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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791553/epidemiological-aspects-clinical-manifestations-and-prevention-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-from-the-perspective-of-the-end-tb-strategy
#1
Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso, Terezinha Miceli Martire, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759018/accelerating-pediatric-cancer-drug-development-challenges-and-opportunities-for-pediatric-master-protocols
#2
Tahira Khan, Mark Stewart, Samuel Blackman, Raphaël Rousseau, Martha Donoghue, Kenneth Cohen, Nita Seibel, Mark Fleury, Bouchra Benettaib, Raleigh Malik, Gilles Vassal, Gregory Reaman
Although outcomes for children with cancer have significantly improved over the past 40 years, there has been little progress in the treatment of some pediatric cancers, particularly when advanced. Additionally, clinical trial options and availability are often insufficient. Improved genomic and immunologic understanding of pediatric cancers, combined with innovative clinical trial designs, may provide an enhanced opportunity to study childhood cancers. Master protocols, which incorporate the use of precision medicine approaches, coupled with the ability to quickly assess the safety and effectiveness of new therapies, have the potential to accelerate early-phase clinical testing of novel therapeutics and which may result in more rapid approval of new drugs for children with cancer...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742212/accidental-strangulation-in-children-by-the-automatic-closing-of-a-car-window
#3
Kailene Serena, Jefferson Pedro Piva, Cinara Andreolio, Paulo Roberto Antonacci Carvalho, Tais Sica da Rocha
Among the main causes of death in our country are car accidents, drowning and accidental burns. Strangulation is a potentially fatal injury and an important cause of homicide and suicide among adults and adolescents. In children, its occurrence is usually accidental. However, in recent years, several cases of accidental strangulation in children around the world have been reported. A 2-year-old male patient was strangled in a car window. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 and presented with progressive worsening of respiratory dysfunction and torpor...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731768/timp3-overexpression-improves-the-sensitivity-of-osteosarcoma-to-cisplatin-by-reducing-il-6-production
#4
Xiu-Guo Han, Hui-Min Mo, Xu-Qiang Liu, Yan Li, Lin Du, Han Qiao, Qi-Ming Fan, Jie Zhao, Shu-Hong Zhang, Ting-Ting Tang
Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)-3 inhibit matrix metalloproteinases to limit extracellular matrix degradation. Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug used to cure osteosarcoma. Interleukin (IL)-6 and TIMP3 play important roles in the drug resistance of osteosarcoma; however, their relationship in this process remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the role of TIMP3 in the cisplatin sensitivity of osteosarcoma and its underlying molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691835/rufinamide-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often requiring treatment with a combination of AEDs. In this review, we summarised the current evidence regarding rufinamide, a novel anticonvulsant medication, which, as a triazole derivative, is structurally unrelated to any other currently used anticonvulsant medication, when used as an add-on treatment for refractory epilepsy...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651656/using-lithium-in-children-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-efficacy-tolerability-and-practical-considerations
#6
REVIEW
B Grant, J A Salpekar
Lithium has been an intriguing treatment option in psychiatry for over a century. While seemingly just a simple elemental compound, it has powerful treatment effects for both depression and bipolar disorder. The evidence base for treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder is relatively small, but, in recent years, additional clinical trial data have enabled lithium to re-emerge as a valuable and, in many cases, preferred treatment. Pharmacologically, lithium is complex, with varied effects at both intracellular and extracellular levels...
April 12, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573247/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-egg-cultivated-quadrivalent-inactivated-split-virion-influenza-vaccine-gc3110a-in-healthy-korean-children-a-randomized-double-blinded-active-controlled-phase-iii-study
#7
Jin Lee, Kyung Yil Lee, Jong Hyun Kim, Chun Soo Kim, Byung Wook Eun, Hwang Min Kim, Dong Ho Kim, Young Jin Hong, Young Youn Choi, Dae Sun Jo, Sang Hyuk Ma, Jin Han Kang
BACKGROUND: The frequency with which the 2 B lineages have been found to cocirculate in a season has been on the rise, which has spurred the need for a quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) to protect against both B lineages. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that QIV include both B lineages beginning in the 2013-2014 flu season. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an egg-cultivated QIV in healthy Korean children and adolescents aged ≥ 6 months to < 19 years...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573000/what-is-going-on-in-underage-drinking-reflections-on-finnish-european-school-survey-project-on-alcohol-and-other-drugs-data-1999-2015
#8
Kirsimarja Raitasalo, Jenni Simonen, Christoffer Tigerstedt, Pia Mäkelä, Heli Tapanainen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: As alcohol use has decreased among Finnish adolescents, we aim to assess: (i) time trends in alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED) and potential explanatory variables among adolescents; (ii) the relationship between trends of explanatory variables and trends in alcohol use and HED; and (iii) which of the explanatory variables can account for the temporal change in alcohol use and HED. DESIGN AND METHODS: The analyses are based on European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs data collected from 15- to 16-year-old Finnish adolescents in 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015...
March 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565424/efficacy-safety-profile-and-immunogenicity-of-alglucosidase-alfa-produced-at-the-4-000-liter-scale-in-us-children-and-adolescents-with-pompe-disease-advance-a-phase-iv-open-label-prospective-study
#9
Si Houn Hahn, David Kronn, Nancy D Leslie, Loren D M Pena, Pranoot Tanpaiboon, Michael J Gambello, James B Gibson, Richard Hillman, David W Stockton, John W Day, Raymond Y Wang, Kristina An Haack, Raheel Shafi, Susan Sparks, Yang Zhao, Catherine Wilson, Priya S Kishnani
PurposePompe disease results from lysosomal acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency and its associated glycogen accumulation and muscle damage. Alglucosidase alfa (recombinant human GAA (rhGAA)) received approval in 2006 as a treatment for Pompe disease at the 160 L production scale. In 2010, larger-scale rhGAA was approved for patients up to 8 years old without cardiomyopathy. NCT01526785 evaluated 4,000 L rhGAA efficacy/safety in US infantile- or late-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, LOPD) patients up to 1 year old transitioned from 160 L rhGAA...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549437/treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-the-pediatric-patient-an-evidence-based-approach
#10
REVIEW
Mery Munoz-Persy, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a unique form of non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterized by esophageal eosinophilic infiltration that commonly causes dysphagia and food impaction in children and adolescents. Assessing the efficacy of dietary restrictions or drug therapies to achieve clinical and histologic resolution of EoE through randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses has resulted in new evidence-based guidelines. Avoiding food triggers is the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease...
May 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549392/psychoactive-drug-exposure-during-breastfeeding-a-critical-need-for-preclinical-behavioral-testing
#11
REVIEW
Irving Zucker
Breastfeeding women are excluded from clinical trials of psychoactive drugs because of ethical concerns. Animal testing, which often is predictive of adverse effects in humans, represents the only avenue available for assessing drug safety for human offspring exposed to drugs during lactation. I determined whether behavioral outcomes for children exposed during breastfeeding to antidepressants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, anti-seizure medications, analgesics, sedatives, and marijuana can be predicted by rodent studies of offspring exposed to drugs during lactation...
May 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513007/a-potential-bone-targeting-hypotoxic-platinum-ii-complex-with-an-unusual-cytostatic-mechanism-toward-osteosarcoma-cells
#12
Zhenqin Zhang, Zhenzhu Zhu, Cheng Luo, Chengcheng Zhu, Changli Zhang, Zijian Guo, Xiaoyong Wang
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary pediatric bone tumor lethal to children and adolescents. Chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin are not effective for OS because of their poor accessibility to this cancer and severe systemic toxicity. In this study, a lipophilic platinum(II) complex bearing a bisphosphonate bone-targeting moiety, cis-[PtL(NH3 )2 Cl]NO3 {BPP; L = tetraethyl [2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethane-1,1-diyl]bisphosphonate}, was prepared and characterized by NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography...
March 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470252/multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-advances-in-diagnosis-and-management
#13
Emanuele Pontali, Dina Visca, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Antonio Spanevello, Giovanni Battista Migliori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB epidemics are key obstacles towards TB control and elimination. RECENT FINDINGS: Diagnosis of MDR/XDR-TB is difficult and requires several weeks. New diagnostic tools are being tested and proposed allowing for shorter time to diagnosis and reduced delays in starting an adequate treatment regimen. MDR/XDR-TB treatment strategies are currently on an evolving stage...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451021/the-uva-padova-type-1-diabetes-simulator-goes-from-single-meal-to-single-day
#14
Roberto Visentin, Enrique Campos-Náñez, Michele Schiavon, Dayu Lv, Martina Vettoretti, Marc Breton, Boris P Kovatchev, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli
BACKGROUND: A new version of the UVA/Padova Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Simulator is presented which provides a more realistic testing scenario. The upgrades to the previous simulator, which was accepted by the Food and Drug Administration in 2013, are described. METHOD: Intraday variability of insulin sensitivity (SI ) has been modeled, based on clinical T1D data, accounting for both intra- and intersubject variability of daily SI . Thus, time-varying distributions of both subject's basal insulin infusion and insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio were calculated and made available to the user...
March 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446795/management-of-pediatric-migraine-current-therapies
#15
Marina Khrizman, Ann Pakalnis
Migraine is one of the most common neurologic conditions in pediatrics. It can be a significant stressor, causing absences from school and interruption of parents' work and family schedules. The mainstay of treatment remains educating patients about healthy lifestyle practices and the influences of sleep, stressors, and hydration on triggering migraine attacks. Psychological therapies such as biofeedback or cognitive-behavioral therapy may be beneficial in some patients, especially those with prominent psychological comorbidities...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429748/the-syndrome-of-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-with-uveitis-tinu
#16
REVIEW
David M Clive, Vijay K Vanguri
The syndrome of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) is a multisystemic autoimmune disorder that may occur in response to various environmental triggers, including drugs and microbial pathogens. Evidence exists of HLA antigen-related genetic predisposition to developing TINU. The resulting inflammation affects chiefly the ocular uvea and renal tubules, although other organs may be involved. TINU is uncommon; only about 200 cases are on record since its original description 40 years ago, although it is possible that new ones are no longer being reported...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427409/utilization-of-antiepileptic-medicines-in-swedish-children-and-adolescents-with-different-diagnoses
#17
Linnéa Karlsson Lind, Katarina Wide, Björn Wettermark, Mia von Euler
This study aimed to investigate the utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in children and adolescents with epilepsy and other diagnoses in a nationwide population between 2007 and 2014. Data on dispensed prescriptions of AEDs were collected from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and linked to diagnosis data from the National Patient Register covering all in- and outpatient consultations from Swedish hospitals. Children aged 0-17 years who had received at least one prescription for AEDs were selected...
February 10, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403151/new-insights-into-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-pediatric-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Tatsuhiko Urakami
The principal treatment for children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes is dietary and exercise management. However, the blood glucose levels of some patients receiving this treatment fail to improve; thus, pharmacological treatment is eventually required. The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients appears to be similar to that in adults; thus, the range of antidiabetic drugs used in adults is likely to be effective in pediatric patients as well. However, in the majority of countries, including Japan, only metformin, glimepiride, and insulin have been approved for use in pediatric patients...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398934/pharmacotherapy-of-emotional-and-behavioral-symptoms-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
Ekaterina Stepanova, Susannah Dowling, Molly Phelps, Robert L Findling
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairment in social communication and restricted patterns of behavior. Although there is no pharmacological treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the core symptoms of ASD, there is mounting support in the literature for the management of behavioral symptoms associated with this developmental disorder, in particular, irritability and hyperactivity. Aripiprazole and risperidone are currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of irritability in youth with ASD...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351570/joint-adolescent-adult-early-phase-clinical-trials-to-improve-access-to-new-drugs-for-adolescents-with-cancer-proposals-from-the-multi-stakeholder-platform-accelerate
#20
N Gaspar, L V Marshall, D Binner, R Herold, R Rousseau, P Blanc, R Capdeville, J Carleer, C Copland, Y Kerloeguen, K Norga, L Pacaud, M-A Sevaux, C Spadoni, J Sterba, F Ligas, T Taube, M Uttenreuther-Fischer, S Chioato, M A O'Connell, B Geoerger, J-Y Blay, J C Soria, S Kaye, B Wulff, L Brugières, G Vassal, A D J Pearson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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