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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149731/purinergic-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Kenneth A Jacobson, Fievos L Christofi
Purinergic receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders and are being explored as potential therapeutic targets. Gut inflammation releases ATP that acts on neuronal, glial, epithelial and immune cells. Purinergic signalling in glia and neurons is implicated in enteric neuropathies. Inflammation activates glia to increase ATP release and alter purinergic signalling. ATP release causes neuron death and gut motor dysfunction in colitis via a P2X7-dependent neural-glial pathway and a glial purinergic-connexin-43 pathway...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140923/il-4-mediates-the-analgesia-produced-by-low-intensity-exercise-in-mice-with-neuropathic-pain
#2
Franciane Bobinski, Juliana Maia Teixeira, Kathleen Anne Sluka, Adair Roberto Soares Santos
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates the immune system resulting in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Exercise modulates the immune system promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages in uninjured muscle, and increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines can promote healing and analgesia. We proposed that PNI will decrease, and treadmill exercise will increase, release of anti-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131694/role-of-neuron-glial-interaction-mediated-by-il-1%C3%AE-in-ectopic-tooth-pain
#3
H Komiya, K Shimizu, N Noma, Y Tsuboi, K Honda, K Kanno, K Ohara, M Shinoda, B Ogiso, K Iwata
Although many reports have demonstrated that ectopic pain develops in the orofacial region following tooth pulp inflammation, which often causes misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment for patients with pulpitis, the precise mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that the functional interaction between satellite glial cells and neurons mediated by interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) is involved in ectopic orofacial pain associated with tooth pulp inflammation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123982/decreased-grip-strength-muscle-pain-and-atrophy-occur-in-rats-following-long-term-exposure-to-excessive-repetitive-motion
#4
Mitsuhiro Fujiwara, Masahiro Iwata, Takayuki Inoue, Yosuke Aizawa, Natsumi Yoshito, Kazuhiro Hayashi, Shigeyuki Suzuki
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are caused by the overuse of muscles in the workplace. Performing repetitive tasks is a primary risk factor for the development of WMSD. Many workers in highly repetitive jobs exhibit muscle pain and decline in handgrip strength, yet the mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions are poorly understood. In our study, rats performed voluntary repetitive reaching and grasping tasks (Task group), while Control group rats did not perform these activities. In the Task group, grip strength and forearm flexor withdrawal threshold declined significantly from week 2 to week 6, compared with these values at week 0 (P < 0...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122501/psychoneuroimmunological-approach-to-gastrointestinal-related-pain
#5
REVIEW
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
November 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105386/the-effect-of-ethanolic-extract-of-lippia-citriodora-on-rats-with-chronic-constriction-injury-of-neuropathic-pain
#6
Bahareh Amin, Reyhaneh Noorani, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
OBJECTIVES: We examined the protective effects of ethanolic extract of Lippia citriodora (L. citriodora) on rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve and possible mechanisms of actions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, the extract was administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, Intraperitoneally (I.P) from the surgery time for 14 consecutive days. The changes in the spinal cord levels of apoptotic factors, microglia and astroglia markers during the time course of study were assessed by western blotting on days 3, 7 and 14 post-CCI...
January 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096654/the-analgesic-effects-of-triptolide-in-the-bone-cancer-pain-rats-via-inhibiting-the-upregulation-of-hdacs-in-spinal-glial-cells
#7
Xiao-Fan Hu, Xiao-Tao He, Kai-Xiang Zhou, Chen Zhang, Wen-Jun Zhao, Ting Zhang, Jin-Lian Li, Jian-Ping Deng, Yu-Lin Dong
BACKGROUND: Bone cancer pain (BCP) severely compromises the quality of life, while current treatments are still unsatisfactory. Here, we tested the antinociceptive effects of triptolide (T10), a substance with considerable anti-tumor efficacies on BCP, and investigated the underlying mechanisms targeting the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). METHODS: Intratibial inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells was used to establish a BCP model in rats. T10 was intrathecally injected, and mechanical allodynia was tested by measuring the paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080683/interaction-between-astrocytic-colony-stimulating-factor-and-its-receptor-on-microglia-mediates-central-sensitization-and-behavioral-hypersensitivity-in-chronic-post-ischemic-pain-model
#8
Yuying Tang, Lian Liu, Dan Xu, Wensheng Zhang, Yi Zhang, Jieshu Zhou, Wei Huang
Accumulation of microglia occurs in the dorsal horn in the rodent model of chronic post ischemic pain (CPIP), while the mechanism how microglia affects the development of persistent pain largely remains unknown. Here, using a rodent model of CPIP induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the hindpaw, we observed that microglial accumulation occurred in the ipsilateral dorsal horn after ischemia 3h, and in ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal horn in the rats with ischemia 6h. The accumulated microglia released BDNF, increased neuronal excitability in dorsal horn, and produced pain behaviors in the modeled rodents...
October 30, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079540/il-18-contributes-to-bone-cancer-pain-by-regulating-glia-cells-and-neuron-interaction
#9
Su Liu, Yue-Peng Liu, You Lv, Jun-Li Yao, Dong-Mei Yue, Mao-Yin Zhang, Dun-Yi Qi, Gong-Jian Liu
BACKGROUND: Glia cells hyperactivity has been proposed to be responsible for chronic pain, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. IL-18, released from glial cells, has been reported to be involved in neuropathic pain. Here, we investigated the role of IL-18 in bone cancer pain. METHODS: Bone cancer pain was mimicked by injecting Walker-256 mammary gland carcinoma cells into the intramedullary space of the tibia in rats. Expression and location of IL-18 and IL-18 receptor were tested...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072007/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-activities-of-satellite-glial-cells-of-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-rats-with-neck-incision-pain
#10
Li-Na Qiao, Lian-Hong Tan, Jiao-Jiao Yang, Qiao-Ling Gao, Jiang Zhu, Pei-Jing Rong, Bing Zhu, Yong-Sheng Yang, Jun-Ling Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Futu"(LI 18), etc. on activities of satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats with neck-incision pain so as to explore its mechanism underlying reduction of post-surgical pain of thyroidectomy. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, EA-Futu (LI 18), EA-Hegu (LI 4)-Neiguan (PC 6), and EA-Zusanli (ST 36)-Yanglingquan (GB 34) groups, with 20 rats in each group...
August 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069985/neural-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-neurological-symptoms-and-histories-of-chemical-mold-exposures
#11
Mohamed Bahie Abou-Donia, Allan Lieberman, Luke Curtis
A number of studies have linked exposures to industrial and household chemicals and biological toxins to increased risk of autoimmunity in general and elevated levels of autoantibodies to neural antigens specifically. Elevated neural autoantibodies are biomarkers for many diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Our study reports levels of six types of neural autoantibodies in a group of 24 toxicant-exposed patients. The patients were exposed to a variety of toxicants including contaminated drinking water (four patients), building water/mold damage (eight patients), pesticides (four patients), and other assorted toxic chemicals (eight patients)...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059509/gene-therapy-for-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-spared-nerve-injury-with-naked-plasmid-encoding-hepatocyte-growth-factor
#12
Hu Chunsheng, Lu Yuxin, Cheng Xiaochen, Cui Yufang, Wu Zuze, Zhang Qinglin
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain (NP) is a refractory disease in clinic and tremendously impacts on the patients' quality of life. Gene therapy is a potential strategy for the management of NP. In this paper, we examined the analgesic effect and mechanism of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: We examined the proinflammatroy gene changes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 cells with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052293/butyrate-promotes-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-an-ibs-like-model-via-enteric-glial-cell-derived-nerve-growth-factor
#13
X Long, M Li, L-X Li, Y-Y Sun, W-X Zhang, D-Y Zhao, Y-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Altered visceral sensation is common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and nerve growth factor (NGF) participates in visceral pain development. Sodium butyrate (NaB) could induce colonic hypersensitivity via peripheral up-regulation of NGF in animals. Enteric glial cells (EGCs) appear to be an important source of NGF. Whether butyrate could induce visceral hypersensitivity via increased EGC-derived NGF is still unknown. METHODS: CRL-2690 cells were used for transcriptome analyses after butyrate treatment...
October 20, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046777/effect-of-palmitoylethanolamide-on-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#14
Tai-Kyung Seol, Wonho Lee, Sunah Park, Kyu Nam Kim, Tae Yeon Kim, You Na Oh, Jong Hun Jun
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that neuroinflammation, which is characterized by infiltration of immune cells, activation of mast cells and glial cells, and production of inflammatory mediators in the peripheral and central nervous systems, plays an important role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which is a type of N-acylethanolamide and a lipid, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Relative to the anti-inflammatory effect, little is known about its analgesic effect in chronic pain...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031858/involvement-of-integrin-%C3%AE-1-fak-signaling-in-the-analgesic-effects-induced-by-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-neuropathic-pain
#15
Hong-Jun Wang, Ge Song, Jian Liang, Yuan-Yuan Gao, Cun-Jin Wang
Treatment of neuropathic pain (NP) continues to be a clinical challenge and the underlying mechanisms of NP remain elusive. More evidence suggests that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent anti-nociceptive effects on NP, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Recent data have shown that integrin β1 plays an important part in NP induction, and that the activity of integrin β1 signaling is associated with the phosphorylation of the conserved threonines in the cytoplasmic domain and recruitment of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to the integrin β1 tail and phosphorylation...
October 12, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027719/glioplasticity-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
N L Lilli, L Quénéhervé, S Haddara, C Brochard, P Aubert, M Rolli-Derkinderen, T Durand, P Naveilhan, J-B Hardouin, R De Giorgio, G Barbara, S Bruley des Varannes, E Coron, M Neunlist
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates a wide array of cellular remodeling in the mucosal microenvironment during irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which possibly contributes to pathophysiology and symptom generation. Here, we investigated whether enteric glial cells (EGC) may be altered, and which factors/mechanisms lead to these changes. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies of IBS patients (13 IBS-Constipation [IBS-C]; 10 IBS-Diarrhea [IBS-D]; 11 IBS-Mixed [IBS-M]) and 24 healthy controls (HC) were analyzed...
October 13, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023380/the-gut-microbiome-feelings-of-the-brain-a-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#17
REVIEW
Aaron Lerner, Sandra Neidhöfer, Torsten Matthias
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: "gut-brain axis", "gut-microbiota-brain axis", "nutrition microbiome/microbiota", "enteric nervous system", "enteric glial cells/network", "gut-brain pathways", "microbiome immune system", "microbiome neuroendocrine system" and "intestinal/gut/enteric neuropeptides"...
October 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989157/-high-affinity-glutamate-transporters-and-chronic-pain
#18
Hua Zhang, Shenghong Wang, Qiqi Xie, Wenzhou Li, Weidong Shi, Jinglin Ma, Jing Wang
Glutamate serves as a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and is stored in synaptic cleft by an uptake system that is dependent on the high-affinity glutamate transporters (ETTAs), which locate in the plasma membrane of glial cells and neurons. ETTAs can rapidly terminate the action of glutamate and maintain its normal physiological functions. If the content or function of glutamate transporters is abnormal, it can result in many physiological dysfunctions. Studies have demonstrated that high-affinity glutamate transporters play an important role in the development of chronic pain, which might be a new therapeutic target for the pain...
September 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978414/acute-and-chronic-pain-processing-in-the-thalamocortical-system-of-humans-and-animal-models
#19
Alexander Groh, Patrik Krieger, Rebecca Audrey Mease, Luke Henderson
The transmission of noxious stimuli from peripheral receptors to the cortex involves multiple central ascending pathways. While projections to areas in the brainstem and diencephalon are likely involved in mediating the immediate behavioral responses to pain, the assessment of the sensory and emotional/motivational components of pain are likely processed in parallel ascending pathways that relay in the thalamus on their way to the cerebral cortex. In this review we discuss experimental animal and human findings that support the view that a lateral thalamocortical pathway is involved in coding the sensory discriminative aspects of pain, while a medial thalamocortical pathway codes the emotional qualities of pain...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961489/spinal-ccl1-ccr8-signaling-interplay-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-evidence-from-a-mouse-diabetic-neuropathy-model
#20
Magdalena Zychowska, Ewelina Rojewska, Anna Piotrowska, Grzegorz Kreiner, Irena Nalepa, Joanna Mika
BACKGROUND: Chemokine signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy; however, the involvement of the chemokine CC motif ligand 1 (CCL1)-chemokine CC motif receptor 8 (CCR8) interaction remains unknown. The goal of this study was to examine the role of CCL1-CCR8 signaling interplay in the development of hypersensitivity and in opioid effectiveness in diabetic neuropathy. METHODS: Primary glial cell cultures and a streptozotocin (STZ; 200mg/kg, intraperitoneal)-induced mouse model of diabetic neuropathy were used...
September 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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