long-term population survival. An analysis of spatial distribution and sex ratio of unnatural mortality of 147 recorded Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) carcasses during a fifteen-year period (from 2000-2015) in Iran indicated that road mortality is the second most frequent cause of unnatural mortality of Persian leopards' after illegal hunting (or prey poisoning, such as poisoned meat) by villagers, shepherds and military forces...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661122/lymphocytic-mural-folliculitis-resembling-epitheliotropic-lymphoma-in-tigers-panthera-tigris
#5
Mee-Ja M Sula, Linda A Frank, Edward C Ramsay
A striking form of lymphocytic mural folliculitis is described in 6 tigers ( Panthera tigris). Clinically, all tigers exhibited regionally extensive chronic, variably waxing and waning alopecia with minimal scaling and crusting most pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. More severely affected tigers exhibited marked hyperpigmentation and lichenification. Pruritus was not a feature. Tigers generally lacked signs of systemic illness and clinical pathology findings were unremarkable. Histologic examination of skin biopsies revealed infiltrative lymphocytic mural folliculitis extending the length of the hair follicle...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614950/genetic-insights-into-dispersal-distance-and-disperser-fitness-of-african-lions-panthera-leo-from-the-latitudinal-extremes-of-the-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#6
Pim van Hooft, Dewald F Keet, Diana K Brebner, Armanda D S Bastos
BACKGROUND: Female lions generally do not disperse far beyond their natal range, while males can disperse distances of over 200 km. However, in bush-like ecosystems dispersal distances less than 25 km are reported. Here, we investigate dispersal in lions sampled from the northern and southern extremes of Kruger National Park, a bush-like ecosystem in South Africa where bovine tuberculosis prevalence ranges from low to high across a north-south gradient. RESULTS: A total of 109 individuals sampled from 1998 to 2004 were typed using 11 microsatellite markers, and mitochondrial RS-3 gene sequences were generated for 28 of these individuals...
April 3, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606199/gps-identified-vulnerabilities-of-savannah-woodland-primates-to-leopard-predation-and-their-implications-for-early-hominins
#7
Lynne A Isbell, Laura R Bidner, Eric K Van Cleave, Akiko Matsumoto-Oda, Margaret C Crofoot
Predation is thought to have been a key selection pressure in primate evolution, especially in the savannah-woodland habitats where several early hominin species lived. However, predator-primate prey relationships are still poorly understood because human presence often deters predators, limiting our ability to quantify the impact of predation. Synchronized high-resolution tracking of leopards (Panthera pardus), vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and olive baboons (Papio anubis) during a 14-month study in Kenya revealed that increased vulnerability to leopard predation was not associated with higher encounter rates, smaller body size, smaller group size, or greater distance from refuges, contrary to long-standing inferences...
May 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579129/estimating-large-carnivore-populations-at-global-scale-based-on-spatial-predictions-of-density-and-distribution-application-to-the-jaguar-panthera-onca
#8
Włodzimierz Jędrzejewski, Hugh S Robinson, Maria Abarca, Katherine A Zeller, Grisel Velasquez, Evi A D Paemelaere, Joshua F Goldberg, Esteban Payan, Rafael Hoogesteijn, Ernesto O Boede, Krzysztof Schmidt, Margarita Lampo, Ángel L Viloria, Rafael Carreño, Nathaniel Robinson, Paul M Lukacs, J Joshua Nowak, Roberto Salom-Pérez, Franklin Castañeda, Valeria Boron, Howard Quigley
Broad scale population estimates of declining species are desired for conservation efforts. However, for many secretive species including large carnivores, such estimates are often difficult. Based on published density estimates obtained through camera trapping, presence/absence data, and globally available predictive variables derived from satellite imagery, we modelled density and occurrence of a large carnivore, the jaguar, across the species' entire range. We then combined these models in a hierarchical framework to estimate the total population...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561865/assessment-of-genetic-diversity-population-structure-and-gene-flow-of-tigers-panthera-tigris-tigris-across-nepal-s-terai-arc-landscape
#9
Kanchan Thapa, Sulochana Manandhar, Manisha Bista, Jivan Shakya, Govind Sah, Maheshwar Dhakal, Netra Sharma, Bronwyn Llewellyn, Claudia Wultsch, Lisette P Waits, Marcella J Kelly, Jean-Marc Hero, Jane Hughes, Dibesh Karmacharya
With fewer than 200 tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) left in Nepal, that are generally confined to five protected areas across the Terai Arc Landscape, genetic studies are needed to provide crucial information on diversity and connectivity for devising an effective country-wide tiger conservation strategy. As part of the Nepal Tiger Genome Project, we studied landscape change, genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow of tigers across the Terai Arc Landscape by conducting Nepal's first comprehensive and systematic scat-based, non-invasive genetic survey...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517459/a-retrospective-study-of-morbidity-and-mortality-in-the-north-american-amur-leopard-panthera-pardus-orientalis-population-in-zoologic-institutions-from-1992-to-2014
#10
Julia E Napier, Michael S Lund, Douglas L Armstrong, Denise McAloose
The Amur leopard ( Panthera pardus orientalis) is one of the most critically endangered leopards on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature red list. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to identify common and significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the North American Amur leopard zoo population. This information provides insights that contribute to their improved care, health, and medical management and, ultimately, affects the sustainability of this leopard subspecies in the wild...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517456/acute-noncompressive-nucleus-pulposus-extrusion-causing-paraplegia-in-a-siberian-tiger-panthera-tigris-altaica
#11
Christine Senneca, Gabriel Garcia, Justin F Rosenberg, Darryl Heard, Erin Porter, Lilian Olivera, Lisa Farina
A neutered male Siberian tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica) presented with paraplegia of 5 days' duration. Thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a focal, linear T2-W hyperintense intramedullary lesion at the level of T10-11 as well as reduced size of the nucleus pulposus of the T10-11 intervertebral disc. The animal was humanely euthanatized as a result of the severity of clinical signs and the poor prognosis. Gross necropsy revealed a dark red, firm focus on the spinal cord at the level of the T11 nerve roots...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517433/benign-idiopathic-esophageal-stricture-in-a-lion-panthera-leo-dilation-by-an-achalasia-balloon
#12
Ignacio Ayala, Francisco Laredo, Escobar, Fernando Alberca
A 1-yr old female lion ( Panthera leo) was referred with a 10-mo history of dysphagia for solid food (meat), episodic regurgitation, and poor weight gain. Esophagoscopy confirmed an esophagitis (midesophagus) and a stricture estimated to be of 13 mm diameter. This was subsequently dilated using a 20-mm-diameter balloon for 2 min followed by a 35-mm achalasia balloon for 3 min. The etiology remains undetermined in spite of a thorough history. The animal progressed satisfactorily, reaching 124 kg after 1 yr and has had no further signs...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516245/detection-of-noroviruses-in-free-ranging-jaguars-panthera-onca-in-the-pantanal-mato-grosso-brazil
#13
Marcelo Marques da Silveira, Stéfhano Luis Candido, Valéria Dutra, Selma Samiko Miyazaki, Luciano Nakazato
Nine free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca) were captured, and rectal swabs were collected in the Pantanal of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction specific for noroviruses was performed. Six jaguars (66.6%) tested positive for norovirus genotype GII.11.
March 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515839/an-adaptable-but-threatened-big-cat-density-diet-and-prey-selection-of-the-indochinese-leopard-panthera-pardus-delacouri-in-eastern-cambodia
#14
Susana Rostro-García, Jan F Kamler, Rachel Crouthers, Keo Sopheak, Sovanna Prum, Visattha In, Chanratana Pin, Anthony Caragiulo, David W Macdonald
We studied the Indochinese leopard ( Panthera pardus delacouri ) in eastern Cambodia, in one of the few potentially remaining viable populations in Southeast Asia. The aims were to determine the: (i) current leopard density in Srepok Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS) and (ii) diet, prey selection and predation impact of leopard in SWS. The density, estimated using spatially explicit capture-recapture models, was 1.0 leopard/100 km2 , 72% lower than an estimate from 2009 at the same site, and one of the lowest densities ever reported in Asia...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491990/lions-hyenas-and-mobs-oh-my
#15
Kenna D S Lehmann, Tracy M Montgomery, Sarah M MacLachlan, Jenna M Parker, Olivia S Spagnuolo, Kelsey J VandeWetering, Patrick S Bills, Kay E Holekamp
Understanding the factors that facilitate the emergence of cooperation among organisms is central to the study of social evolution. Spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta frequently cooperate to mob lions Panthera leo , approaching the lions as a tightknit group while vocalizing loudly in an attempt to overwhelm them and drive them away. Whereas cooperative mobbing behavior has been well documented in birds and some mammals, to our knowledge it has never been described during interactions between 2 apex predators. Using a 27-year dataset, we characterize lion-hyena encounters, assess rates of mobbing behavior observed during these interactions, and inquire whether mobbing results in successful acquisition of food...
June 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491989/an-assessment-of-african-lion-panthera-leo-sociality-via-social-network-analysis-prerelease-monitoring-for-an-ex-situ-reintroduction-program
#16
Emma J Dunston, Jackie Abell, Rebecca E Doyle, Jacqui Kirk, Victoria B Hilley, Andrew Forsyth, Emma Jenkins, Rafael Freire
The wild population of the African lion Panthera leo continues to decline, requiring alternate conservation programs to be considered. One such program is ex situ reintroduction. Prior to release, long-term monitoring and assessment of behavior is required to determine whether prides and coalitions behave naturally and are sufficiently adapted to a wild environment. Social network analysis (SNA) can be used to provide insight into how the pride as a whole and individuals within it, function. Our study was conducted upon 2 captive-origin prides who are part of an ex situ reintroduction program, and 1 wild pride of African lion...
June 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415031/the-genetic-tale-of-a-recovering-lion-population-panthera-leo-in-the-sav%C3%A3-valley-region-zimbabwe-a-better-understanding-of-the-history-and-managing-the-future
#17
Laura Tensen, Rosemary J Groom, Joy Khuzwayo, Bettine Jansen van Vuuren
The rapid decline of the African lion (Panthera leo) has raised conservation concerns. In the Savé Valley Conservancy (SVC), in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe, lions were presumably reduced to approximately 5 to 10 individuals. After ten lions were reintroduced in 2005, the population has recovered to over 200 lions in 2016. Although the increase of lions in the SVC seems promising, a question remains whether the population is genetically viable, considering their small founding population. In this study, we document the genetic diversity in the SVC lion population using both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and compare our results to literature from other lion populations across Africa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408036/first-detection-of-feline-hemoplasmas-in-free-ranging-jaguars-panthera-onca
#18
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Betina Metzger, Lucia Helena O'Dwyer, Karina Dos Santos Paduan, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira Porfírio, Leandro Silveira, Rahel Sollmann, Natália Mundim Tôrres, José Soares Ferreira Neto
Species of hemoplasmas have been described worldwide, but little information is available for wild felids. Between February 2000 and January 2010, blood samples were collected from 30 jaguars (Panthera onca) and 22 domestic cats (Felis catus) from the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. In all samples molecular tests were performed for Mycoplasma haemofelis/Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhf/Mhc), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt). Twenty-two (73.4%) jaguars and four domestic cats (18...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385146/effectiveness-of-a-led-flashlight-technique-in-reducing-livestock-depredation-by-lions-panthera-leo-around-nairobi-national-park-kenya
#19
Francis Lesilau, Myrthe Fonck, Maria Gatta, Charles Musyoki, Maarten van 't Zelfde, Gerard A Persoon, Kees C J M Musters, Geert R de Snoo, Hans H de Iongh
The global lion (Panthera leo) population decline is partly a result of retaliatory killing in response to livestock depredation. Nairobi National Park (NNP) is a small protected area in Kenya surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. Communities around the park use flashlights to deter lions from their livestock bomas. We investigated the response by lions to the installation of a LED flashlight technique during 2007-2016.We interviewed 80 owners of livestock bomas with flashlights (n = 43) and without (n = 37) flashlights in the surroundings of NNP and verified reported attacks on bomas against predation data over10 years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356132/participatory-development-of-incentives-to-coexist-with-jaguars-and-pumas
#20
Ronit Amit, Susan K Jacobson
Reducing costs and increasing benefits for rural communities coexisting with large carnivores is necessary for conservation of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). To design acceptable incentives, stakeholders must be involved in the process. We conducted an innovative, structured, group communication process based on a Delphi technique as a template for identifying potential incentives. Community workshops with 133 members of 7 communities and surveys with 25 multidisciplinary experts from government, nongovernmental organizations, and academia provided iterative data to design a plan of incentives through 4 rounds of discussion...
January 22, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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