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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140932/characteristics-of-treatment-experienced-hiv-infected-african-children-and-adolescents-initiating-darunavir-and-or-etravirine-based-antiretroviral-treatment
#1
Bethany Corrigan, Irene Mukui, Lloyd Mulenga, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Mosilinyane Letsie, Stephanie Bruno, Natella Rakhmanina
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the selection and sequencing of second and third-line pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to evaluate characteristics of African pediatric patients initiated on darunavir (DRV) and/or etravirine (ETR) through a specific drug donation program. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of baseline immunologic, virologic and demographic characteristics of children and adolescents initiating DRV- and/or ETR-based ART...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114859/antiepileptic-drug-behavioral-side-effects-and-baseline-hyperactivity-in-children-and-adolescents-with-new-onset-epilepsy
#2
Shanna M Guilfoyle, Katherine Follansbee-Junger, Aimee W Smith, Angela Combs, Shannon Ollier, Brooke Hater, Avani C Modi
OBJECTIVE: To examine baseline psychological functioning and antiepileptic drug (AED) behavioral side effects in new onset epilepsy and determine, by age, whether baseline psychological functioning predicts AED behavioral side effects 1 month following AED initiation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted between July 2011 and December 2014 that included youths with new onset epilepsy. As part of routine interdisciplinary care, caregivers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition: Parent Rating Scale to report on baseline psychological functioning at the diagnostic visit and the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire to identify AED behavioral side effects at the 1-month follow-up clinic visit following AED initiation...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098969/-upward-trend-in-the-use-of-psychostimulants-by-adults
#3
L van der Koog, J van der Schans, M A Tjioe, J H J Bos, B J Bijker, E Hak, C C M Schuiling-Veninga
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the trends in the use of psychostimulants among adults. DESIGN: Retrospective database study. METHODS: We selected data on adults (≥ 18 years) who had had a minimum of 2 prescriptions for a psychostimulant drug within 1 year from IADB.nl, a Netherlands database of filled prescriptions (59 public pharmacies, approximately 600,000 patients). We calculated both the number of new users and the total number of users of psychostimulants per year in the period 2004-2014...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091743/movement-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-receiving-antipsychotic-pharmacotherapy-a-population-based-study
#4
Robert G Biscontri, Sarita Jha, David M Collins, Shawn Bugden, Laurence Y Katz, Silvia Alessi-Severini
OBJECTIVES: To describe a cohort of young users of risperidone and quetiapine in the province of Manitoba (Canada) and assess the risk for movement disorders in the two treatments. METHODS: This was a population-based study conducted on all residents of the province of 19 years of age and younger who received prescriptions for risperidone or quetiapine between April 1, 1996, and March 31, 2011. Incident rates of antipsychotic use were reported. The risk for movement disorders in patients treated with quetiapine compared with those treated with risperidone was assessed by time-to-event analysis using Cox proportional hazards models...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991007/the-optimal-approach-to-nutrition-and-cystic-fibrosis-latest-evidence-and-recommendations
#5
Francis M Hollander, Nicole M de Roos, Harry G M Heijerman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive genetic disease that affects multiple organ systems. Therapy is directed to maintain and optimize nutritional status and pulmonary function, as these are key factors in survival. In this review, the most recent findings regarding nutritional management associated with pulmonary function and outcome will be explored. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence-based and expert-based guidelines emphasize the need for adequate nutritional intake to improve nutritional status...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980418/medulloblastoma-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-contemporary-phase-i-and-ii-clinical-trials-and-biology-update
#6
REVIEW
Francisco Bautista, Victoria Fioravantti, Teresa de Rojas, Fernando Carceller, Luis Madero, Alvaro Lassaletta, Lucas Moreno
Survival rates for patients with medulloblastoma have improved in the last decades but for those who relapse outcome is dismal and new approaches are needed. Emerging drugs have been tested in the last two decades within the context of phase I/II trials. In parallel, advances in genetic profiling have permitted to identify key molecular alterations for which new strategies are being developed. We performed a systematic review focused on the design and outcome of early-phase trials evaluating new agents in patients with relapsed medulloblastoma...
November 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968169/modernizing-clinical-trial-eligibility-recommendations-of-the-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-friends-of-cancer-research-minimum-age-working-group
#7
Lia Gore, S Percy Ivy, Frank M Balis, Eric Rubin, Katherine Thornton, Martha Donoghue, Samantha Roberts, Suanna Bruinooge, Jennifer Ersek, Nancy Goodman, Caroline Schenkel, Gregory Reaman
Purpose Children have historically been excluded from first-in-human studies of promising new cancer drugs and later phase adult clinical trials. Delays in evaluation may result in off-label use without dosing information as the only access to new drugs. A multistakeholder workshop was convened in May 2016 by ASCO and Friends of Cancer Research to identify opportunities for when it would be scientifically appropriate to expand trial eligibility to include children younger than age 18 years in first-in-human and other adult cancer clinical trials...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945987/sedation-and-analgesia-for-procedures-in-the-pediatric-emergency-room
#8
REVIEW
Carlos Eduardo Ramalho, Pedro Messeder Caldeira Bretas, Claudio Schvartsman, Amélia Gorete Reis
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents often require sedation and analgesia in emergency situations. With the emergence of new therapeutic options, the obsolescence of others, and recent discoveries regarding already known drugs, it became necessary to review the literature in this area. DATA SOURCES: Non-systematic review in the PubMed database of studies published up to December 2016, including original articles, review articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses...
November 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#9
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910830/consensus-guidelines-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-neuropsychopharmacology-update-2017
#10
C Hiemke, N Bergemann, H W Clement, A Conca, J Deckert, K Domschke, G Eckermann, K Egberts, M Gerlach, C Greiner, G Gründer, E Haen, U Havemann-Reinecke, G Hefner, R Helmer, G Janssen, E Jaquenoud, G Laux, T Messer, R Mössner, M J Müller, M Paulzen, B Pfuhlmann, P Riederer, A Saria, B Schoppek, G Schoretsanitis, M Schwarz, M Silva Gracia, B Stegmann, W Steimer, J C Stingl, M Uhr, S Ulrich, S Unterecker, R Waschgler, G Zernig, G Zurek, P Baumann
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the quantification and interpretation of drug concentrations in blood to optimize pharmacotherapy. It considers the interindividual variability of pharmacokinetics and thus enables personalized pharmacotherapy. In psychiatry and neurology, patient populations that may particularly benefit from TDM are children and adolescents, pregnant women, elderly patients, individuals with intellectual disabilities, patients with substance abuse disorders, forensic psychiatric patients or patients with known or suspected pharmacokinetic abnormalities...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910145/the-clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-amphetamines-utilized-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
John S Markowitz, Kennerly S Patrick
Amphetamine (AMP), an indirectly acting psychostimulant approved for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults, is among the most long-standing therapeutic agents in all of clinical psychopharmacology. This review focuses on AMP absorption, metabolism, and elimination brought to bear on comparative pharmacokinetics in its various formulations. A comprehensive search of the published literature was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed) and Google Scholar databases through April 2017 to retrieve all pertinent in vitro and human studies for review and synthesis...
October 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889403/do-paediatric-investigation-plans-pips-advance-paediatric-healthcare
#12
Klaus Rose, Philip D Walson
Since 2007, new drugs need a paediatric investigation plan (PIP) for EU registration. The PIPs' justifications can be traced back to concerns expressed by Shirkey that label warnings against paediatric use made children "therapeutic orphans", and the American Academy of Pediatrics' claim that all children differ considerably from adults. US legislation first encouraged, then also required, separate, adult-style safety and efficacy studies in all paediatric subpopulations. This triggered paediatric regulatory studies by the pharmaceutical industry...
December 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873387/just-a-gut-feeling-central-nervous-effects-of-peripheral-gastrointestinal-hormones
#13
Christian L Roth, Robert Patrick Doyle
Despite greater health education, obesity remains one of the greatest health challenges currently facing the world. The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents and the rising rates of prediabetes and diabetes are of particular concern. A deep understanding of regulatory pathways and development of new anti-obesity drugs with increased efficacy and safety are of utmost necessity. The 2 major biological players in the regulation of food intake are the gut and the brain as peptides released from the gut in response to meals convey information about the energy needs to brain centers of energy homeostasis...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803504/the-pharmacological-management-of-nafld-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
REVIEW
Savinda Liyanagedera, Robert Patrick Williams, Silvio Veraldi, Valerio Nobili, Jake P Mann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum, including 'simple' steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD has followed the international rise in obesity and lifestyle modification is the mainstay therapy for children. To date, pharmacological trials have had varying efficacy but a large number of new agents are in early phase trials for adults. Areas covered: This review explores the effect of current and potential future paediatric NAFLD treatments in terms of histological and biochemical endpoints...
November 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752512/medical-treatment-guidelines-for-preventive-treatment-of-migraine
#15
Tzu-Chou Huang, Tzu-Hsien Lai, Treatment Guideline Subcommittee Of Taiwan Headache Society Taiwan Headache Society
The Treatment Guideline Subcommittee of the Taiwan Headache Society evaluated the medications currently used for migraine prevention in Taiwan. We assessed the results of new published drug trials, information from medical database and referred to the latest guidelines published. After comprehensive discussion, we proposed Taiwanese consensus about the preventive treatment for migraine including recommendation levels, strength of evidences, and related prescription information regarding dosage and adverse effects...
March 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631599/efficacy-and-safety-of-omalizumab-in-children-and-adolescents-with-moderate-to-severe-asthma-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
Jonathan Corren, Abhishek Kavati, Benjamin Ortiz, Jennifer A Colby, Kimberly Ruiz, Brett A Maiese, Sarah M Cadarette, Reynold A Panettieri
BACKGROUND: There are limited pediatric data about the use of omalizumab, especially the effectiveness and safety of omalizumab in the real-world management of allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to summarize the safety and efficacy of omalizumab in both randomized clinical trials (RCT) used for U.S. Food and Drug Administration registration and real-world studies (RWS) based on clinical care of children with moderate-to-severe asthma. METHODS: Studies that evaluated omalizumab use in patients <18 years old and with asthma, published between January 2003 and October 2016, were retrieved from medical literature data bases...
July 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606135/wogonin-suppresses-stem-cell-like-traits-of-cd133-positive-osteosarcoma-cell-via-inhibiting-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-expression
#17
Do Luong Huynh, Taeho Kwon, Jiao Jiao Zhang, Neelesh Sharma, Meeta Gera, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Nameun Kim, Somi Kim Cho, Dong Sun Lee, Yang Ho Park, Dong Kee Jeong
BACKGROUND: Several efforts have been deployed to cure osteosarcoma, a high-grade malignant bone tumour in children and adolescents. However, some challenges such as drug resistance, relapse, and tumour metastasis remain owing to the existence of cancer stem cells (CSC). There is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and safe therapies. METHODS: Wogonin, an extract from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has long been considered as a promising natural and safe compound for anti-tumourigenesis, particularly to inhibit tumour invasion and metastasis...
June 12, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604107/accelerating-drug-development-for-neuroblastoma-new-drug-development-strategy-an-innovative-therapies-for-children-with-cancer-european-network-for-cancer-research-in-children-and-adolescents-and-international-society-of-paediatric-oncology-europe-neuroblastoma
#18
REVIEW
Lucas Moreno, Hubert Caron, Birgit Geoerger, Angelika Eggert, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Penelope Brock, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Louis Chesler, Johannes H Schulte, Katleen De Preter, Jan Molenaar, Alexander Schramm, Martin Eilers, Tom Van Maerken, John Inge Johnsen, Michelle Garrett, Sally L George, Deborah A Tweddle, Per Kogner, Frank Berthold, Jan Koster, Giuseppe Barone, Elizabeth R Tucker, Lynley Marshall, Ralf Herold, Jaroslav Sterba, Koen Norga, Gilles Vassal, Andrew Dj Pearson
Neuroblastoma, the commonest paediatric extra-cranial tumour, remains a leading cause of death from cancer in children. There is an urgent need to develop new drugs to improve cure rates and reduce long-term toxicity and to incorporate molecularly targeted therapies into treatment. Many potential drugs are becoming available, but have to be prioritised for clinical trials due to the relatively small numbers of patients. Areas covered: The current drug development model has been slow, associated with significant attrition, and few new drugs have been developed for neuroblastoma...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603504/the-safety-of-ingested-caffeine-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer L Temple, Christophe Bernard, Steven E Lipshultz, Jason D Czachor, Joslyn A Westphal, Miriam A Mestre
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600490/treating-tobacco-dependence-guidance-for-primary-care-on-life-saving-interventions-position-statement-of-the-ipcrg
#20
O C P Van Schayck, S Williams, V Barchilon, N Baxter, M Jawad, P A Katsaounou, B J Kirenga, C Panaitescu, I G Tsiligianni, N Zwar, A Ostrem
Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of premature death and disability. Global targets to reduce premature deaths by 25% by 2025 will require a substantial increase in the number of smokers making a quit attempt, and a significant improvement in the success rates of those attempts in low, middle and high income countries. In many countries the only place where the majority of smokers can access support to quit is primary care. There is strong evidence of cost-effective interventions in primary care yet many opportunities to put these into practice are missed...
June 9, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
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