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glial pain

Gui-Hua Tian, Shan-Shan Tao, Man-Tang Chen, Yu-Sang Li, You-Ping Li, Hong-Cai Shang, Xiao-Yi Tang, Jian-Xin Chen, He-Bin Tang
Electroacupuncture (EA) is reported to effectively relieve the central poststroke pain (CPSP). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the detailed mechanisms of action of EA treatment at different frequencies for CPSP. A CPSP model was established with a single collagenase injection to the left ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. The EA-treated groups then received EA treatment at frequency of 2, 2/15, or 15 Hz for 30 min daily for five days. The pain-related behavioral responses, neuronal apoptosis, glial activation, and the expression of pain signal transmission-related factors (β-catenin, COX-2, and NK-1R) were assessed using behavioral tests, Nissl staining, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Xiao-Qian Li, Zai-Li Zhang, Wen-Fei Tan, Xi-Jia Sun, Hong Ma
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important for the pathogenesis of inflammatory reactions and the promotion of pain processing after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in spinal cord. Recently, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), were demonstrated to be simultaneously critical for inflammatory reactions, thereby facilitating glial activation. However, whether CXCL12/CXCR4 expression can contribute to IR-induced inflammatory pain via spinal TLR4 remained unclear. A rat model was established by 8 min of aortic arch occlusion...
2016: PloS One
Norikazu Kiguchi, Huiping Ding, Christopher M Peters, Nancy D Kock, Shiroh Kishioka, J Mark Cline, Janice D Wagner, Mei-Chuan Ko
Neuroinflammation is a pathological condition that underlies diabetes and affects sensory processing. Given the high prevalence of pain in diabetic patients and crosstalk between chemokines and opioids, it is pivotal to know whether neuroinflammation-associated mediators are dysregulated in the central nervous system of diabetic primates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether mRNA expression levels of glial markers, chemokines, and opioid receptors are altered in the spinal cord and thalamus of naturally occurring type 2 diabetic monkeys (n=7) compared with age-matched non-diabetic monkeys (n=6)...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Lauren E Cornelison, Jordan L Hawkins, Paul L Durham
Orofacial pain conditions including temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and migraine are characterized by peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is implicated in the development of central sensitization, the pathway by which elevated spinal cord CGRP levels promote peripheral sensitization of primary trigeminal nociceptive neurons is not well understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of CGRP in promoting bidirectional signaling within the trigeminal system to mediate sensitization of primary trigeminal ganglion nociceptive neurons...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Zhuofeng Ding, Wei Xu, Jie Zhang, Wangyuan Zou, Qulian Guo, Changsheng Huang, Chang Liu, Tao Zhong, Jun-Ming Zhang, Zongbin Song
Bone cancer pain (BCP) is the most common complication in patients with bone cancer. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is believed to be involved in chronic pain conditions. In this article, the expression and roles of GDNF were studied in a rat model of BCP induced by tibia injection of Walker 256 rat mammary gland carcinoma cells. Significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ongoing pain were observed beginning as early as day 5 post injection. The expression level of GDNF protein examined on day 16 after tibia injection was decreased in the L3 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and lumbar spinal cord, but not in other spinal levels or the anterior cingulate cortex...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Veronika Khariv, Li Ni, Ayomi Ratnayake, Sujitha Sampath, Brianna M Lutz, Xuan-Xiang Tao, Robert F Heary, Stella Elkabes
Plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 (PMCA2) is a calcium pump that plays important roles in neuronal function. Although it is expressed in pain-associated regions of the CNS, including in the dorsal horn (DH), its contribution to pain remains undefined. The present study assessed the role of PMCA2 in pain responsiveness and the link between PMCA2 and glutamate receptors, GABA receptors (GABARs), and glutamate transporters that have been implicated in pain processing in the DH of adult female and male PMCA2(+/+) and PMCA2(+/-) mice...
October 4, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Patrick Kanju, Wolfgang Liedtke
TRPV4 ion channels are osmo-mechano-TRP channels with pleiotropic function and expression in many different types of tissues and cells. They have also been found involved in pain and inflammation. Studies have focused on the role of TRPV4 in peripheral sensory neurons, but its expression and function in central nervous glial cells and neurons has also been documented. In this overview, based on the senior author's lecture at the recent physiology meeting in Dublin, we concisely review evidence of TRPV4 expression and function in the CNS, and how TRPV4 function can be modulated for therapeutic benefit of neuro-psychiatric disorders...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Hongbin Jia, Shuangshuang Xu, Qingzhen Liu, Jian Liu, Jianguo Xu, Weiyan Li, Yi Jin, Qing Ji
The molecular mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the modulation of neuroimmune activation in the spinal cord by the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, pioglitazone (Pio), in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI). Rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Sham surgery with vehicle, chronic constriction injury with vehicle or Pio (10 mg/kg), and chronic constriction injury with Pio and a PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (2 mg/kg)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mark P Jackson, Asif Rahman, Belen Lafon, Gregory Kronberg, Doris Ling, Lucas C Parra, Marom Bikson
The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of animal research using direct current stimulation (DCS) to our understanding of the physiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We comprehensively address experimental methodology in animal studies, broadly classified as: (1) transcranial stimulation; (2) direct cortical stimulation in vivo and (3) in vitro models. In each case advantages and disadvantages for translational research are discussed including dose translation and the overarching "quasi-uniform" assumption, which underpins translational relevance in all animal models of tDCS...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Fei Wang, Hongfei Xiang, Gregory Fischer, Zhen Liu, Matthew J Dupont, Quinn H Hogan, Hongwei Yu
In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), satellite glial cells (SGCs) tightly ensheathe the somata of primary sensory neurons to form functional sensory units. SGCs are identified by their flattened and irregular morphology and expression of a variety of specific marker proteins. In this report, we present evidence that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase isoenzymes 1 and 2 (HMGCS1 and HMGCS2) are abundantly expressed in SGCs. Immunolabeling with the validated antibodies revealed that both HMGCS1 and HMGCS2 are highly colabeled with a selection of SGC markers, including GS, GFAP, Kir4...
September 23, 2016: Brain Research
Chien-Cheng Liu, Yong-Jing Gao, Hao Luo, Temugin Berta, Zhen-Zhong Xu, Ru-Rong Ji, Ping-Heng Tan
It is well known that interferons (IFNs), such as type-I IFN (IFN-α) and type-II IFN (IFN-γ) are produced by immune cells to elicit antiviral effects. IFNs are also produced by glial cells in the CNS to regulate brain functions. As a proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ drives neuropathic pain by inducing microglial activation in the spinal cord. However, little is known about the role of IFN-α in regulating pain sensitivity and synaptic transmission. Strikingly, we found that IFN-α/β receptor (type-I IFN receptor) was expressed by primary afferent terminals in the superficial dorsal horn that co-expressed the neuropeptide CGRP...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gabriel Rusanescu, Jianren Mao
Unilateral peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) has been widely used as a research model of human neuropathic pain. Recently, CCI has been shown to induce spinal cord adult neurogenesis, which may contribute to the chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity. Here, we show that CCI also induces rapid and profound asymmetrical anatomical rearrangements in the adult rodent cerebellum and pons. This remodelling occurs throughout the hindbrain, and in addition to regions involved in pain processing, also affects other sensory modalities...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Chun-Ta Huang, Seu-Hwa Chen, June-Horng Lue, Chi-Fen Chang, Wen-Hsin Wen, Yi-Ju Tsai
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain relief by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone remain uncertain. We investigated if allopregnanolone attenuates glial extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) concomitant with neuropathic pain relief in median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model rats. METHODS: We examined the time course and cellular localization of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) in CN after CCI. We subsequently employed microinjection of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (ERK kinase) inhibitor, PD98059, to clarify the role of ERK phosphorylation in neuropathic pain development...
September 23, 2016: Anesthesiology
Andrew A Somogyi, Alex T Sia, Ene-Choo Tan, Janet K Coller, Mark R Hutchinson, Daniel T Barratt
Although several genetic factors have been associated with postsurgical morphine requirements, those involving the innate immune system and cytokines have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of genetic variability in innate immune signalling pathways to variability in morphine dosage after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in 133 Indian, 230 Malay, and 598 Han Chinese women previously studied. Twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes involved in glial activation (TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, MD2), inflammatory signalling (IL2, IL6, IL10, IL1B, IL6R, TNFA, TGFB1, CRP, CASP1), and neuronal regulation (BDNF) were newly investigated, in addition to OPRM1, COMT, and ABCB1 genetic variability identified previously...
July 14, 2016: Pain
Bo Deng, Liqun Jia, Lin Pan, Aiping Song, Yuanyuan Wang, Huangying Tan, Qing Xiang, Lili Yu, Dandan Ke
One of the main dose-limiting complications of the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin (OXL) is painful neuropathy. Glial activation and nociceptive sensitization may be responsible for the mechanism of neuropathic pain. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Wen-luo-tong (WLT) has been widely used in China to treat chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain. However, there is no study on the effects of WLT on spinal glial activation induced by OXL. In this study, a rat model of OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain was established and WLT was administrated...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Giuliano Taccola, Pierre J Doyen, Jonathan Damblon, Nejada Dingu, Beatrice Ballarin, Arnaud Steyaert, Anne des Rieux, Patrice Forget, Emmanuel Hermans, Barbara Bosier, Ronald Deumens
Tactile hypersensitivity is one of the most debilitating symptoms of neuropathic pain syndromes. Clinical studies have suggested that its presence at early postoperative stages may predict chronic (neuropathic) pain after surgery. Currently available animal models are typically associated with consistent tactile hypersensitivity and are therefore limited to distinguish between mechanisms that underlie tactile hypersensitivity as opposed to mechanisms that protect against it. In this study we have modified the rat model of spared nerve injury, restricting the surgical lesion to a single peripheral branch of the sciatic nerve...
September 15, 2016: Experimental Neurology
K N Dodds, E A H Beckett, S F Evans, P M Grace, L R Watkins, M R Hutchinson
In the central nervous system, bidirectional signaling between glial cells and neurons ('neuroimmune communication') facilitates the development of persistent pain. Spinal glia can contribute to heightened pain states by a prolonged release of neurokine signals that sensitize adjacent centrally projecting neurons. Although many persistent pain conditions are disproportionately common in females, whether specific neuroimmune mechanisms lead to this increased susceptibility remains unclear. This review summarizes the major known contributions of glia and neuroimmune interactions in pain, which has been determined principally in male rodents and in the context of somatic pain conditions...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Magdalena Zychowska, Ewelina Rojewska, Wioletta Makuch, Siro Luvisetto, Flaminia Pavone, Sara Marinelli, Barbara Przewlocka, Joanna Mika
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) shows antinociceptive properties, and its clinical applications in pain therapy are continuously increasing. BoNT/A specifically cleaves SNAP-25, which results in the formation of a non-functional SNARE complex, thereby potently inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, including those involved in nociception. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of BoNT/A (300pg/paw) on pain-related behavior and the levels of glial markers and interleukins in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve in rats...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Sergio M Borghi, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Victor Fattori, Allan J C Bussmann, Josiane A Vignoli, Doumit Camilios-Neto, Rubia Casagrande, Waldiceu A Verri
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the flavonoid quercetin (3,3´,4´,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) in a mice model of intense acute swimming-induced muscle pain, which resembles delayed onset muscle soreness. Quercetin intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment dose-dependently reduced muscle mechanical hyperalgesia. Quercetin inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D- glucosaminidase (NAG) activities, cytokine production, oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and gp91phox mRNA expression and muscle injury (creatinine kinase [CK] blood levels and myoblast determination protein [MyoD] mRNA expression) as well as inhibited NFκB activation and induced Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA expression in the soleus muscle...
2016: PloS One
Qian Huang, Xiao-Fang Mao, Hai-Yun Wu, Teng-Fei Li, Ming-Li Sun, Hao Liu, Yong-Xiang Wang
BACKGROUND: Aconiti brachypodi Radix (Xue-shang-yi-zhi-hao) has been prescribed to manage chronic pain, arthritis, and traumatic injuries. Bullatine A, a C20-diterpenoid alkaloid, is one of its principle effective compounds. This study aimed to investigate the anti-hypersensitivity of bullatine A in a variety of rat pain models and explore its mechanisms of action. METHODS: Rat neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, diabetic neuropathic pain, and bone cancer pain models were used...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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