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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422528/effect-of-psychopharmacotherapy-on-body-mass-index-among-children-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorders
#1
Ayush Patel, Wenyaw Chan, Rajender R Aparasu, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Jeff T Sherer, Rohan Medhekar, Hua Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term effect of all treatment options for pediatric bipolar disorders on body mass index (BMI) and to explore individual characteristics associated with less BMI increase during psychotropic medication exposures. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by using the 1995 to 2010 General Electric Electronic Medical Record database. Individuals aged 18 years or younger who had a new bipolar disorder episode were identified. Treatment exposure was defined based on the medication regimens patients received, which include atypical antipsychotic (AT) monotherapy, mood stabilizer (MS) monotherapy, antidepressant (AD) monotherapy, AT+MS polytherapy, AT+AD polytherapy, MS+AD polytherapy, and no treatment...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406263/pharmacotherapy-for-hyperuricemia-in-hypertensive-patients
#2
REVIEW
Pedro Henrique França Gois, Edison Regio de Moraes Souza
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure represents a major public health problem. Worldwide, approximately one-fourth of the adult population has hypertension. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest a link between hyperuricemia and hypertension. Hyperuricemia affects 25% to 40 % of individuals with untreated hypertension; a much lower prevalence has been reported in normotensives or in the general population. However, whether lowering serum uric acid (UA) might lower blood pressure (BP) is an unanswered question...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403086/a-case-report-of-apatinib-in-treating-osteosarcoma-with-pulmonary-metastases
#3
Yong Zhou, Wengeng Zhang, Fan Tang, Yi Luo, Li Min, Wenli Zhang, Rui Shi, Hong Duan, Chongqi Tu
RATIONALE: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Pulmonary metastases lead to a significantly increased risk of death. Apatinib, a new potent oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the intracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), shows survival benefits in treating advanced or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma, non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic breast cancer. However, its efficacy in metastatic osteosarcoma has not been reported yet...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377092/interdisciplinary-medication-decision-making-by-pharmacists-in-pediatric-hospital-settings-an-ethnographic-study
#4
Ellie Rosenfeld, Sharon Kinney, Carlye Weiner, Fiona Newall, Allison Williams, Noel Cranswick, Ian Wong, Narelle Borrott, Elizabeth Manias
OBJECTIVE: Children are particularly vulnerable to experiencing medication incidents in hospitals. Making sound medication decisions is therefore of paramount importance. Prior research has principally described pharmacists' role in reducing medication errors. There is a dearth of information about pharmacists' interactions with pediatric hospital staff across disciplines in resolving medication issues. The aim of this study was to examine interdisciplinary medication decision making by pharmacists in pediatric hospital settings...
March 22, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350802/impact-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-exposure-in-hiv-1-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-madrid-spain-during-2000-2014
#5
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Luis Prieto, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Elisa Fernández Cooke, Maria Luisa Navarro, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The most-used protease-inhibitor in children is Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), which provides durable suppression of viral load and increases CD4+T-counts. This study describes the virological outcome of the HIV-1-infected paediatric population exposed to LPV/r during 15 years in Spain. METHODOLOGY: Patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1-infected-children and adolescents exposed to LPV/r as different line therapy during 2000-2014 were selected. The baseline epidemiological-clinical features, viral suppression, changes in CD4+T-CD8+T cell counts and drug susceptibility were recorded before and during LPV/r exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335658/dopamine-antagonists-for-treatment-resistance-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-review-and-focus-on-bdnf-stimulators-loxapine-and-amitriptyline
#6
REVIEW
Jessica A Hellings, L Eugene Arnold, Joan C Han
Drug development and repurposing are urgently needed for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and psychiatric comorbidity, which often presents as aggression and self-injury. Areas covered: We review dopamine antagonists, including classical and atypical, as well as unconventional antipsychotics in ASD. The older antipsychotic loxapine is discussed in terms of preliminary albeit limited evidence in ASD. Emerging promise of amitriptyline in ASD is discussed, together with promising BDNF effects of loxapine and amitriptyline...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279690/-early-clinical-trials-in-paediatric-oncology-in-spain-a-nationwide-perspective
#7
Francisco Bautista, Soledad Gallego, Adela Cañete, Jaume Mora, Cristina Díaz de Heredia, Ofelia Cruz, José María Fernández, Susana Rives, Pablo Berlanga, Raquel Hladun, Antonio Juan Ribelles, Luis Madero, Manuel Ramírez, Rafael Fernández Delgado, Antonio Pérez-Martínez, Cristina Mata, Anna Llort, Javier Martín Broto, María Elena Cela, Gema Ramírez, Constantino Sábado, Tomás Acha, Itziar Astigarraga, Ana Sastre, Ascensión Muñoz, Mercedes Guibelalde, Lucas Moreno
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is the leading cause of death between the first year of life and adolescence, and some types of diseases are still a major challenge in terms of cure. There is, therefore, a major need for new drugs. Recent findings in cancer biology open the door to the development of targeted therapies against individual molecular changes, as well as immunotherapy. Promising results in adult anti-cancer drug development have not yet been translated into paediatric clinical practice...
March 6, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268188/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-neurochemical-alterations-in-the-brain-of-adolescent-rats-following-acute-methylphenidate-administration
#8
Emmanuel Quansah, Victor Ruiz-Rodado, Martin Grootveld, Fay Probert, Tyra S C Zetterström
The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is increasingly used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is little evidence for common brain pathology in ADHD, some studies suggest a right hemisphere dysfunction among people diagnosed with the condition. However, in spite of the high usage of MPH in children and adolescents, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Given that MPH blocks the neuronal transporters for dopamine and noradrenaline, most research into the effects of MPH on the brain has largely focused on these two monoamine neurotransmitter systems...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202770/daptomycin-for-complicated-skin-infections-a-randomized-trial
#9
John Bradley, Chad Glasser, Hernando Patino, Sandra R Arnold, Antonio Arrieta, Blaise Congeni, Robert S Daum, Tsoline Kojaoghlanian, Minjung Yoon, Diane Anastasiou, Dominik J Wolf, Paula Bokesch
BACKGROUND: Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) are common in children. Due to safety and resistance issues with recommended agents, new treatment options would be advantageous. METHODS: Multicenter, evaluator-blinded clinical trial. Patients 1 to 17 years old with cSSSI caused by Gram-positive pathogens were randomized 2:1 to intravenous daptomycin or standard-of-care (SOC) treatment for ≤14 days. Daptomycin was administered once daily with dosing by patient age: 12 to 17 years, 5 mg/kg; 7 to 11 years, 7 mg/kg; 2 to 6 years, 9 mg/kg; 12 to 23 months, 10 mg/kg...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196995/injection-drug-use-among-children-and-adolescents-in-india-ringing-the-alarm-bells
#10
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, Vinod Kumar Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug use (IDU) is intricately linked to preventive aspects for human immunodeficiency virus from a public health perspective. No large-scale data are yet available for injectable drug use among children and adolescents in India, apart from few anecdotal reports. AIMS AND METHODS: The present paper reports on the profile and substance use pattern of 509 child IDU users, among a total sample of over 4000 children using substances across 100 sites from 27 states and 2 UTs in India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188045/treatment-issues-for-children-with-epilepsy-transitioning-to-adult-care
#11
REVIEW
Rima Nabbout, Carol S Camfield, Danielle M Andrade, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Catherine Chiron, Joyce A Cramer, Jacqueline A French, Eric Kossoff, Marco Mula, Peter R Camfield
This is the third of three papers that summarize the second symposium on Transition in Epilepsies held in Paris in June 2016. This paper focuses on treatment issues that arise during the course of childhood epilepsy and make the process of transition to adult care more complicated. Some AEDs used during childhood, such as stiripentol, vigabatrin, and cannabidiol, are unfamiliar to adult epilepsy specialists. In addition, new drugs are being developed for treatment of specific childhood onset epilepsy syndromes and have no indication yet for adults...
February 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163563/testing-a-brief-substance-misuse-preventive-intervention-for-parents-of-pre-adolescents-feasibility-acceptability-preliminary-efficacy
#12
Margie R Skeer, Konstantina E Yantsides, Misha Eliasziw, Allison Carlton-Smith, Migdalia Tracy, Anthony Spirito
Evidence-based interventions to reduce substance misuse among adolescents are resource and time intensive. We conducted a pilot RCT to evaluate a novel, adaptable, and resource-efficient substance misuse preventive intervention for parents/guardians, focusing on talking with children about substance use and on eating family meals. We randomized 70 parents of children in third-through-sixth grades within a large, urban public school system in New England to the intervention or control condition. Over a six-month follow-up period, we assessed feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and examined frequency of parent-child conversations about alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs, and frequency and duration of family meals...
December 2016: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142338/toxicity-assessment-of-molindone-hydrochloride-a-dopamine-d2-d5-receptor-antagonist-in-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#13
Gopala Krishna, Gopa Gopalakrishnan, Saryu Goel
Neuroleptic drug molindone hydrochloride is a dopamine D2/D5 receptor antagonist and it is in late stage development for the treatment of impulsive aggression in children and adolescents who have attention deficient/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This new indication for this drug would expand the target population to include younger patients, and therefore, toxicity assessments in juvenile animals were undertaken in order to determine susceptibility differences, if any, between this age group and the adult rats...
February 20, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133957/efficacy-and-safety-of-vaccination-in-pediatric-patients-with-systemic-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#14
Sandra Sousa, Ana Catarina Duarte, Inês Cordeiro, Joana Ferreira, Maria João Gonçalves, Tiago Meirinhos, Teresa Martins Rocha, Vasco C Romão, Maria José Santos
INTRODUCTION: Children and adolescents with systemic rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of infections. Although some infections are vaccine-preventable, immunization among patients with juvenile rheumatic diseases is suboptimal, partly due to some doubts that still persist regarding its efficacy and safety in this patient population. OBJECTIVES: To review the available evidence regarding the immunological response and the safety of vaccination in children and adolescents with systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (SIRD)...
January 2017: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112450/mapk-pathways-regulation-by-dusp1-in-the-development-of-osteosarcoma-potential-markers-and-therapeutic-targets
#15
Ljs Lopes, F Tesser-Gamba, A S Petrilli, Mts Alves, R J Garcia-Filho, Src Toledo
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary bone tumor that affect children and adolescents. This tumor is highly aggressive with high risk of metastasis and the implementation of new drugs has not been successful. The search for biomarkers or new therapeutic targets is urgently needed and can help in advances of OS treatment. MAPKs are major signaling transduction molecules that play an important role in regulating a variety of cellular responses. DUSP1 is a phosphatase that dephosphorylates the MAPKs. Both MAPKs and DUSPs have been implicated as major modulators of critical signaling pathways that are dysregulated in various diseases...
January 23, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107039/future-directions-in-the-study-of-early-life-stress-and-physical-and-emotional-health-implications-of-the-neuroimmune-network-hypothesis
#16
Camelia E Hostinar, Robin Nusslock, Gregory E Miller
Early-life stress is associated with increased vulnerability to physical and emotional health problems across the lifespan. The recently developed neuroimmune network hypothesis proposes that one of the underlying mechanisms for these associations is that early-life stress amplifies bidirectional crosstalk between the brain and the immune system, contributing to several mental and physical health conditions that have inflammatory underpinnings, such as depression and coronary heart disease. Neuroimmune crosstalk is thought to perpetuate inflammation and neural alterations linked to early-life stress exposure, and also foster behaviors that can further compromise health, such as smoking, drug abuse and consumption of high-fat diets...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030918/to-treat-or-not-to-treat-drug-refractory-epilepsy-by-the-ketogenic-diet-that-is-the-question
#17
REVIEW
Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Ryszard Pluta, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Stanisław J Czuczwar
Epilepsy is a serious neurologic disorder worldwide which affects about 1% of the population (ca. 50 million people), the highest prevalence occurring in both children and elderly. Apart from idiopathic forms, etiology of the disease involves multiple brain risk factors - the most frequent being cerebrovascular diseases, tumours and traumatic injuries. Several treatment options exist, including, for instance, pharmacotherapy, vagal nerve stimulation or epilepsy surgery. In spite of treatment, about 30% of patients with epilepsy still have seizures and become drug-refractory...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980029/risk-stratification-for-opioid-misuse-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-quality-improvement-project
#18
Rachel Thienprayoon, Kelly Porter, Michelle Tate, Marshall Ashby, Mark Meyer
BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Palliative and Comfort Care Team (PACT) at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) provides opioids to a large population of patients in the ambulatory setting. Before this project, PACT had no reliable system to risk stratify patients for opioid misuse. METHODS: The global aim was safe opioid prescribing by the palliative care team. The specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timely aim was as follows: "In patients who present for follow up with PACT, we will use the "opioid bundle" to increase risk stratification for opioid misuse from 0% to 90% over 5 months...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884679/risk-stratified-staging-in-paediatric-hepatoblastoma-a-unified-analysis-from-the-children-s-hepatic-tumors-international-collaboration
#20
Rebecka L Meyers, Rudolf Maibach, Eiso Hiyama, Beate Häberle, Mark Krailo, Arun Rangaswami, Daniel C Aronson, Marcio H Malogolowkin, Giorgio Perilongo, Dietrich von Schweinitz, Marc Ansari, Dolores Lopez-Terrada, Yukichi Tanaka, Rita Alaggio, Ivo Leuschner, Tomoro Hishiki, Irene Schmid, Kenichiro Watanabe, Kenichi Yoshimura, Yurong Feng, Eugenia Rinaldi, Davide Saraceno, Marisa Derosa, Piotr Czauderna
BACKGROUND: Comparative assessment of treatment results in paediatric hepatoblastoma trials has been hampered by small patient numbers and the use of multiple disparate staging systems by the four major trial groups. To address this challenge, we formed a global coalition, the Children's Hepatic tumors International Collaboration (CHIC), with the aim of creating a common approach to staging and risk stratification in this rare cancer. METHODS: The CHIC steering committee-consisting of leadership from the four major cooperative trial groups (the International Childhood Liver Tumours Strategy Group, Children's Oncology Group, the German Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology, and the Japanese Study Group for Paediatric Liver Tumours)-created a shared international database that includes comprehensive data from 1605 children treated in eight multicentre hepatoblastoma trials over 25 years...
January 2017: Lancet Oncology
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