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photodynamic bladder cancer

Lars R Lindvold, Gregers G Hermann
Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of bladder tumour tissue significantly improves endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer in rigid cystoscopes in the operating theatre and thus reduces tumour recurrence. PDD comprises the use of blue light, which unfortunately excites green fluorescence from urine. As this green fluorescence confounds the desired red fluorescence of the PDD, methods for avoiding this situation particularly in cystoscopy using flexible cystoscopes are desirable. In this paper we demonstrate how a tailor made high power LED light source at 525 nm can be used for fluorescence assisted tumour detection using both a flexible and rigid cystoscope used in the outpatient department (OPD) and operating room (OR) respectively...
November 14, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
Keiji Inoue
Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid is a treatment method in which the fluorescent substance of protoporphyrin IX excessively accumulated specifically in cancer cells is excited by visible red or green light irradiation, and reactive oxygen is produced and injures cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid less markedly influences the surrounding normal cells and tissue as a result of no accumulation of protoporphyrin IX, being a low-invasive, less harmful treatment localized to cancer...
February 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Sanne Elsen, Evelyne Lerut, Frank Van Der Aa, Ben Van Cleynenbreugel, Hendrik Van Poppel, Peter De Witte
Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) improves the detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, white-light (WL) cystoscopy remains the technique routinely used in urological clinics. A more cost-effective but equally performant alternative to PDD may encompass the use of an intense tumoritropic dye in combination with WL cystoscopy. Using a preclinical setting, we investigated the practical aspects of the use of Evans blue (EB) dye for the possible future detection of NMIBC using WL cystoscopy...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Yan Zhou, Chi-Fai Chan, Daniel W J Kwong, Ga-Lai Law, Steven Cobb, Wai-Kwok Wong, Ka-Leung Wong
We have synthesized a bifunctional erbium-porphyrin tumor imaging and PDT agent (Er-R3) that is capable of killing bladder cancer cells via its selective binding to the integrin αvβ3 isoform overexpressed on the cell membrane.
January 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Gladell P Paner, Rodolfo Montironi, Maria R Raspollini, Liang Cheng
A handful of therapeutic procedures are used to treat malignancies of the urinary tract, most frequently intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy, but also neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy. These treatment modalities produce morphological changes in the urothelium that can be mistaken for carcinoma; in particular, these therapies frequently mimic urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) urothelial dysplasia or true invasive neoplasia. Drugs such as mitomycin C used after transurethral resection of bladder tumour to reduce recurrences, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical immunotherapy to treat high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and urothelial CIS and platin-based systemic chemotherapy to improve postcystectomy disease-specific survival are examples of therapy-related atypia seen in the urinary tract...
January 2017: Histopathology
Esmee Iml Liem, Theo M de Reijke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recurrence rate in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer is high, and the quality of transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) tumour influences recurrence risk. We review new methods that aim to improve the effectiveness of TURB, and highlight studies of the past year. RECENT FINDINGS: Several approaches have been explored: bipolar resection is well tolerated and efficient; however, surgical outcomes are not clearly superior to monopolar resection; en-bloc resection seems feasible and well tolerated, and has the potential to improve the quality of tissue for histopathology; enhancement techniques such as photodynamic diagnosis, narrow band imaging, and Image1 S improve tumour detection, whereas photodynamic diagnosis reduces recurrence rates; high-resolution imaging modality such as confocal laser endomicroscopy may provide histopathologic information...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
Albert W Girotti, Jonathan M Fahey, Witold Korytowski
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a unique site-specific treatment for eradicating a variety of solid tumors, including prostate, lung, bladder, and brain tumors. PDT is a three-component modality involving (i) administration of a photosensitizing agent (PS), (ii) PS photoexcitation by visible or near-infrared light, and (iii) molecular oxygen. Upon photoexcitation, PS gives rise to tumor-damaging reactive oxygen species, most prominently singlet oxygen (1O2). Previous studies revealed that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in various mouse tumor models significantly reduced PDT effectiveness...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Patrícia M R Pereira, Sandrina Silva, Mafalda Bispo, Mónica Zuzarte, Célia Gomes, Henrique Girão, José A S Cavaleiro, Carlos A F Ribeiro, João P C Tomé, Rosa Fernandes
Here, we report the rational design of a new third-generation photosensitizer (PS), a chlorin conjugated with galactodendritic units, ChlGal8, to improve the effectiveness of bladder cancer treatment. ChlGal8 shows better photochemical and photophysical properties than a recently reported homologous porphyrin, PorGal8. In addition to inheriting excellent photostability, the ability to generate singlet oxygen, and the ability to interact with the proteins galectin-1 and human serum albumin (HSA), ChlGal8 exhibits high absorption in the red region of the electromagnetic spectrum...
November 16, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Patrícia M R Pereira, Sandrina Silva, José S Ramalho, Célia M Gomes, Henrique Girão, José A S Cavaleiro, Carlos A F Ribeiro, João P C Tomé, Rosa Fernandes
Conventional photodynamic agents used in clinic are porphyrin-based photosensitizers. However, they have low tumour selectivity, which may induce unwanted side-effects and damage to healthy tissues. In this study, we used a porphyrin with dendritic units of galactose (PorGal8) developed by us, which can target the galactose-binding protein, galectin-1, known to be overexpressed in many tumour tissues. In vitro and in vivo studies had been conducted for the validation of PorGal8 effectiveness. We showed a specific uptake of PorGal8 and induction of apoptotic cell death by generating oxidative stress and alterations in the cytoskeleton of bladder cancer cells overexpressing galectin-1...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
E V Filonenko, A D Kaprin, B Y A Alekseev, O I Apolikhin, E K Slovokhodov, V I Ivanova-Radkevich, A N Urlova
The results of multicenter prospective trial for efficacy of combined modality treatment: transurethral resection (TUR)+photodynamic therapy (PDT) with alasens for bladder cancer are represented in the article. Trials were organized by Research Institute of Organic Intermediates and Dyes and conducted according to clinical protocol approved by Ministry of Health of Russia, at the sites of leading Russian cancer clinical centers. The trial included 45 subjects with verified diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer...
December 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Li-Jun Zhang, Xiang-Hua Zhang, Ping-Yong Liao, Jing-Jian Sun, Li Wang, Yi-Jia Yan, Zhi-Long Chen
Photodynamic therapy is a minimally invasive and promising new method in cancer treatment and has attracted considerable attention in recent years. An ideal photosensitizer is a crucial element to photodynamic therapy. In the present paper, a novel porphyrin derivative, 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (5-(pyrrolidin-1-yl) pentyl) porphin (TPPP) was synthesized. Its spectroscopic and physicochemical properties, therapeutic efficacy as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy for human bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo were investigated...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Thorsten Bach, Patrick J Bastian, Andreas Blana, Angelika Kaminsky, Stefan Keller, Thomas Knoll, Christoph Lang, Soeren Promnitz, Burkhard Ubrig, Thomas Keller, Bryan Qvick, Maximilian Burger
PURPOSE: White light cystoscopy (WLC) is the standard procedure for visualising non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, WLC can fail to detect all cancerous lesions, and outcomes with transurethral resection of the bladder differ between institutions, controlled trials, and possibly between trials and routine application. This noninterventional study assessed the benefit of hexaminolevulinate blue light cystoscopy (HALC; Hexvix(®), Ipsen Pharma GmbH, Germany) plus WLC versus WLC alone in routine use...
August 30, 2016: World Journal of Urology
A Karl, T Grimm, F Jokisch, N T Gaisa, C G Stief
INTRODUCTION: Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is known as one of most common malignant tumors in the urogenital tract. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in particular has a high recurrence rate and results in correspondingly high costs for the public health system. METHODS: To improve the recurrence rate and the prognosis of NMIBC the diagnosis, resection technique, adjuvant instillation therapy and exact histopathological classification of tumor lesions are indispensable...
September 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Tzu-Yin Lin, Yuanpei Li, Qiangqiang Liu, Jui-Lin Chen, Hongyong Zhang, Diana Lac, Hua Zhang, Katherine W Ferrara, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu, Tianhong Li, Susan Airhart, Ralph deVere White, Kit S Lam, Chong-Xian Pan
The overall prognosis of bladder cancer has not been improved over the last 30 years and therefore, there is a great medical need to develop novel diagnosis and therapy approaches for bladder cancer. We developed a multifunctional nanoporphyrin platform that was coated with a bladder cancer-specific ligand named PLZ4. PLZ4-nanoporphyrin (PNP) integrates photodynamic diagnosis, image-guided photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy and targeted chemotherapy in a single procedure. PNPs are spherical, relatively small (around 23 nm), and have the ability to preferably emit fluorescence/heat/reactive oxygen species upon illumination with near infrared light...
October 2016: Biomaterials
Abraham B Alemayehu, Nicholas U Day, Tomoyasu Mani, Alexander B Rudine, Kolle E Thomas, Odrun A Gederaas, Sergei A Vinogradov, Carl C Wamser, Abhik Ghosh
Two amphiphilic corroles-5,10,15-tris(3-carboxyphenyl)corrole (H3[mTCPC]) and 5,10,15-tris(4-carboxyphenyl)corrole (H3[pTCPC])-and their gold complexes have been synthesized, and their photophysical properties and photovoltaic behavior have been investigated. Like other nonpolar gold corroles, Au[mTCPC] and Au[pTCPC] were both found to exhibit room temperature phosphorescence in deoxygenated solutions with quantum yields of ∼0.3% and triplet lifetimes of ∼75 μs. Both compounds exhibited significant activity as dyes in photodynamic therapy experiments and in dye-sensitized solar cells...
July 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matthias May, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Malte W Vetterlein, Patrick J Bastian, Michael Gierth, Philipp Nuhn, Atiqullah Aziz, Margit Fisch, Christian G Stief, Markus Hohenfellner, Manfred P Wirth, Vladimir Novotny, Oliver W Hakenberg, Joachim Noldus, Christian Gilfrich, Christian Bolenz, Maximilian Burger, Sabine D Brookman-May
PURPOSE: Results of a retrospective single-institution study recently suggested improved prognostic outcomes in patients undergoing photodynamic diagnosis (PDD)-assisted transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) prior to radical cystectomy (RC). We sought to validate the prognostic influence of PDD-assisted TURBT on survival after RC by relying on a multi-institutional dataset. METHODS: To provide a homogeneous study population, patients with organ metastasis at the time of RC and/or after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded from analysis, which resulted in overall 549 bladder cancer (BC) patients from 18 centers of the Prospective Multicenter Radical Cystectomy Series 2011 (PROMETRICS 2011)...
June 14, 2016: World Journal of Urology
Kathrin M Scherer, Roger H Bisby, Stanley W Botchway, Anthony W Parker
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative cancer treatment to conventional surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It is based on activating a drug with light that triggers the generation of cytotoxic species that promote tumour cell killing. At present, PDT is mainly used in the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration, for precancerous conditions of the skin (e.g. actinic keratosis) and in the palliative care of advanced cancers, for instance of the bladder or the oesophagus. PDT is still not used as a first line cancer treatment, which is surprising given the first clinical trials by Dougherty's group dating back to the 1970's...
2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
K Sfetsas, D Mitropoulos
BACKGROUND: The authors evaluated the role of photodynamic cystoscopy in the detection of additional urothelial lesions, mainly carcinoma in situ, that would not be detected solely with white light cystoscopy, leading to disease understaging. METHODS: From 2009 to 2011, 70 patients underwent white light cystoscopy, followed by photodynamic cystoscopy (blue light system, Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). Preoperatively they were instilled intravesically with 50ml of Hexvix (Hexaminolevulinate hexylester)...
June 2016: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
Kristen R Scarpato, Mark D Tyson, Peter E Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the natural biology of noninvasive bladder cancer and its management strategies while summarizing the most recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a tendency to recur and progress. Risk stratification has helped triage patients but improved tools, including biomarkers, are still needed. Enhanced endoscopy with photodynamic imaging, narrow band imaging, optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy show promise for diagnosis, risk stratification and disease monitoring...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Rachel E Doherty, Igor V Sazanovich, Luke K McKenzie, Alexander S Stasheuski, Rachel Coyle, Elizabeth Baggaley, Sarah Bottomley, Julia A Weinstein, Helen E Bryant
Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light...
2016: Scientific Reports
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